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FOR AUTOMOTIVE VIBRATION ISOLATION MOUNTS

Brooks P. Byam

**Department of Mechanical Engineering
**

Michigan State University

East Lansing, MI 48824-1229

Clark J. Radcliffe

**Department of Mechanical Engineering
**

Michigan State University

East Lansing, MI 48824-1229

**ABSTRACT vibration isolation system is to reduce the flow of noise and
**

Consumer comfort is a top priority in today’s vehicle design. vibration (Pinnington and White, 1981). For example, a linear

Reduction of noise and vibration enhances comfort and improves elastic engine mount in an automotive vehicle separates the engine

the overall quality of the vehicle. Linear elastic vibration isolation from the cradle of the car. Structural vibration through and sound

mounts are traditionally applied within complex structures to radiation from linear elastic mounts are significant vibro-acoustic

combat noise and vibration. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is energy transmissions in complex structures. Clearly, vibration

becoming an established and tested noise and vibration modeling isolation systems are mechanisms for transferring noise and

methodology that is frequently used to model the flow of noise and vibration power. This leads to the question of a linear elastic mount

vibration in complex structures. A SEA model of a linear elastic vibration isolation system in SEA modeling.

vibration isolation mount is developed here which enables SEA SEA vibration isolation models are not included in SEA models

analysis of elastically isolated systems for the first time. because a SEA model formulation is unavailable. The impact that a

A vibration isolation mount model has been absent from SEA linear elastic vibration isolation mount will have on a SEA model

models because of the lack of an SEA formulation. Linear elastic will be investigated by defining the system as a SEA element. This

vibration isolation mount SEA equations are developed here for the will be accomplished by a modal development of a mount. In the

first time. The basis of SEA theory is energy sharing among past, compliant vibration mounts and other linear elastic structures

vibrational mode groups. Traditionally, vibration isolation mounts were considered to have a zero mode count (Ricks, 1987). Analysis

were thought of as compliant elements with no modes suitable to of actual non-zero mode count allows an SEA linear elastic

SEA analysis. An example mount is defined and the number of vibration isolation mount that enhances the overall effectiveness of

energy storage modes computed. The results show that a linear SEA for analytical vibro-acoustic modeling.

elastic vibration isolation mount should be modeled in SEA The key component of SEA elements is energy storage (Lyon and

analysis and provide the equations for a SEA isolation mount DeJong, 1995). The foundation of SEA theory is energy sharing

model. Also included is the analysis for three unique SEA among resonators (elements), therefore, the elements in an SEA

connectors, a mount to acoustic volume connector, a beam to model should have comparable energy storage. SEA equations are

mount connector, and a mount to flat plate connector. power balances of the coupled elemental energies. Vibrational

modes are the mechanisms that characterize energy storage in a

INTRODUCTION resonator. The number of modes or the modal density is the most

The acoustic response of automobiles is a key property to the descriptive parameter of total energy storage in a SEA element.

perception of product quality. Automotive vehicles are complex The modal density of the vibration isolation system SEA element

structures where the consumer is configured in close proximity to relative magnitude to the modal density of other important SEA

the power plant or drive train. For this reason acoustic design has elements determines the validity of the system as a SEA subsystem.

become an integral part of the overall product design process. The The modal density of a typical linear elastic mount vibration

implementation of acoustic modeling in the acoustic design process isolation system will be compared with the modal density of a

is the most efficient and cost-effective method to assure product typical SEA element to evaluate equivalent energy storage

quality. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is accepted as an capability and hence their ability to share energy. Other SEA

accurate and reliable noise and vibration transmission modeling parameters are the coupling loss factor and the internal loss factor.

methodology for automotive vehicles (Elliot and Friberg, 1988 & Previously unavailable model equations for these relationships as

Fredo, 1988). SEA is a useful tool for acoustic design predicting well as element energy dissipation are derived below.

the response of and power flow between model elements.

Linear elastic vibration isolation mount systems are common MODEL DEVELOPMENT

components of complex structures that involve a source of noise Development of a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) noise

and vibration. Typically configured between the noise and transmission model is dependent on the energy storage in the

vibration source and the rest of complex structure, the task of the structure and the type of coupling among the substructures.

