SPM 2017

I/C NO : 990629-07-5727


CONTENT 1. Appreciation 3. Introduction 2. 7. 4. 8. ? . 5. 9. 6.

and to use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas correctly and precisely. Upon completion of the Additional Mathematics Project Work. reasoning and communication are highly encouraged and expected. interesting and meaningful and hence improve their thinking skills. 7) Train themselves not only to be independent learners but also to collaborate. to cooperate. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We students taking Additional Mathematics are required to carry out a project work while we are in Form 5. and ● that stimulates and enhances effective learning 3) Acquire effective mathematical communication through oral and writing. we are to gain valuable experiences and able to: 1) Apply and adapt a variety of problem-solving strategies to solve routine and non- routine problems. 4) Increase interest and confidence as well as enhance acquisition of mathematical knowledge and skills through application of various strategies of problem solving. ● where expressing ones mathematical thinking. 9) Train themselves to appreciate the intrinsic values of mathematics and to become more creative and innovative. ● where Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) can be applied on problem solving. 6) Realize that mathematics is an important and powerful tool in solving real-life problems and hence develop positive attitude towards mathematics. 8) Use technology especially the ICT appropriately and effectively. 5) Develop knowledge and skills that are useful for career and future undertakings. and 10) Realize the importance and the beauty of mathematics. . 2) Experience classroom environments: ● which are challenging. ● where knowledge and skills are applied in meaningful ways in solving real-life problems. and to share knowledge in an engaging and healthy environment.

Puan Saw Poh Lee as she gives us important guidance and commitment during this project work. School also provides us space to discuss and carry out this project work. I would also like to thank all the teacher and my friend for helping me collect the much needed data and statistics for this. I would like to thank my Additional Mathematics teacher. Also for helping me to find the mark to complete this project. They have always been by myside and I hope they will still be there in the future. I also would like to thank our school for giving us the chance to create this project work. computer and so on. Last but not least. books. For their strong support. Thank you. Internet. Not forgetting too all the other people who were involved directly or indirectly towards making this project a reality. . I would like to express my gratitude to my beloved parents who provided everything needed for this project work such as money. APPRECIATION First and foremost. She has been a very supportive figure throughout the whole project.

INTRODUCTION What is a polygon? .

PART 1 a) Examples of Polygons in Real Life Elephant Warning Sign (Quadrilateral) HQ of US Department in Defense (Pentagon) £1 coin in England (Dodecagon) Random Jacuzzi (Octagon) New York Pizza (Triangle) .

You wouldn't be able to tell which way was up because all the sides are the same and all the angles are the same. A quadrilateral with all sides and angles the same is known as a square. A stop sign is an example of a regular polygon with eight sides. we know it as an equilateral triangle. and 444- gon. and hexagons are all examples of polygons. . quadrilaterals. The shapes are drawn with only straight lines is what makes a polygon.b) Definition and a Brief History of Polygon A polygon is any 2-dimensional shape formed with straight lines. or quadrilateral. The names would be 4-gon. The orange shape is still a polygon even if it looks like it has an arrow. and any shape that can be drawn by connecting four straight lines is called a quadrilateral. then it can't be called a polygon. The name tells you how many sides the shape has. They can have 4 sides. Polygons All of these shapes are polygons. respectively. 44-gon. Triangles. pentagons. or regular quadrilateral. or a regular triangle. All the sides are straight. An 11-sided shape can be called an 11-gon. When a triangle has all the sides and angles the same. Polygons aren't limited to the common ones we know but can get pretty complex and have as many sides as are needed. Regular Polygons A special class of polygon exists. If the shape had curves or didn't fully connect. a triangle has three sides. any shape that can be drawn by connecting three straight lines is called a triangle. 44 sides. and they all connect. A pentagon with all sides and angles the same is called a regular pentagon. For example. The orange shape has 11 sides. the polygons are called regular polygons. and a quadrilateral has four sides. When this happens. So. An n-gon with sides and angles the same is called a regular n-gon. All the sides are the same and no matter how you lay it down. it happens for polygons whose sides are all the same length and whose angles are all the same. The last entry includes the general term for a polygon with n number of sides. it will look the same. or even 444 sides.

It appears on the vase of Aristophonus. . Shephard generalised the idea of polygons to the complex plane. In 1952. Whereas. Non-convex polygons in general were not systematically studied until the 14th century by Thomas Bredwardine. Side Shap Interior Name s e Angle Triangle 3 60° Quadrilatera 4 90° l Pentagon 5 108° Hexagon 6 120° Heptagon 7 128.571° Octagon 8 135° Nonagon 9 140° Decagon 10 144° History of Polygon Polygons have been known since ancient times.C. Only the regular ones have been studied in any depth. like a star. where each real dimension is accompanied by an imaginary one. to create complex polygons. Star polygons in general appear not to have been formally defined. The regular polygons were known to the ancient Greeks. dated to the 7th century B. and the pentagram which is a non-convex regular polygon (Star Polygon). Caere. A Star Polygon is a non-convex polygon which looks in some way.

c) Methods of Finding the Area of a Triangle 1. Coordinate Geometry Area = x1y2 + x2y3 + x3y1 – x1y3 – x2y1 – x3y2 3. Sine Rule Area = (a x b x Sin c)/2 4. Heron’s Formula Area = . Right Angle Area = (Length x Height)/2 2.

42 100 100 60.PART 2 a)Cost needed to fence the herb garden = RM 20.08 65 135 44.00 x 300m = RM 6000.46 60 140 38.42 110 90 58.00 b) Table 1 p (m) q (m) Area (m2 ) 50 150 0.8137 3092.5826 3464.2516 1887.64 115 85 57.33 70 130 49.68 90 110 58.63 85 115 57.7510 4308.0000 4330.6882 4130.7711 3968.13 105 95 59.7510 4308.9924 4242.9924 4242.6882 4130.1301 3750.68 .0000 55 145 28.10 75 125 53.00 80 120 55.64 95 105 59.2132 2598.0000 0.

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