Jayson B.

Candelaria 06-09-17
XII - Fleming

Types of Variables:

• Control variable: one element that is not changed throughout an experiment, because its
unchanging state allows the relationship between the other variables being tested to be better
understood.
• Dependent variable: the outcome of an experiment. What is being measured in an experiment
or evaluated in a mathematical equation
• Discrete variable: can only take on a finite number of values are called "discrete variables." All
qualitative variables are discrete. Some quantitative variables are discrete, such as performance
rated as 1,2,3,4, or 5, or temperature rounded to the nearest degree.
• Independent variable: a variable that is not affected by anything that you, the researcher,
does. Usually plotted on the x-axis.
• Nominal variable: have two or more categories without having any kind of natural order. they
are variables with no numeric value, such as occupation or political party affiliation.
• Ordinal variable: similar to a categorical variable, but there is a clear order. For example,
income levels of low, middle, and high could be considered ordinal.
• Qualitative variable: are variables that are not numerical. It describes data that fits into
categories. For example: Eye colors (variables include: blue, green, brown, hazel).
• Quantitative variable: represent a measurable quantity. For example, when we speak of the
population of a city, we are talking about the number of people in the city - a measurable
attribute of the city. Therefore, population would be a quantitative variable..
• Ratio variables: interval variables, but with the added condition that 0 (zero) of the
measurement indicates that there is none of that variable.

Validity:

 the degree to which an instrument measure what it is purports to measure. Invalid instruments
can lead to erroneous research conclusions, which in turn can influence educational decisions.
Validity in data collection means that your findings truly represent the phenomenon you are
claiming to measure.

Reliability:

 is the degree to which an assessment tool produces stable and consistent results. Types of
Reliability. The internal consistency or stability of the measuring device over time.

Sources:

Andale(2015, July 19). Types of Variables in Statistics and Research. Retrieved from
http://www.statisticshowto.com/types-variables/

Poulenc(2017).Statistics How To

http://www.statisticshowto.com/qualitative-variable/

Phelan and Wren(2005). EXPLORING RELIABILITY IN ACADEMIC ASSESSMENT. Retrieved from
https://chfasoa.uni.edu/reliabilityandvalidity.htm