1

B. P. Byam and C. J. Radcliffe

In the SEA model. M1 and M3 in Figure 1 a) are a) Mount Mount Mount Mount b) rigid masses and K2 is the spring constant. A is factors corresponding to modal couplings between elements. the modes in all N z mounts are considered as one energy storing element with energy Evis. Figure 2 a) shows a linear elastic vibration isolation y mount system with N mounts configured between two flexible x Fy substructures. J. Byam and C. and ρ is the density. and ηi a mount cross-sectional area. The motion of the 1 2 3 N Evis vibration model involves the movement of each rigid mass as a whole. υ is Poisson's ratio. 1973). The number of modes within a through mass-less rigid planar connections shown in the Figure 3. Energy storage is the essence of the directions (4 DOF) with longitudinal and torsion waves in the z SEA method and modal density for each SEA element is a critical direction (2 DOF). The groups of modes created by this wave motion are considered the elements of the E2 SEA model. substructure characterizes the capacity for energy storage in the Shear and bending waves will be present in both the x and y corresponding SEA element. at a frequency band center frequency band f ∂ 2ulong z ∂ 2ulong z ∂ 2 utorsion z ∂ 2 utorsion z Ei ( f ) = ni ( f )ei ( f ) E =ρ EJ = ρ (1 +υ ) (1) ∂z 2 ∂t 2 ∂z 2 ∂t 2 The total element energy is the used within a SEA power balance ∂ ushear x 2 ∂ ushearx 2 ∂ usheary 2 ∂ usheary 2 relation between an element i and an element j.Vibration models contain substructures that are small and stiff connected by point couplings with near zero energy storage. is used formulation. Ix and Iy are the second moments of is the internal loss factor corresponding to internal damping of area. E is Young's modulus. P12 and P23 are the power flow losses Substructures due to the modal couplings. J is the second polar moment of area. ei ( f ) . P. In the case of the SEA model. A three element vibration model and a three element SEA model are shown in Figures 1 a) & 1 b). These groups of modes (SEA elements) create the energy that is shared throughout the model through modal FIGURE 2: ELASTICALLY ISOLATED SYSTEMS & SEA couplings to other groups of modes (SEA elements). and Ungar. Radcliffe . The modal density. Vibrational energy will flow from the energy storing modes in the first substructure to the energy storing modes in each mount of the vibration isolation system to the FIGURE 4: ENERGY STORING MODES OF A MOUNT modes in the second substructure. Figure 1 b) REPRESENTATION illustrates the SEA power balance where E1. P22. Figure 4 a) . The modes present in each mount in the vibration isolation system will be governed by the six wave equations with element i modal energy. E = ρ ( 1+ υ) E = ρ (1+ υ ) ∂x 2 ∂t 2 ∂y 2 ∂t 2 1 ∂ 4ubending x ∂ 2ubending x ∂ ubending y 4 ∂ ubending y 2 P = ηij Ei −η jiE j + ηi Ei EIx = ρA EI y = ρA 2πf i (2) ∂x 4 ∂t 2 ∂y 4 ∂t 2 (3) Pi is the input power to element i. Heckl. modal density requires a modal development of its dynamic Fx a) Shear: x b) Shear: y behavior. the motion is internal via waves within the physical substructures. and P33 are the power flow losses due to internal damping. SEA models involve substructures that are large and compliant with E1 modal couplings and high energy storage. y x M1 E1 P11 z ELASTIC MOUNT P12 a) b) E2 P22 K2 Mass-less P23 Rigid Planar Connections M3 E3 P33 FIGURE 3: SINGLE MOUNT SCHEMATIC Six degree of freedom (DOF) energy storing modes in each FIGURE 1: VIBRATION & SEA MODEL COMPARISON mount are excited by the modes of the flexible substructures. 2 B. element i. 1 and 2 respectively. The waves are assumed to be uncoupled in this component in SEA analysis. and P11. E2. ni ( f ) . E 1 and E2 are the total energies of the modes in flexible x z substructures. The Internal vibrational modes within the physical substructures are connecting substructures perturb a single three-dimensional mount the mechanisms of energy storage. energy. respectively. and E3 are the Connecting element internal energies. Ei ( f ). The SEA representation of the 3-element structure is y shown in Figure 2 b). ηij & η ji are the coupling loss u is a displacement.f) illustrates the six energy storing modes defined by The derivation of a linear elastic vibration isolation mount system the six equations in (3). to derive the element i total (Cremer.

