OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH

(BDA 31302)

Chapter 1:
HEALTH, SAFETY AND
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

Compiled by:

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Musli Mohammad, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sh Salleh Sh Ahmad
and Dr. Mohd Nasrull bin Abdol Rahman
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)

DISCLAIMER
The information contained in this document is compiled from various sources and provided on an "AS IS" basis for teaching and learning purposes only
without any representations, conditions or warranties whether express or implied, including any implied warranties of satisfactory quality, completeness,
accuracy or fitness for a particular purpose.

Sub topics

1.1 Introduction to Occupational Safety and Health (OSH)

1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) 1994

1.3 Factories and Machinery Act (FMA) 1967

1.4 Environmental Quality Act (EQA) 1974
1.5 Occupational Health, Safety and Environment
Management System
1.6 Safety, Health and Environment Culture

1
1.1 Introduction to Occupational Safety and Health
(OSH)
• Safety is the state of being "safe", the condition of being
protected against physical, social, spiritual, financial,
political, emotional, occupational, psychological,
educational or other types or consequences of failure,
damage, error, accidents, harm or any other event
which could be considered non-desirable.

• Health can be defines as "a state of complete physical,
mental and social well-being and not merely the
absence of disease or infirmity".

1.1 Introduction to Occupational Safety and Health
(OSH)
• It is very important for the employers to manage
occupational safety and health (OSH) at their
workplaces because a lack of management control
often leads to the existence of causes of accidents and
allows for the unsafe practices among the workers.
• Managing OSH at workplaces is vital as accidents have
direct and indirect costs on the organizations.
• Direct costs include lost of time, damage to work
equipment and premises, lost of productivity and costs
of replacement goods and services.

2
1.1 Introduction to Occupational Safety and Health
(OSH)
• Indirect costs may include costs of replacement for
injured workers and costs arising from loss of
commitment and motivation of workers involved in the
accidents.
• If a safe and conducive environment is created by
implementing safety and health at work, there will be
an indirect cost saving as the workers efficiency and
productivity will be enhanced under such favorable
environment [1].

1.1 Introduction to Occupational Safety and Health
(OSH)
• Organisations related to OSH in Malaysia:

3
1.1 Introduction to Occupational Safety and Health
(OSH)
• Obviously the safety and health aspects involving
the workers cannot be disregarded as the law
requires the employers to implement safety and health
at work.
• The duty has been imposed by the law and the breach
of the duties shall invite legal sanctions. The statute
makes it an offence for an employer who fails to
discharge their statutory duties prescribed under it.

1.1 Introduction to Occupational Safety and Health
(OSH)
• As far as the legislation that regulates activities in
the Malaysian industry is concerned, the
Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (OSHA) and
Factories and Machinery Act 1967 (FMA) are the
primary legislation that govern safety and health of all
employees in the industry [1].
• The structure of legistration is as follow [1]:
- The Act (Duties of care, Committees, SHO, DOSH
Officers, Improvement and Prohibition Notices)
- Regulation (To detail specific requirements)
- Code of practice (Guidance in complying with the
Act, Evidence that legal requirements contravened)

4
1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514 [2]
• A piece of Malaysian legislation which was gazetted on
the 25th February 1994 by the Malaysian Parliament.
• An Act to make further provision for securing that
safety, health and welfare of persons at work, for
protecting others against risks to safety or health in
connection with the activities of persons at work, to
establish the National Council for Occupational Safety
and Health and for matters connected therewith.
• Scope: Person at work in all economic activities
including public and statutory authorities, except on
board ships or the Armed Forces.
• Divided into 15 parts and 67 Sections [2].

1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514
Part 1: Preliminary
Section 1. Short title and application. PART 3: National Council for Occupational
Section 2. Prevailing laws. Safety and Health
Section 3. Interpretation. Section 8. Establishment of the Council.
Section 4. Objects of the Act. Section 9. Membership of the Council.
Section 10. Second Schedule to apply.
Section 11. Powers and functions of the
PART 2: Appointment of officers Council.
Section 5. Appointment of officers. Section 12. Appointment of secretary to the
Section 6. Appointment of independent Council.
inspecting body. Section 13. Committees.
Section 7. Certificate of authorization. Section 14. Annual report.

5
1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514
Part 4: General Duties of Employers and PART 5: General Duties of Designers,
Self-Employed Persons Manufacturers and Suppliers
Section 15. General duties of employers Section 20. General duties of manufacturers,
and self-employed persons to their etc., as regards plant for use at work.
employees. Section 21. General duties of manufacturers,
Section 16. Duty to formulate safety and etc., as regards substances for use at work.
health policy. Section 22. Explanations to sections 20 and 21.
Section 17. General duties of employers Section 23. Penalty for an offence under
and self-employed persons to persons section 20 or 21.
other than their employees.
Section 18. Duties of an occupier of a
place of work to persons other than his
employees.
Section 19. Penalty for an offence under
section 15, 16, 17 or 18.

1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514
PART 6: General Duties of Employees PART 8: Notification of Accidents,
Section 24. General duties of employees at Dangerous Occurrence, Occupational
work. Poisoning and Occupational Diseases, and
Section 25. Duty not to interfere with or Inquiry
misuse things provided pursuant to certain Section 32. Notification of accidents,
provisions. dangerous occurrence, occupational
Section 26. Duty not to charge employees poisoning and occupational diseases, and
for things done or provided. inquiry.
Section 27. Discrimination against Section 33. Director General may direct
employee, etc. inquiry to be held.
Section 34. Power of occupational safety
and health officer at inquiry.
PART 7: Safety and Health Organizations
Section 28. Medical surveillance.
Section 29. Safety and health officer.
Section 30. Establishment of safety and
health committee at place of work.
Section 31. Functions of safety and health
committee.

6
1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514
PART 11 - ENFORCEMENT AND INVESTIGATION
PART 9: Prohibition against Use of Plant or
Section 39. Powers of entry, inspection,
Substance
examination, seizure, etc.
Section 35. Power to prohibit the use of
Section 40. Entry into premises with search
plant or substance.
warrant and power of seizure.
Section 36. Aggrieved person may appeal.
Section 41. Entry into premises without search
warrant and power of seizure.
Section 42. Power of forceful entry and service
on occupier of signed copy of list of things
PART 10 - INDUSTRY CODES OF PRACTICE seized from premises.
Section 37. Approval of industry codes of Section 43. Further provisions in relation to
practice. inspection.
Section 38. Use of industry codes of Section 44. Power of investigation.
practice in proceedings. Section 45. Power to examine witnesses.
Section 46. Employer, etc., to assist officer.
Section 47. Offences in relation to inspection.
Section 48. Improvement notice and
prohibition notice.
Section 49. Penalty for failure to comply with
notice.
Section 50. Aggrieved person may appeal.

1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514
PART 12 - LIABILITY FOR OFFENCES PART 13 - APPEALS
Section 51. General penalty. Section 63. Appeal committees.
Section 52. Offences committed by body Section 64. Powers of appeal committee.
corporate. Section 65. Decision of appeal committee.
Section 53. Offences committed by trade
union.
Section 54. Offences committed by agent. PART 14 - REGULATIONS
Section 55. Defense. Section 66. Regulations.
Section 56. Body corporate or trade union
liable to fine. PART 15 - MISCELLANEOUS
Section 57. Aiding and abetting. Section 67. Duty to keep secret.
Section 58. Safeguards against further
personal liability.
Section 59. Civil liability not affected by Parts
IV, V and VI.
Section 60. Onus of proving limits of what is
practicable.
Section 61. Prosecutions.
Section 62. Compounding of offences.

7
1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514
Objectives of Acts:
• To secure the safety, health and welfare of persons at
work
• To protect person (other than person at work) at a place
of work against hazard
• To promote the occupational environment adaptable to
the person’s physiological and psychological needs
• To provide the means towards a legislative system
based on regulations and industry codes of practice in
combination with the provisions of the Act.

1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514
Philosophy and guiding principles:
• Responsibilities to ensure safety and health at the
workplace lies with those who create the risk and with
those who work with the risk (Self-regulation,
Consultation, Workers cooperation and participation)

8
1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514
General duties of employers and self-employed persons:
• provide and maintain plant and system of work
• make arrangements for the safe use, operation,
handling, storage and transportation of substances and
plant
• provide information, instruction, training and
supervision
• provide and maintain place of work and means of
access to and egress from any place of work
• provide and maintain working environment that is safe
and without health risk and adequate welfare facilities.

1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514
Other duties of employers, self-employed and occupiers:
• Formulate written statement of his policy on OSH.
• Conduct undertaking in such manner not to affect other
persons not his employees
• Provide information to other persons on ways his
undertaking may affect them.

9
1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514
General duties of designers, manufacturers and suppliers
(plant and substance):
• to ensure plant/substance is designed and constructed
to be safe and without risk to health when properly
used
• arrange for carrying out testing and examination
• adequate information
• arrange for research to eliminate or minimize hazards
• safe erection and installation.

1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514
General duties of employees:
• Reasonable care for safety and health of himself and
others
• Co-operate with employer and others
• Wear and use PPE
• Comply with instruction on OSH.

10
1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514

1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514

11
1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514
Qualifications (to be registered as a Safety and Health
Officer):
• Holds a diploma in OSH or equivalent;
• Successfully completed a course of training in OSH and
passed any examination for that course or equivalent;
• Has been working in the area of OSH at least for a
period of ten years; or
• Holds such other qualification or has received such
training as prescribed from time to time by the Minister
pursuant to subsection 29(4) of the Act

Source: SHO Regulation 1997

1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514

12
1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514
• A safety and health committee shall consist of :
(a) a chairman (employer or his authorized manager)
(b) a secretary
(c) representatives of employer (management)
(d) representative of employees (workers)

1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514

CHAIRMAN

SECRETARY

MANAGEMENT WORKERS
REPRESENTATIVES REPRESENTATIVES

MANAGEMENT WORKERS
REPRESENTATIVES REPRESENTATIVES

13
1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514

 Chairman :
Employer or his authorised
manager
 Secretary :
Safety & Health Officer
 Management Representatives:
Manager/Director/Supervisors
 Workers Representatives:
From section or process

1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514

Appointment
Chairman
 Employer or Authorized Manager shall be
chairman.

Secretary
 Person employed as Safety & Health Officer
 If no SHO, chairman may appoint another
person
 or SHC may appoint by ballots from
members.

14
1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514

Appointment
Management Representatives :
 Appointed by Employer
 Min 2 persons ( < 100 employees )
 Min 4 persons ( > 100 employees )

Workers Representatives :
 Selected by workers
 Appointed by employer
 Min 2 persons ( < 100 employees )
 Min 4 persons ( > 100 employees )

1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514

Appointment
Employees Representatives
 Nominated from employees
 If number exceeded the vacancies…. ballot
 If no representatives, employer shall appoint
 Shall represent various section of work place
 Any vacancy shall be replaced in the same manner
as the previous member.
 Do not penalise workers who absent due to their
duties as SHC members

SAFETY & HEALTH COMMITTEE

15
1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514
Removal of Committee member
 Fail to attend 3 consecutive meetings
 Unsound mind
 Bankrupt
 No longer employed (employee rep)
 Convicted on a charge of:
 Fraud, dishonesty or moral turpitude
 offence under law relating to OSH
 Other criminal offence
 Incapable to carry duty as member

1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514
The Safety and Health and Committee should be
established for the following purposes:
• To increase and maintain the interest of employees in
health and safety issues.
• To convince managers, supervisors and employees
through awareness and training activities that they are
primarily responsible for the prevention of workplace
accidents.
• To help make health and safety activities an integral
part of the organization's operating procedures, culture
and programs.

16
1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514
The Health and Safety Committee should be established
for the following purposes (cont):
• To provide an opportunity for the free discussion of
health and safety problems and possible solutions.
• To inform and educate employees and supervisors
about health and safety issues, new standards, research
findings, etc.
• To help reduce the risk of workplace injuries and
illnesses.
• To help insure compliance with federal and state health
and safety standards

1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514

 Assist in development of rules and systems

 Assist in development and review of safety
& health programmes

 Perform analysis of incident trends and
statistics

 Review and recommend amendments to
safety & health policies.

17
1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514

 Perform inspections at work place and
recommend preventive and corrective
measures

 Perform immediate investigation of
accidents, near-miss accident, dangerous
occurrence, occupational poisoning or
occupational diseases occurred at
workplace.

1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514

• Investigates complaints of unsafe or
unhealthy practices and report to employer
with recommendations for corrective actions.
• Assists in the development of promotional
and education programmes
• Discusses reports and matters from the
safety officer, enforcement officer, etc
• Advises the employer on safety and health
matters

18
Group Activity

• Explain the roles of engineer in real working environment
based on OSHA, FMA, MS 1722, OHSAS18000, and/or
ISO14000.

Roles of engineers related to safety and Examples in real working environment
health + references (specific industry) + references

Roles of engineers related to public Examples in real working environment
interest and societal impact + references (specific industry) + references

1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514
Reporting of accidents, dangerous occurrences,
occupational poisoning and diseases:
• Employer to report to the nearest OSH officers of
accidents, dangerous occurrence, occupational
poisoning and diseases
• Medical officers to report on scheduled diseases in
FMA.

19
1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514
Enforcement and investigation:
• Director General of OSH
• OSH officers
• Certificate of authorization
• Power of DOSH Officer (Enter and inspect any place of
work; Enter with equipment and authorized persons;
Take photos, measurements and samples; Require
medical examinations if risk of prescribed disease;
Question any person if necessary)

1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514
Enforcement and investigation (Cont.):
• All persons must assist the officer with entry,
inspection, examination and enquiry.
• Contravention can lead to prosecution and / or issue of
either an : IMPROVEMENT NOTICES or PROHIBITION
NOTICES

20
1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514
Table 1.1: OSHA liabilities

Offence Penalty
Duty of employers and self employed Maximum RM50,000 or 2 years imprisonment
Duty of occupier to non employees Maximum RM50,000 and/or 2 years imprisonment
Duty of designer / manufacturers Maximum RM20,000 and/or 2 years imprisonment
Failure to comply to notice Maximum RM50,000; daily fine of RM500; or 5
years imprisonment
Duty of employee (general) Maximum RM1,000 and/or 3 months imprisonment
Duty of employee (interference/misuse) Maximum RM20,000 and/or 2 years imprisonment
Discrimination towards workers and Maximum RM10,000 or 1 year imprisonment
others

1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514
Table 1.1: OSHA liabilities (Cont.)

Offence Penalty
Related to inspection Maximum RM10,000 or 1 year imprisonment
Medical surveillance regulation Maximum RM5,000 and/or 6 months
imprisonment
Duty of occupier to employ SHO Maximum RM5,000 or 6 months
imprisonment
Duty of employer to create/consult Maximum RM5,000 and/or 6 months
SHC imprisonment
Disclosure of business secret Maximum RM20,000 and/or 2 years
imprisonment
Failure to comply with any other part Maximum RM10,000; RM1,000 day after
of the Act or any of the regulation conviction; and/or 1 year imprisonment

21
1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1994 – Act 514
Regulations Under Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (Act 514) [3]:
1. Occupational Safety and Health (Classification, Labeling and Safety Data Sheet of
Hazardous Chemicals) Regulations 2013
2. Occupational Safety and Health (Notification of Accident, Dangerous
Occurrence, Occupational Poisoning and Occupational Disease) Regulations 2004
3. Occupational Safety and Health (Use and Standards of Exposure of Chemicals
Hazardous to Health) Regulations 2000
4. Occupational Safety and Health (Safety and Health Officer) Regulations 1997
5. Occupational Safety and Health (Classification, Packaging and Labeling of
Hazardous' Chemicals) Regulations 1997 (Revoked)
6. Occupational Safety and Health (Safety and Health Committee) Regulations 1996
7. Occupational Safety and Health (Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazards)
Regulations 1996
8. Occupational Safety and Health (Employers' Safety and Health General Policy
Statements) (Exception) Regulations 1995

1.3 Factories and Machinery Act (FMA) 1967
– Act 139 [4]
• An Act to protect the safety, health and welfare of the
people inside factories as well as registration and
inspection of machinery and related items.
• First enacted in 1967 (Act No. 64 of 1967) and revised in
1974 (Act 139).
• Divided into 6 parts, 59 sections and 3 schedules [4].

22
1.3 Factories and Machinery Act (FMA) 1967
– Act 139

1.3 Factories and Machinery Act (FMA) 1967
– Act 139

23
1.3 Factories and Machinery Act (FMA) 1967
– Act 139

1.3 Factories and Machinery Act (FMA) 1967
– Act 139

24
1.3 Factories and Machinery Act (FMA) 1967
– Act 139
The three (3) schedules are as follows:
• FIRST SCHEDULE: Dangerous Occurrence
• SECOND SCHEDULE: Serious Bodily Injury
• THIRD SCHEDULE: Notifiable Industrial Diseases

1.3 Factories and Machinery Act (FMA) 1967
– Act 139
Regulations Under Factories and Machinery Act 1967 (Act 139) [5]:
1. Factories and Machinery (Special Scheme of Inspection) (Risk-
Based Inspection) Regulations 2014
2. Factories and Machinery (Mineral Dust) Regulations, 1989
3. Factories and Machinery (Noise Exposure) Regulations, 1989
4. Factories and Machinery (Building Operations and Works of
Engineering Construction) (Safety) Regulations, 1986
5. Factories and Machinery (Asbestos) Regulations, 1986
6. Factories and Machinery (Leads) Regulations, 1984
7. Factories and Machinery (Compoundable Offences) Regulations,
1978
8. Factories and Machinery (Compounding of Offences) Rules, 1978

25
1.3 Factories and Machinery Act (FMA) 1967
– Act 139
Regulations Under Factories and Machinery Act 1967 (Act 139) [5]:
9. Factories and Machinery (Notification of Fitness and Inspections)
Regulations
10. Factories and Machinery (Certificates of Competency Examinations)
Regulations, 1970
11. Factories and Machinery (Administration) Regulations, 1970
12. Factories and Machinery (Electric Passenger and Goods Lift)
Regulations, 1970
13. Factories and Machinery (Fencing of Machinery and Safety)
Regulations, 1970
14. Factories and Machinery (Person in Charge) Regulations, 1970
15. Factories and Machinery (Safety, Health and Welfare) Regulations,
1970
16. Factories and Machinery (Steam Boiler and Unfired Pressure
Vessel) Regulations, 1970

1.4 Environmental Quality Act, 1974

Source:
Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127),
Regulations, Rules & Orders (As at 5th February
2015)

26
1.4 EQA, 1974 BOTTOM LINE
REGULATIONS ENVIRONMENTAL
• The Department of
ISSUES & SAFETY
Standards Malaysia CONSIDERATIONS
(Standards Malaysia) is the
national standardisation • Purpose (Environmental
and accreditation body. Issues) : to identify the
environmental “hot spots”
•The main function; of the process.
- to foster and promote • That means it should draw
standards, standardisation attention to those
& accreditation, promoting materials or process steps
industrial efficiency and that cause most of the
development, benefiting potential environment
the health and safety of burden.
the public, protecting the
consumers, facilitating • Purpose (Safety
domestic and international Consideration) : prevention
trade and furthering of working accidents,
international cooperation occupational diseases, or
in relation to standards work caused dangers to
and standardisation. health.

1.4 EQA, 1974

Safety

REGULATIONS

Environment

27
1.4 EQA, 1974
REGULATIONS
The Department of Environment (DOE) under the
Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment has been
given the onus of monitoring and enforcing environmental
standards in Malaysia.

Environmental management is conducted at the federal
level by the Department of Environment (DOE) of the
Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment.
- Its main objective is to administer and enforce the
Environmental Quality Act, 1974 (Amendments 1985,
1996), and the Section of the Economic Exclusive
Zone Act, 1984.

1.4 EQA, 1974 REGULATIONS
Strategies for Environmental Improvement
Within the EQA (ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ACT), there are several progressive
provisions that can contribute to pollution prevention:

1.The prescription for the reduction, recycling, recovery, or regulation of
specified hazardous substances (EQA (1974) Act 127, Part IV, section 30A);

2.The prescription of minimum percentages of recycled substances for specified
products, and the labelling of such with declarations on recycled constituents as well as
methods of manufacture and disposal (eco-labelling) (EQA (1974) Act 127, Part IV,
section 30A);

3.The prescription of rules on deposit and rebate schemes to ensure environmentally
sound recycling or disposal of specified products (EQA (1974) Act 127, Part IV, section
30B);

4.The provision for environmental audits to be conducted, irrespective of whether the
operator is operating out of prescribed premises (EQA (1974) Act 127, Part IV, section
33A); and

5.The right to impose a “research cess” on wastes to finance research into any aspect of
pollution or prevention (EQA (1974) Act 127, Part VA, section 36A).

28
1.4 EQA, 1974

REGULATIONS

1.4 EQA, 1974

ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION
Air

Wastewater

Facility and
Operation
Hazardous/Solid Waste

29
1.4 EQA, 1974

ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION
Air

Wastewater

Facility and
Operation
Hazardous/Solid Waste

1.4 EQA, 1974

ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION

The Department of Environment (DOE) initiated the
development of Receiving Water Quality criteria for Malaysia
in 1985 which aimed at developing a water quality
management approach for the long term water quality of the
nation's water resources.

The approach recommended that Malaysian rivers be classified
according to the six classes and described in Table 1.

30
1.4 EQA, 1974

ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION
Wastewater
Table 1 - Receiving Water Quality (from Interim Water Quality Standard, INWQS)
Classes
Parameters (Units)
l llA llB lll lV V
DO mg/l 7 5-7 5-7 3-5 <3 <1
COD mg/l 10 25 25 50 100 > 100
BOD mg/l 1 3 3 6 12 > 12
Total Dissolved
mg/l 500 1000 - - 4000 -
Solids
Total Suspended
mg/l 25 50 50 150 300 > 300
Solids
Faecal Caliform counts/100ml 10 100 400 5000 5000 -
>50000
Total Coliform counts/100ml 100 5000 5000 5000 5000

1.4 EQA, 1974
ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION
Wastewater – cont’
Class Uses
l Represent water bodies of excellent quality. Standards set for the conservation
of natural environment in its undisturbed state. Water bodies such as those in
the national park areas, fountain heads, and in land and in undisturbed areas
come under this category where strictly no discharges of any kind is permitted.
Water bodies in this category meet the most stringent requirements for human
health and aquatic life protection.
ll Represents water bodies of good quality. Most existing raw water supply
sources come under this category. In practise, no body contact activity is
allowed in this water for the prevention of probable human pathogens. There is
a need to introduce another class for water bodies not used for water supply
but similar quality which may be referred to as Class IIB. The determination of
Class IIB standards is based on criteria for recreational use and protection of
sensitive aquatic species.
lll Is defined with the primary objective of protecting common and moderately
tolerant aquatic species of economic value. Water under this classification may
be used for water supply with extensive/advanced treatment. This class of
water is also defined to suit livestock drinking needs.
lV Defines water required for major agricultural activities which may not cover
minor applications to sensitive crops.
V Represents other water which do not meet any of the above uses.

31
1.4 EQA, 1974

ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION
Wastewater – cont’
Discharge Quality Standard
The effluent quality of any discharge from a sewage treatment process to an inland water
(that is, other than one having an ocean outlet) shall meet the minimum requirements of
the Environmental Quality Act 1974 and the limits set down by the Environmental Quality
(Sewage Industrial Effluent Regulations, 1979 which are presented in Table 2.

Standard A for discharge upstream of
1.
drinking water take-off
2. Standard B for inland waters

Note:
Standard A criteria applies only to catchments areas
located upstream of drinking water supply off-takes.

1.4 EQA, 1974
Standard
Parameters (Units)
A (1) B (2)
1 Temperature oC 40 40
2 pH - 6.0 - 9.0 5.5 - 9.0
3 BOD5 @ 20oC mg/l 20 50
4 COD mg/l 50 100
5 Suspended Solids mg/l 50 100
6 Mercury mg/l 0.005 0.05
7 Cadmium mg/l 0.01 0.02
8 Chromium, Hexalent mg/l 0.05 0.05
9 Arsenic mg/l 0.05 0.10
Wastewater 10 Cyanide mg/l 0.05 0.10
– cont’ 11 Lead mg/l 0.10 0.5
12 Chromium, Trivalent mg/l 0.20 1.0
13 Copper mg/l 0.20 1.0
14 Manganese mg/l 0.20 1.0
15 Nickel mg/l 0.20 1.0
16 Tin mg/l 0.20 1.0
17 Zinc mg/l 1.0 1.0
18 Boron mg/l 1.0 4.0
19 Iron (Fe) mg/l 1.0 5.0
20 Phenol mg/l 0.001 1.0
21 Free Chlorine mg/l 1.0 2.0
22 Sulphide mg/l 0.50 0.50
23 Oil and Grease mg/l Not detectable 10.0

32
1.4 EQA, 1974
Hazardous/Solid Waste

A hazardous waste is waste that poses substantial or
potential threats to public health or the environment.
There are four factors that determine whether or not
a substance is hazardous:

Ignitability (i.e., flammable)
Corrosovity
Reactivity
Toxicity

1.4 EQA, 1974 Hazardous/Solid Waste
A Solid Waste is any discarded material which is:
• Abandoned
• Recycled
• Inherently Waste-Like

Materials are solid waste if they are abandoned by
being:
•Disposed of
•Burned or Incinerated
•Accumulated, stored, or treated (but not recycled)
before or in lieu of being abandoned by being
disposed of, burned, or incinerated

33
1.4 EQA, 1974

Hazardous/Solid Waste – cont’’

Materials are solid waste if they are recycled - or
accumulated, stored, or treated before recycling -
by being:
•Used in a manner constituting disposal
•Burned for energy recovery
•Reclaimed
•Accumulated Speculatively

1.4 EQA, 1974

The Material Is A Solid Waste???

34
1.4 EQA, 1974

Is It A Hazardous Waste?

1.4 EQA, 1974

INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION PROCESS
EXAMPLE

35
1.4 EQA, 1974INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION PROCESS EXAMPLE – cont’

1.4 EQA, 1974INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION PROCESS EXAMPLE – cont’

36
1.4 EQA, 1974
INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION PROCESS EXAMPLE – cont’

1.4 EQA, 1974INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION PROCESS EXAMPLE – cont’

37
1.4 EQA, 1974

ENVIRONMENTAL
ISSUES & SAFETY
CONSIDERATIONS

1.4 EQA, 1974 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES & SAFETY
CONSIDERATIONS

ENVIRONMENTAL
ISSUES

38
1.4 EQA, 1974 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES & SAFETY
CONSIDERATIONS

1.4 EQA, 1974 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES & SAFETY
CONSIDERATIONS

39
1.4 EQA, 1974 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES & SAFETY
CONSIDERATIONS

1.4 EQA, 1974
Safety CONSIDERATIONS
In Malaysia, the health and safety of employees, is
regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA).

* Comparison of Three Risk Measurement.
OSHA Incident
Fatal Accident Rate Fatality Rate
Rate (Injuries and
Activity (Deaths per (Deaths per Person
Deaths per
100,000,000 h) per Year)
200,000 h)
Working in chemical 0.49 4
industry
Staying at home 3
Working in steel industry 1.54 8
Travelling by car 3.88 67 170 x 10-6
Rock climbing 57 40 x 10-6
Smoking (1 pack per day) 4000 5000 x 10-6
Being struck by lightning 0.1 x 10-6

40
1.4 EQA, 1974
Safety CONSIDERATIONS
Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals

No. Process Safety Management
1 Employee participation
2 Process safety information
3 Process hazards analysis
4 Operating procedures
5 Training
6 Contractors
7 Pre-starts-up safety review
8 Mechanical integrity
9 Hot work permit
10 Management of change
11 Incident investigation
12 Emergency planning and response
13 Compliance safety audit

1.4 EQA, 1974
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES &
SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS

41
1.4 EQA, 1974 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES & SAFETY
CONSIDERATIONS

1.4 EQA, 1974 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES & SAFETY
CONSIDERATIONS

42
1.4 EQA, 1974 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES & SAFETY
CONSIDERATIONS

1.5 Occupational Health, Safety and Environment
Management System
There are three sub-topics under this section:
1.5.1 Overview of Management System
1.5.2 Occupational Health and Safety Management
System (OHSMS)
1.5.3 Environmental Management System (EMS)

43
1.5.1 Overview of Management system
• According to Hellriegel et. al. [8], “management’ is
about planning, organizing, leading, and controlling the
people working in an organization and the on-going set
of tasks and activities they perform.

• Kast and Rosenzweig [9] define a system as “an
organized, unitary whole composed of two or more
interdependent parts, components, or subsystems and
delineated by identifiable boundaries from its
environmental suprasystem”.

1.5.1 Overview of Management system
• A system can also be defined as “a complex whole the
functioning of which depends on its parts and the
interactions between those parts” [10].

• A “system” is a unified whole of interdependent
processes, that function harmoniously, using various
resources, to achieve an objective. The objective of the
system defines and drives it. Processes within the
system transform input into output [11].

44
1.5.1 Overview of Management system
• The interrelationships among objectives, processes and
resources can be explained using a simple graphical
model of a system [12], as illustrated in Figure 1.1.

Figure 1.1: A simple graphical model of a system [12]

1.5.1 Overview of Management system
• Several management systems that are parts of the
business system (see Figure 1.2). This section only
discussed about the OHSMS and EMS.

Figure 1.2: Several
management
systems that are
parts of the business
system [13]

45
1.5.1 Overview of Management system
• In the era of globalization, complying with management
systems is vital for the companies to gain
competitiveness and enter the free trade markets.
• