mid sem prep

revise notes.pdf

writing electrical network transfer function (BY INSPECTION) t
transitional mechanical system transfer function (BY INSPECTION)
rotational mechanical system (by inspection) ( with & without gears)(gears with and without losses)
electromechanical system (DC MOTOR)
electrical analog (series and parallel)
circuit reduction
do read final value therorem (cases when it cant be applied etc )
read Laplace ( also remember standered laplace pairs )(laplace inverse)(lapalce thm)(revise them from notes.pdf)
loading ?
read nyquist
read steaddy state error

routh's table

remaining tutorial 1 problems

For final value theorem theorem to yield correct finite results, all roots of the denominator of F(s) must have negative
real parts, and
no more than one can be at the origin.
For initial value theorem to be valid, f(t) must be continuous or have a step discontinuity at t=0 (that is, no impulses
or their derivatives at t=0).

electromechanical systems **** (last yr question aaya tha )(must)(like that speaker etc )(dc motor)

different type of time response etc

azimuthal control of antena

that quiz Q2 solution

tut 1 remaining Question

if possible that 1 class system :P

effect of adding extra pole extra zero .

read al the examples of rotational and rotational + transitional form franklin

notice that derivative is zero at origin for 2nd order (non zero for 1st order)

the critically damped case is the division between
the overdamped cases and the underdamped cases and is the
fastest response without
overshoot.

finding determinant cramer's rule .

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electromechanical system equations in shoort notes in notebook classmate 1. speaker dc motor .

. ----x (I+ n1µl 2 )0 + mpglO= -n1plx.)x +bx+ nipl0 = u. (mr + . .n. 8' li ---lot m.

fluid equations in book Describing Water Tank Height Hydraulic Piston .

the branches of the root locus form an angle of 180°/n with the real axis. root locus At the breakaway or break-in point. where n is the number of closed- loop poles arriving at or departing from the single breakaway or break-in point on the real axis .

Finally. Similarly. they are also lines of constant peak time. radial lines are lines of constant ζ. Since horizontal lines on the s-plane are lines of constant imaginary value. they are also lines of constant settling time. Since percent overshoot is only a function of ζ. settling time is inversely proportional to the real part of the pole. since ζ =cos θ.Tp is inversely proportional to the imaginary part of the pole. %OS. radial lines are thus lines of constant percent overshoot. . Since vertical lines on the s-plane are lines of constant real value.

Steady-State Error in Terms of T (s ) : closed loop transfer function Steady-State Error in Terms of G (s ) : open loop tf .

static error constants System Type we define system type to be the value of n in the denominator or. If n=1 or n =2. a system with n =0 is a Type 0 system. equivalently. the number of pure integrations in the forward path. Therefore. respectively . the corresponding system is a Type 1 or Type 2 system.

steady state error for non unity feedback system .

similarity transformation .

6) Chapter 12 (excluding 12.7) Chapter 4 Chapter 5 (excluding 5.11 Franklin. Powell.8) Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 (up to and including 10. Powell.8) + Appendix WC and WD of Franklin Powell Lyapunov Stability from 7.11 Franklin. Emami (3 Ed) . Emami (3 Ed) Portion from Norman Nise: Chapter 2 Chapter 3 (excluding 3.5) Chapter 6 Chapter 7 (excluding 7.END SEM TO-DO BUY BLUE PEN Rank of a matrix how to compute inverse of a matrix steady state error : including sse calculation using open loop tf and close loop tf Do problem set of state space & matrix theory read remaining / earlier portion of the course including Lyapunov Stability do last yr papers do earlier problmes root locus & design using root locus Nyquist route's table steady state error state space and design using state space revise including ov notes proofs etc time doamin respnse of typical second order system : rise time settling time etc etc Lyapunov Stability from 7.7.6 .

END SEM PREPARATION : how to compute inverse of a matrix Controllability Canonical Form (CCF) The CCF transformation requires that p_inverse exists. which is nonzero. which implies that the matrix S must have an inverse. . because the inverse of M always exists because its determinant is {-1}^ (n-1) . Then NxN matrix S is defined as the controllability matrix.

must be invertible M is same as in ccf A" and C" are the transpose of the A" and B" in ccf .Observability cannonical form V : obervability matrix .

If the matrix A is of the CCF and A has distinct eigenvalues. can be solved individually where Pi ...• n. 2. denotes the eigenvector associated with the eigenvalue λi .. are distinct eigenvalues of A. lembda2 .Diagonal canonical form if A has distinct eigenvalues then a nonisngular transformation exists where lembda1 . . therefore. transformed state equations are decoupled from each other and. then the DCF transformation matrix is the Vandennonde matrix .. i = 1.

The matrix A is called the Jordan canonical form (JCF). there are only r (where r is an integer that is less than n and is dependent on the number of multiple-order eigenvalues) linearly independent eigenvectors. it cannot be transformed into a diagonal matrix. For an A that is n x n. 6. The elements on the main diagonal are the eigenvalues. The 1s together with the eigenvalues form typical blocks called the Jordan blocks. A typical JCF : where it is assumed that A has a third-order eigenvalue λ1 and distinct eigenvalues λ2 and λ3 .Jordan canonical form In general. there exists a similarity transformation in the form of T-1AT such that the matrix A is almost diagonal. its eigenvectors are not linearly independent. The JCF generally has the following properties: 1. 7.r. There is one and only one linearly independent eigenvector associated with each Jordan block. 2. However. the transformation matrix T is again formed by using the eigenvectors and generalized eigenvectors as its columns. To perform the JCF transformation. The number of ls above the main diagonal is equal to n . the Jordan blocks are shown as enclosed by dashed lines. 4. When the nonsymmetrical matrix A has multiple-order eigenvalues. 3. Some of the elements immediately above the multiple-order eigenvalues on the main diagonal are 1s . All the elements below the main diagonal are zero. when the matrix A has multiple-order eigenvalues. unless the matrix is symmetric with real elements. The number of Jordan blocks is equal to the number of independent eigenvectors r. 5. .

phase variable form .

generalized eigen vector .

foe 3x3 .

x = Ax+Bu y= Cx is completely observable7 if the mat1ix C CA O:vi = CAn-1 is of rank n. respectively. An nth-order plant whose state and output equations are. where OM is called the observability matrix. 8 An nth-order plant whose state equation is x =Ax+ Bu is completely controllab1e4 if the matrix I CM = l B AB A2 8 is of rank n. when: CM L'> called the co11trollahili1y matrix. 5 .

Controller design with feedback .

alternative approach for controller design .

OBSERVER DESIGN example The design then consists of solving for the values of L to yield a desired characteristic equation or response The characteristic equation is .

for observer cannonical fomr alternative approach .