45 10. The number of mounts will be taken as 4 (N = 4). Figure 5 outlines the dimensions These velocities are found independent of boundary conditions and of the example mount to be used in this study. z x present in the system. two bending.55 Substituting the results of the above equation in (5).405 nshearx = 2L nbendingx = 4 E 2πf EI x 1000 11.085 1250 14.025 630 8. Modal density is a Six wave velocities results from solving (3) characterization of the energy storage in a structure. type of structure. x ρ = 0.04" modal density components. The modal density of a mount The vibration isolation system modal density (8) is compared is the sum of longitudinal. The modal density of the system will be defined by the x My mount modal density multiplied by the number of mounts. a rectangular mount as L. shear.16 density of a mount is 5000 49. n Defining a mount modal density results in a term that ν = 0.039 5.81 40. This shows that a velocity (Lyon and DeJong. Radcliffe .0405 lbm/in3 z h = 2 in E = 355 psi MODAL DENSITY. it will indicate that there is an equivalent capability for EI x EI y energy storage in the vibration isolation system as compared to cbendingx = 4 2πf cbendingy = 4 2πf ρA ρA (4) other automotive SEA elements. Byam and C.13 (6) 2500 26.1" thick nlong z = 2L ntorsionz = 2L E EJ 500 6. P.18 ρ (1 + υ ) 2L ρA 1600 17.53 20. torsion.110 ρ (1 + υ ) 2L ρA 800 9. and choosing the length between connecting faces of storage comparable to other automotive structural components. c) Longitudinal: z d) Torsional: z y ρ ρ (1 + υ ) y nmount = 2L + 4L Fz x E E x z z ρ (1 + υ ) 4L ρA ρA Mz + 2L + 4 + EJ 2πf EI x EIy (7) Mx y e) Bending: x f) Bending: y nmount is the modal density of a mount in the vibration isolation y system.500 characterizes its energy storage capacity.46 TABLE 1: NUMBER OF MODES IN 1/3 OCTAVE BANDWIDTH 3 B.57 12. the total modal 4000 40. The definition of mount wave velocities leads to the derivation of a modal density for each mount which y w = 2 in characterizes its energy storage capability. and two shear with the modal density of a 48" X 16" steel flat plate with a 0. and Number of Modes Number of Modes bending modal densities for a mount in the vibration isolation Center Vibration Small system Frequency (Hz) Isolation System Body Panel 1/3 Octave 4 Mounts Steel 48" X 16" ρ ρ (1+ υ) Bandwidth Rubber 2"X2"X 2" 0. thickness. Using this definition. The dimensions of the steel flat plate are characteristic of those for a typical body panel on a door or engine compartment nmount = nlong z + ntorsionz + nshearx + nsheary + nbending x + nbendingy of an automotive vehicle. n system is the energy storage characterization of a N-mount vibration isolation E EJ system.593 4.63 16. yields the longitudinal.77 nsheary = 2L nbendingy = 4 E 2πf EI y 2000 21.26 3150 32. N.83 8. clongz = c torsionz = ρ ρ (1 +υ ) TYPICAL AUTOMOTIVE MOUNT MODAL DENSITY E E The modal density of a typical linear elastic vibration isolation cshearx = c sheary = mount system will be compared with the modal density of an ρ (1+ υ) ρ(1+ υ) automotive structural component.32 32.71 25. and the vibration isolation system can be considered an important SEA element. J. If the modal densities are similar. 1995). N mount modal densities may be summed together to obtain an overall modal density of an FIGURE 5: EXAMPLE MOUNT DIMENSIONS N-mount vibration isolation system.694 6. A comparison of the number of modes (5) (bandwidth multiplied by the modal density) in the 1/3 Octave Bandwidths at the eleven center frequencies from 500 Hz to 5000 Each modal density component is twice the length over the wave Hz of these two elements is shown in Table 1. z nsystem = N × nmount (8) FIGURE 4: ENERGY STORING MODES OF A MOUNT Modes are the mechanisms of energy storage. Considering of the mount L = 2 in modal density as an energy storage term. the four-mount vibration isolation system has capability for energy results of (4).

( ) dissipation energy flows in SEA elements is dominate. 1987). modal coupling to an acoustic volume is given by The coupling loss factor for the mount to acoustic volume connector is Prad ηstruct −act = (11) ( ρc)act A ωMstruct v2 1 f > fc struct 2πf M mnt 1 − fc f where Prad is the power radiated to the volume and ωMstruct v 2 struct ηmnt − act = 1 (18) is power in the structure (Lyon. SEA theory says that a coupling energy flow exists between a set of ideal modes. P. This development is lengthy specifically (Lyon. and the response changes in the same manner related to the sound pressure in the local sound field similarly to the as the excitation. the systems Radiation loss in the subsonic case (below the critical frequency) have the following characteristics: only the sources being bending waves do not radiate until the wave incidents an obstacle considered exist. The coupling loss factor appears in the SEA power balance equation (2). in the acoustic volume is given by the damping ratio. v. SEA models consist of weakly coupled groups of vibrational and acoustic modes. and σ rad is the radiation efficiency (Lyon. c 2 A ρ v = Υl (19) fc = (13) 2π I E struct The mean square response over a frequency bandwidth ∆f of a where I is the second moment of area (Lyon. Chap. Using this relation.0. Byam and C. Radiation efficiency is dependent on a parameter called the 1987).5. J. structures is (Lyon. is the ratio of complex velocity. travel through MOUNT INTERNAL LOSS FACTOR. Weak couplings imply that the The structure velocity is equal to the wave front particle velocity. In this study. The supersonic bending waves The internal loss factor is the damping dissipation of the create a radiation angle or a mach angle which can be related to the SEA element. It appears directly in the SEA power balance critical frequency equation (2). The radiation efficiency for the subsonic nj bending waves is ηij = η ji (10) ni 1 2π CI E f 2 Two coupling losses are important to vibration isolation mount σ rad = sin −1 (17) cact A 2 ρ act fc modeling: a radiation loss of the mount structure to an acoustic volume and a structural loss between the mount and other elements. 1987). The internal loss factor is defined as twice of the damping ratio. Free sound waves are radiated from a structure when the 4 B. A mobility. however. The power radiated by a ρact CI E −1 f 2 sin f < fc structure is defined by f MA ρ fc mnt ( Prad = v 2 A )struct (ρc) actσ rad (12) Structural coupling loss due to modal coupling of two structural subsystems requires the definition of some preliminary parameters. above analysis for supersonic waves. Damping p domination places a great deal of importance on the identification ρc act . So. 1987) and will not be presented here. ηij 1 The coupling loss factor is the SEA mechanism that characterizes σ rad = (16) the dissipation of the modal energy through the modal energy 1 − fc f transfer between SEA elements. must be determined experimentally. Υ. the full analysis is given in Lyon (1987. times the cosine of the Mach angle. Radiation coupling loss of a structural subsystem as a result of a where C is the perimeter of the structure.1 . 5). ηi a structure at the speed of sound. Astruct ( ρc )act Zrad = (15) ηmount = 2ζ mount (9) 1− c f f So the radiation efficiency for supersonic bending waves in Typical values of internal loss factor for rubber are 0. 1987) MOUNT COUPLING LOSS FACTORS. over a critical frequency. 1987). where ρ is the density of air. ζ. the response and excitation are proportional and at or a boundary. However. 1987). The weak coupling implies that the fc sinθ = (14) energy storage mechanisms of substructures are not changed when f they are connected. Radcliffe . l. ηij has a reciprocal relationship with ηji. fc has the single subsystem is defined as units of Hertz per unit width. given by complex load force. a of the internal loss factors of the mode groups in the SEA models. bending waves. The reaction force from this interaction can be the same frequency. c is the speed of sound in air. radiation impedance of structure velocity to the generated pressure The simple relationship is presented in (9) (Lyon. A is the The applied load forces and induced velocities within a structural structural surface area. subsystem are related by an input and a transfer mobility (Lyon. dominate source of sound radiation. Critical frequency is the frequency where the bending wave speed in a structure equals the speed of sound.

v 42 Υ12 Υ34 2 2 ∆f = Lbeam 2 Lmount l1 2 ∆f Υ22 + Υ33 (24) tplate FIGURE 7: TYPICAL AUTOMOTIVE MOUNT COUPLING 5 B. Radcliffe . 1975). shear. Byam and C. 4M (21) G represents the ability of the structure to absorb power. Subsystems i and j are combined by a Gi = two port bond graph method where there is compatibility at the n j ∆f ∆f Υi +Υ j 2 n jωη j (26) junctions (Karnopp and Rosenberg. vj2 vi 2 1 Gj Connecting subsystems requires the use of transfer and input = ωη j M j 2 Υi +Υ j 2 2 l1 l1 mobilities. Any load force perpendicular to the beam’s axis will result in bending energy Defining the structural coupling loss requires rewriting the storage in the beam. (24) may be rewritten as (the ∆f as been G= dropped for convenience). The above subsystem are collected into a mobility transfer matrix (Lyon. 1987). and move it to the right hand side resulting in Pii Pjj Mj vj2 GiG j 1 Mi vi 2 4 Pij = 2 l1 l2 l3 l4 nj ∆f ωnj Υi +Υ j η j ni∆f (27) i M j v1 v2 l2 = -l3 v3 v4 The above equation shows that the modal energy of system j is v2 = v3 equal to the source system i modal energy times a ratio of the quantity in parentheses and the internal loss factor ηj . in terms of the mean square response of longitudinal. P. and bending energy storage and the flat plate. i and j. Conductance is the real part of the complex mobility and ∆f 2 is a ratio of modal density to mass (Lyon. Substituting. relates velocity at i to load force at i on the subsystem. J. Each port of the bond graph has a flow variable and an effort variable. 2 In the above equation. FIGURE 6: 2-PORT BOND GRAPH SUBSYSTEMS CONNECTED AT A JUNCTION 4 GiG j It can be shown. v4 . This is done to ∆f 2 2 (20) make the equations functions of the entire subsystems not the where G is the conductance. Υ12 may now be represented by v i2 ∆f l1 2 and the mass. The quantity Υ11 Υ12 Υ33 Υ34 in parentheses is the coupling loss factor which is dependent on the Υ12 Υ22 Υ34 Υ44 modal density of system j and the properties at the junction of i j system i and j. and M is 2 internal ports. at a junction M is shown in Figure 6. relates velocity at i to load (25) force at j on the subsystem. Υii. Υij. v 22 ∆f and v2 ∆f G 2 = Υ = 2 v4 ∆f are the free motions of the subsystems i and j and will be ωηM 2 l renamed v i2 ∆f = v22 ∆f and v j ∆f = v4 ∆ f . using the 2-port bond graph method and the η ji = ωn j Υi +Υ j 2 transfer mobility matrices of subsystems i and j that the velocity v4 (28) is related to the load force l1 Υ12 Υ34 TYPICAL AUTOMOTIVE MOUNT COUPLING v4 = l A typical automotive vibration isolation system is configured Υ22 +Υ 33 1 (23) between a beam and a flat plate is shown in Figure 7. The mobilities of a Υi and Υj are the structural mobilities at the coupling. It is helpful to write connected subsystems in a two-port description to easily obtain relations between the velocities and load forces of Mj vj2 vi 2 GiG j1 the different subsystems. The vibration isolation mount will have velocity at port four. frequency interval ∆f. Υ34 may be written as the mean square response of system j. n Gj ωη j M j . The input mobility. equation will now be rewritten in terms of the modal energy per 1987) frequency bandwidth. The transfer mobility. The connection of Set Gi on the left hand side of the above equation equal to ni/4Mi two 2-port subsystems. structure j when structure i is driven by a band of noise of some bending energy storage. l1 ∆f is the band of noise. The modal energies of systems i and j are Mi vi 2 Mj vj2 vi Υii Υij li ni ∆f and n j ∆f respectively. Writing (25) in terms = vj Υij Υjj lj of the system's modal energies requires both sides of the equation (22) to be multiplied by M jGi n j ∆f . η is the internal loss factor.

Ricks 1987 Statistical Energy Analysis. Lyon 1987 Machinery Noise and Diagnostics. Approach New York: John Wiley & Sons. White 1981 Journal of Sound and Vibration 75 (2). G. Spatial Fourier transforms and contour integration yields the mobility (Goyder and White. DeJong 1995 Theory and Application of beam −mount 2A ρE (32) Statistical Energy Analysis. The mount-plate coupling locations with respect to (1 + i ) ω Aρ i ρA ρA ω 4 − ω 4 1 1 EI 1 L beam Lbeam + + + − ie EI EI 4 4 e the mount are (0. 0. Goyder and R. Vibrational Power Flow From Machines Into Built-Up Structures. Vibration Transmission In A Car. Υmountlong = R. 0. Department of Applied Acoustics. New York: Springer-Verlag. M. Gothenburg. M. G. (34) ∂ 2u ∂2u − iωt ρ 2 = E 2 + Le ∂t ∂z (29) CONCLUSIONS A linear elastic vibration isolation mount system is an important − iωt For a harmonic time dependence u = e SEA element. 1980) REFERENCES L. Transmission of Vibration through Ribbed Sheets of Rubber. C. 179-197. The coupling locations. Aρ i ω4 ρA − ω ρA Prediction Of Structure-Borne Sound In A Simplified Model Of A 1 Lbeam 4 Lbeam Υbeam beam − mount = e EI − ie EI Motor Vehicle Using The Method Of Statistical Energy Analysis. Department of Applied motions in the two connections (beam-to-mount. (21). Report No. Vol. E. 0). H. Elliot and A. Fredo 1988 Chalmers University of Technology. As an example. E 88-01. SEA Modeling Of Sound And The resulting four mobilities required for the two couplings beam. P. can be substituted into (32) to obtain the longitudinal wave motion D. Linear elastic mounts have the capability to store a comparable amount of energy as other automotive vehicle SEA ∂2u 2 ρ L elements. E 88-02. the plate ρ ρ (1 +υ ) ρA ρA 3(1 − υ) longitudinal wave motion mobility of the mount in the beam-mount ω 4 EI i ω 1 4 iω L mount iω Lmount Lmount − ω 4 L mount 1 1 e E + e E ++ e EI + ie EI + ρ E 2 A ρE (1 + υ) 4 EI Aρ 16t 2 connection will be derived. EI 4 4Aρ ω D. Rosenberg 1975 System Dynamics: A Unified mount mobility for the beam-mount connection. Ungar 1973 Structure-Borne ρ v iωu 1 iω z Sound. Cremer. C. for the beam-mount connection nmnt 2πf (4 Mmnt M beam ) with respect to the beam are (0. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann. ρ ρ ( 1+υ ) 1 iω Lmount 1 iω Lmount Υmount = e E + e E mount− plate 2A ρE 2A ρE( 1+ υ) ω EI i ρA ρA ω4 Lmount − ω4 Lmount + e EI + ie EI 4EI Aρ 4 1 3 (1 −υ ) Υplate = mount− plate 16t 2 ρE (33) The coupling loss factors for a beam-to-mount connector and a mount-to-plate connector may now be obtained from (33). Karnopp and R. Boston: 1 Butterworth. 3. Radcliffe . Υ= = = e E H. and with the modal densities of a plate and a beam. D. G. Analysis Of Beam And Plate-Like Foundations. 59-75. ∂z E AE (30) SEA equations have been developed for the linear elastic vibration isolation mount system. z. Byam and C. Pinnington and R. (8). and E. Heckl. assuming that the substructures are connected rigidly at their faces. 0. R. to-mount and mount-to-plate are shown in equation (34). mount-to-plate). Sweden. Sweden. The longitudinal wave equation in 2A ρE plate mnt equation (3) is rewritten with a harmonic complex load force. NCA. 6 B. Acoustics. Friberg 1988 Chalmers University of Similar equation manipulations may be applied to all wave Technology. J. 0). 2 A ρE 2 A ρE( 1 + υ) 4EI A ρ 4 Aρ ω EI mnt beam The derivation of the mobilities will follow Goyder and White n plate (1980) for the three elements in the beam-mount-plate model and ( 2π f 4Mmnt Mplate ) ηmnt − = requires the wave equations presented in (3). L. Lyon and R. Report No. (28). G. 0. Gothenburg. H. Power Flow Through Machine Isolators beam −mount 2A ρE 2A ρE (1 + υ ) 4EI Aρ To Resonant And Non-Resonant Beams. J. The modal density of a linear elastic engine mount is of 2 +ω u=− the same magnitude of common automotive vehicle SEA elements. White 1980 Journal of Sound and L L 2A ρE (31) Vibration 68. Υmount = 1 + 1 + (1 + i) ω 4 EI R. L mount) and with respect to the plate (0. Part I: Introduction And Approximate The beam-mount with respect to the mount coupling location. Lbeam) and with respect to the ηbeam − mnt = 2 mount (0.

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