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- Lecture 17

**End-semester, Full marks = 60, Time: 3 hours
**

Date: 15/04/2017

**Question 1. Consider the circuit shown below. Assume R1 , R2 , C, L to be non-zero. Write down state space
**

equations ẋ = Ax + Bu, y = Cx + Du, with u := v and y := i. Take x1 = iL and x2 = vC . [4]

i

iL

+

1

L

R

v

+

C

2

R

− vC

−

**Solution: Applying KVL, we have
**

diL diL R2 1

v=L + R2 iL =⇒ = − iL + v (1)

dt dt L L

dvC dvC 1 1

v = R1 C + vC =⇒ =− vC + v (2)

dt dt R1 C R1 C

Applying KCL, we have

dvC 1 1 1 1

i = iL + C = iL + C − vC + v = iL + − vC + v (3)

dt R1 C R1 C R1 R1

**Using equations (1) and (2), we have
**

1

R2

− L 0 i

d iL

= L

+ L1 v (4)

dt vC 1 vC

0 −

R1 C R1 C

Using equation (3), we have the output equation as

1 iL 1

i= 1 − + v (5)

R1 vC R1

**Find out the relation between R1 , R2 , L, C for which the system loses controllability. [2]
**

Solution: The controllability matrix for the system is given by

1 R2

−

AB = L

L2

C := B 1 .

1

− 2 2

R1 C R1 C

L

For the system to be uncontrollable, we must have det C = 0 =⇒ R1 R2 = .

C

Find out the relation between R1 , R2 , L, C for which the system loses observability. [2]

Solution: The observability matrix for the system is given by

1

1 −

C R1

O := = R2 1 .

CA

−

L R12 C

L

For the system to be unobservable, we must have det O = 0 =⇒ R1 R2 = .

C

1

1 0 0 0 ··· 1 (b) We notice that my number at the end of the k th round is given by (k) x1 = 1 0 0 ··· 0 x(k). . In matrix-vector form this set of equations appears as x(k + 1) = Ax(k). That is. say xi for the ith participant. . into the ear of the person sitting to her/his st th immediate right.. xn ]T at th the end of the k round. . like before. x(0). This update marks the end of the first ‘round’. following (1) (0) the rule xi = xi + xi. . Then (0) the ith person whispers the number (s)he thought of. Suppose you are playing a version of “whispering game” with a few of your friends. [2] R2 1 Solution: Note that A is in the diagonal form and hence eigenvalues of A are − and − . . where 1 1 0 0 ··· 0 0 1 1 0 ··· 0 A = 0 0 1 1 ··· 0 .heard .. for i = n x(k+1) n = x(k) k n + x1 . . the friend sitting in your immediate left is number 2. Therefore. Let us use x(k) to denote the vector [x1 . there is only one L R1 C eigenvalue. starting from you as number 1 and then going clockwise. at the end of the whispering phase. x2 . What is the minimum number of rounds you would need to make this deduction in general? [2+1] (c) Devise a mathematical formula to do this deduction. . Each of the participants (0) thinks of a real number. Such rounds are then repeated one after the other. All of you are sitting in a circle facing towards the centre of the circle. the update is done.. that is. by (k) (k) (k) adding the number heard to the existing number. that is. Let us denote by xi. in her/his mind and keeps it to herself/himself. For ease of explaining. would it still be possible for you to deduce the initial guess x(0)? Justify.Find out the uncontrollable eigenvalues and unobservable eigenvalues for the above two cases. . Write down the matrix A explicitly.. [2] (b) Show that it is possible for you to deduce. 2 . that is. that is (i − 1) person for 2 6 i 6 n and n for i = 1.heard . [3] (k+1) (k) (d) If the update is done by subtraction instead of addition. repeated twice. L R1 C R2 1 Now. which number each of your friends had thought of.heard the number that the ith person hears. xi . [2] Solution: (a) The dynamics is given by (k+1) (k) xi = xi + xki+1 for all 1 6 i 6 n − 1. when the system is uncontrollable or unobservable. . and it is both uncontrollable and unobservable. and noting from the dynamical equation that x(k) = Ak x(0) we get that (k) x1 = CAk x(0).. we will have = . and the one sitting in your immediate right is number n. by just keeping track of your numbers at the end of each round. . . Defining C := 1 0 0 ··· 0 . In each round. (a) Show that the dynamics of how x(k) varies with k follows the equation x(k + 1) = Ax(k).. . Once the whispering is done every participant updates her or his number. . and. let us number the participants of the game. . . . xi = xi − xi. Question 2. where A is an n × n matrix with integer entries.

if (and only if) the matrix C CA CA2 . x11 .. . . Thus.. . 3 3 1 ··· 0 . . . . x11 . x21 . . In matrix-vector form this set of equations appears as x(k + 1) = Ax(k).. which in general would not give a unique solution.. . .. . . (c) A mathematical formula for making the deduction could be the following −1 (0) x1 C CA (1) x1 2 (2) x(0) = CA x1 . . .. . .. . . . CAn−1 (n−1) x1 1 0 0 0 ··· 0 x(0) −1 1 1 0 0 ··· 0 (1) x 1 1 −2 1 0 ··· 0 (2) = −1 3 −3 1 ··· 0 x 1 . 1.. n − 1 we find (0) x1 C (1) x1 CA x1 = CA2 (2) x(0). .. . . .. . . where 1 −1 0 0 ··· 0 0 1 −1 0 ··· 0 A= 0 0 1 −1 ··· 0 . . ... . .. x1 . . . . . CAn−1 n−1 n−1 n−1 1 1 2 3 ··· 1 This matrix is indeed invertible because it is lower triangular with 1 for the diagonal entries. . −1 0 0 0 ··· 1 3 . . (n−1) x1 CAn−1 Hence x(0) can be deduced from x01 .. In this particular case 1 0 0 0 ··· 0 C 1 1 0 0 ··· 0 CA 1 2 1 0 ··· 0 CA2 = 1 . . . we can (n−1) deduce x(0) from x01 . and. . . . . . .. . x21 . Any less number of rounds would make the system of equations under-determined. . . . .. . Applying this formula to cases when k = 0.. . . ... for i = n x(k+1) n = x(k) k n − x1 . . .. . .. CAn−1 is invertible. (n−1) (−1)n−1 1 (−1)n n−1 n−1 n−1 n n−1 x 1 (−1) 2 (−1) 3 ··· 1 1 (d) The dynamics is given by (k+1) (k) xi = xi − xki+1 for all 1 6 i 6 n − 1.... . . For the general case we need at least n rounds to complete. ..

where 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 A= . x11 . . . . B = . . Question 3. n−1 n−1 CA λ Cw 0 Hence. . . . C Cw 0 CA λCw 0 CA2 λ2 Cw 0 Ow = w = = . (Hint: use the result in part (a).. where A ∈ Rn×n and C ∈ R1×n . .. (a) Consider the system ẋ = Ax and y = Cx. . CA n−1 n−1 n−1 1 − 1 2 − 3 ··· (−1)(n−1) This matrix is indeed invertible because it is lower triangular with 1 and −1 for the diagonal entries.. . C := CT −1 = C1 C2 · · · Cn . Note that the observability matrix of a system is given by C CA 2 O := CA . Thus Aw = λw and Cw = 0.. . In other words. .. −3 3 −1 ··· 0 . . . . there exists a nonsingular matrix T ∈ Rn×n such that λ1 λ2 e := T AT −1 = . CAn−1 This means we need to prove that the observability matrix O has rank < n. . Using the same procedure as in (b). Show that the system is unobservable if and only if there exists an eigenvector v ∈ Rn \ {0} of A such that Cv = 0. Since A has n distinct eigenvalues. n−1 .. x1 . C = 6 11 6 1 . (Only If ) Given the system is unobservable. x21 . we need to show that there exists a non-zero vector w ∈ Rn such that Ow = 0. . y = Cx has 3 unobservable eigenvalues.) [5] Solution: (a) (If ) Given there exists an eigenvector v ∈ Rn \ {0} of A such that Cv = 0. . Thus. (n−1) we can deduce x(0) from x01 . the system is unobservable.. . ... . Take w = v. the observability matrix can be found as 1 0 0 0 ··· 0 C CA 1 −1 0 0 ··· 0 2 CA 1 −2 1 0 ··· 0 = 1 .. Suppose A has n distinct real eigenvalues. . [5] (b) Consider the system ẋ = Ax + Bu and y = Cx. A e . we prove that the system is unobservable. we prove that there exists an eigenvector v ∈ Rn \ {0} of A such that Cv = 0. 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 Design a state-feedback matrix F ∈ R1×4 such that (A + BF ) has 4 distinct eigenvalues and the closed-loop system ẋ = (A + BF )x. λn 4 . . ..

[10] Solution:The characteristic equation of A is 5k(s + 3) 5k(s + 3) s4 +17s3 +80s2 +(5k+100)s+15k = 0 =⇒ 1+ = 0 =⇒ 1+ = 0. v is an eigenvector of A. Hence 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 + f1 f2 f3 f4 = 0 0 1 0 A + BF = 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + f1 1 + f2 1 + f3 1 + f4 Recall that the eigenvalues of A + BF are the roots of the characteristic polynomial s4 − (1 + f4 )s3 − (1 + f3 )s2 − (1 + f2 )s − (1 + f1 ). F = −25 − 51 − 36 − 11 . −2. Define v := T −1 e1 . 1 λ 3 2 Cv = 0 =⇒ 6 11 6 1 λ2 = 0 =⇒ λ + 6λ + 11λ + 6 = 0 =⇒ (λ + 1)(λ + 2)(λ + 3) = 0. Question 4. Without loss of generality.e. 0 e 1 = λ1 e1 =⇒ T AT −1 e1 = λ1 e1 =⇒ AT −1 e1 = λ1 T −1 e1 =⇒ Av = λ1 v i. Consider a matrix A with real entries having one variable parameter k as shown below: 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 A= 0 . −3). This completes the proof. Note that these three eigenvalues would then be unobservable. 5 . According λ λ3 to part (a). Let us place the fourth eigenvalue of A + BF at −4. Since the system is unob- servable. Explain each step you are following to arrive at the locus. λ3 Hence. if Cv = 0 then the system will be unobservable and λ will be an unobservable eigenvalue of A + BF . Ce Hence. −3} are three of the eigenvalues of (A + BF ). Recall that unobservability of a system is invariant under similarity transform. we have 1 + f1 = −24. (You can take any other real eigenvalue other than −1. 1 + f4 = −10 Hence. s4 + 17s3 + 80s2 + 100s s(s + 2)(s + 5)(s + 10) 5k(s+3) Hence. 0 0 1 −15k −5k − 100 −80 −17 Draw an approximate locus of the eigenvalues of A as k is varied from 0 to +∞. 1 + f3 = −35. 1 + f2 = −50. we need to find the root locus for the open-loop transfer function kG(s)H(s) = s(s+2)(s+5)(s+10) . (6) 1 λ Any eigenvector v of A + BF corresponding to the eigenvalue λ will be of the form 2 =: v. e 1 = λ1 e1 and Ce . where k varies from 0 to +∞. The desired characteristic polynomial is (s + 1)(s + 2)(s + 3)(s + 4) = s4 + 10s3 + 35s2 + 50s + 24 (7) Comparing equation (6) and (7). ∈ Rn such that Ae e 1 = 0. Ae Further e 1 = 0 =⇒ CT −1 e1 = 0 =⇒ Cv = 0. there exists an eigenvector v ∈ Rn \ {0} of A such that Cv = 0. assume that C1 = 0. (b) Consider F := f1 f2 f3 f4 ∈ R1×4 .. at least one of the Ci ’s is zero. 1 0 Now we have e1 := . −2. we construct F such that {−1.

24 − j1.1.No. −3. Open loop poles = {0.09 = 0. 17 k=106. v. The auxiliary equation is s + 15k = 0 =⇒ s2 + 37. π. of open-loop zeros = 4 − 1 = 3. −10}. −1. vii.1.2 =⇒ φ ∈ { π3 . −1.076}. −3] and (−∞. iv. Number of asymptotes = No. −47. 5π 3 }.78.6k − 5040 = 0 =⇒ k = 106. ii.24 + j1. Breakaway point: d k = 0 =⇒ 3s4 + 46s3 + 233s2 + 480s + 300 = 0. imaginary axis crossover points are 6.076 is the only allowable breakaway point. Number of branches = No. i. [−5. −5. −6. of open-loop poles = 4.1. vi. Open loop zeros = {−3}.21. −2.1 Hence.09j. iii. 0]. Imaginary axis crossover: The Routh-Hurwitz table for s4 + 17s3 + 80s2 + (5k + 100)s + 15k is s4 1 80 15k s3 17 5k + 100 1260 − 5k s2 15k 17 2 (1260−5k)(5k+100)−15k×17 s 1260−5k s0 15k For imaginary axis roots. 6 . Hence. Real-axis segment of root locus: [−2. −3.09j. Behavior at infinity: 0−2−5−10+3 • Centroid: σ = 3 = − 14 3 (2k+1)π • Angle of asymptotes: φ = 3 for k = 0. ds The roots of the polynomial are {−7. −10]. Question 5.21. (1260 − 5k)(5k + 100) − 15k × 172 = 0 =⇒ k 2 − 58. 1260 − 5k 1260 − 5k 2 Allowable k is 106. of open-loop poles .5.

your friend draws the Nyquist plot with her/his wrong Nyquist contour and then (s)he infers about stability of the closed-loop by counting the number of encirclements of the critical point −1 + j0. is logically flawed. (S)he thought that Nyquist contour. ±0. ii. there are no closed-loop poles of 1 + GH in the right-half plane. Im(s) Γ jr r Re(s) −jr Figure 1: Erroneous Nyquist contour of Question 5 For the problem in part (a). iii.203. [1] Construct an example of G(s) for which your friend would certainly reach a wrong conclusion with her/his flawed logic.014. Γ. P = number of poles of 1 + GH in right-half plane = 0 and N = number of encirclements of −1 + j0 = 0. (s + 1)2 (s + 2)(s + 3) Draw the Nyquist plot of G(s). Would (s)he have arrived at the correct conclusion? Justify. which implies ω 4 − 17ω 2 + 6 = 0 =⇒ ω = ±4. [1] Give logical reasons as to why her/his inference. Note that for this system. (S)he read about the Nyquist plot from textbooks. 7 . but had an erroneous understanding of some parts. Intersection with the real axis: The Nyquist plot crosses the real axis whenever imaginary part of G(jω) = 0.6 and ω = 4. [2] Solution: 6 a.e.08. This is the point of intersection of the Nyquist plot with the real axis. Intersection with the imaginary axis: The Nyquist plot crosses the imaginary axis whenever real part of G(jω) = 0.56. iv.56. These two points are the points of intersection of the Nyquist plot with the imaginary axis. At ω = 1. i. At ω = 0: |G(jω)| = 1. the system is stable. see Figure 1 below. Comment on the stability of the closed-loop system with unity negative feedback. G(jω) = −0. though may be correct in the end. Z = P − N = 0 i. ±1. Nyquist contour was one of them.(a) Consider the open-loop transfer function 6 G(s) = . respectively. Therefore. unfortunately.6. |G(jω)| = 9+ω2 4+ω2 (1+ω2 ) and ∠(G) = −2tan−1 (ω) − tan−1 (ω/2) − tan−1 (ω/3). At ω = ∞: |G(jω)| = 0.08. Hence. At ω = 0. is taken to be a semicircle of finite radius r in the right-half of the complex plane with centre at the origin. which implies 7ω 3 − 17ω = 0 =⇒ ω = 0. [4+1=5] (b) Suppose your friend is a regular absentee in the class. G(jω) = (3+jω)(2+jω)(1+jω)2. √ √ 6 6(3−jω)(2−jω)(1−jω)2 6(ω 4 −17ω 2 +6) 3 G(jω) = (9+ω 2 )(4+ω 2 )(1+ω 2 )2 = (9+ω 2 )(4+ω 2 )(1+ω 2 )2 − j (9+ω26(17ω−7ω ) )(4+ω 2 )(1+ω 2 )2 . [1] Show that (s)he would arrive at the correct conclusion with her/his erroneous logic whenever the open-loop and the closed-loop systems both are BIBO stable.69 and j0. G(jω) = −j0. ∠G(jω = −2tan−1 (∞)−tan−1 (∞)−tan−1 (∞) = −2(π/2)−π/2−π/2 = −2π. ∠G(jω = 0.

. Therefore. • An open loop BIBO stable system means P = 0 =⇒ Perroneous = 0. Therefore. Nerroneous = 0 and hence we have the same conclusion as that in part (a). in general. Therefore. 8 . Perroneous := Number of poles of 1 + GH inside Cerroneous . Figure 2: Nyquist plot for Q5(a) b. Nerroneous = Perroneous − Zerroneous . Then ẋ = Ax has the origin as an asymptotically stable equilibrium point if and only if G(s) is BIBO stable. Define Zerroneous := Number of zeros of 1 + GH inside Cerroneous . From the Nyquist plot (Fig. N = 0. we arrive at the same conclusion for open-loop and closed-loop BIBO stable system. this means Perroneous = 1 because the open loop pole at s = 10 lies inside Cerroneous . we have P = 0 =⇒ Perroneous = 0 and Z = 0 =⇒ Zerroneous = 0. • From part (a). a brief proof for a true statement or a counter example for a false statement. Zerroneous = Perroenous − Nerroneous = 0. The Nyquist plot will encircle the point −1 + j0 counterclockwise. Thus. which means that the system is stable. For Nyquist plot with finite r: Take r = 13. Nerroneous := Number of encirclements of the point − 1 + j0. • From the definition. 3). Define the transfer function G(s) := C(sI − A)−1 B + D. By the principle of argument. y = Cx + Du. A closed loop BIBO stable system means Z = 0 =⇒ Zerroneous = 0. N = P − Z = 0 and Nerroneous = Perroneous − Zerroneous = 0. that is. Therefore. which implies that the system is unstable.e. Hence. Question 6. This conclusion is incorrect. Give brief justifications. Nerroneous = 1. [2 × 5 = 10] (a) Let a state-space system be given by ẋ = Ax + Bu. i. Let the erroneous Nyquist contour be Cerroneous . s−20 • Example: Consider the transfer function G(s) = s−10 . the logic is flawed. For Nyquist plot with r → ∞: From the transfer function we have P = 1. State whether the following statements are true or false. Z = P − N = 1. it is clear that Perroneous 6= P and Zerroneous 6= Z.

. Figure 3: Nyquist plot with r → ∞ for Q5(b) Solution: FALSE: Counter example: −1 0 1 ẋ = x+ u. α2 + β 2 must be equal to zero for some α. the origin is not an asymptotically stable equilibrium point for the system ẋ = Ax. the eigenvectors of A e are −1 −2 0 −2 1 0 . Solution: FALSE: Counter example: 0 −1 α ẋ = x+ u. you can construct a counter example by taking an unobservable or uncontrollable system in such a way so that the unstable poles are cancelled out because of the pole-zero cancellation. (b) There cannot exist A ∈ R2×2 such that ẋ = Ax + Bu is controllable for all non-zero B ∈ R2×1 . 0 1 9 . Since one of the eigenvalues is in the right-half plane. G(s) = C(sI − A)−1 B + D = s+1 1 . β = 0. which means that G(s) is BIBO stable. β α The determinant of the controllability matrix is. . β ∈ R =⇒ α. (c) Similarity transformation keeps eigenvectors invariant. For the system to be uncontrollable. 1}. there does not exist any non-zero B ∈ R2×1 such that the system is uncontrollable. −2 −3 −1 −2 Define T := 1 1 . y= 1 0 x + 0u. So. 1 0 β The controllability matrix for the system will be α −β C= B AB = . The eigenvectors of A are . But. Solution: FALSE: Counter example: 0 1 1 1 Take A = . det C = α2 + β 2 . Then A e := T −1 AT = −1 0 is similar to A. 0 1 1 The eigenvalues of the system matrix A are {−1. But. Note that.

(d) If A ∈ R3×3 has repeated eigenvalues then there does not exist B ∈ R3×1 such that ẋ = Ax + Bu is controllable. the degree of denominator < the degree of numerator). For 2 example G(s) = s s+1 +s+1 does not have a state-space representation of the form ẋ = Ax + Bu. which is full-rank. Solution: FALSE: Counter example: 0 1 0 Consider A = 0 0 1 . 1 −3 6 Hence. (i. −1. the system is controllable. which is a ratio of two coprime polynomials there exists a corresponding state-space representation ẋ = Ax + Bu. ∗∗∗ ∗∗∗ 10 . y = Cx + Du. −1 −3 −3 0 Take B = 0.. y = Cx + Du. The controllability matrix for the system ẋ = Ax + Bu will be 1 0 0 1 A2 B = 0 C= B AB 1 −3 . Solution: FALSE: Counter example: Take any improper transfer function. −1). (e) For every transfer function G(s).e. The eigenvalues of A are (−1.

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