# EE302

Problems on matrix theory

1. Write down state space equations with u = v and y = i. Take x1 = iL and x2 = vc . Find
out the relation between R1 , R2 , L, C for which the system loses controllability.

i

+ iL

1

L
R
v
+

C

2
R
− vC

2. Let λ1 , λ2 , λ3 ∈ R be distinct. Show that
 
1 1 1
λ1 λ2 λ3 
λ21 λ22 λ23

is an invertible matrix.

Let b1 , b2 , b3 ∈ R. Show that
 
b1 b2 b3
b1 λ1 b2 λ2 b3 λ3 
b1 λ21 b2 λ22 b3 λ23
is invertible if and only if b1 6= 0, b2 6= 0 and b3 6= 0.
Consider a polynomial χ(s) = s3 + a2 s2 + a1 s + a0 whose roots are given by real numbers
λ1 , λ2 , λ3 . Assume that λ1 , λ2 , λ3 are distinct. Show that the matrix
 
0 1 0
A= 0 0 1 
−a0 −a1 −a2
 
1
has χ(s) as its characteristic polynomial. Further, show that λi  is an eigenvector of

λ2i
A corresponding to eigenvalue λi .

3. Obtain the diagonal/Jordan form for the following matrices.

show that (A.       0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 A1 = .. 7. −35 −12 −25 −10      −8 −12 −6  −12 −16 −7 2 1 4 2 0 0 4 2 −2 A5 = 0 2  0 . A =  0 0 1  . −β α       0 1 0 0 1 0 3 −2 A1 = . . B = 0 and C = 4 5 1 is not observable ..  .. A3 =  0 0 1 . say wi . 6. wi A = λi wi .. . . .   . . 0 0 0 .5 0. −6 −11 −6 1 Y (s) show that the transfer function U (s) has a pole-zero cancellation. Suppose T ∈ Rn×n is such that   λ1 0 0 . λn Show that every row. . . of T −1 satisfies the property that. b) is controllable if and only if wi b 6= 0 ∀ i. Let A ∈ Rn×n have n distinct real eigenvalues..A3 =  0 0 1 . (Such a wi is called a “left .eigenvector”.5 ẋ = x+ u 1 0 0   y = 1 0 x   0 with initial condition x(0) = and unit step input u(t). A2 = 0 0 1.     0 3 1 0 3 1 4 −3 −7 4.. Obtain the real block diagonal form for the following  matrices. 0 Page 2 . Show that the system ẋ = Ax + Bu y = Cx     0 1 0 0   with. A2 = . 1 1 0 −1 0 −5 −7 −3 5. The blocks should be α β either 1 × 1 having λ or 2 × 2 of the form . 0  T −1 AT =  .. . A4 =  0 0 1 .. Hence. . A7 = −284 −47 29 . Obtain the output y(t) of the following system     −1 −0. . 0  0 λ2 0 . A6 = 0 2 0 . .) In this case.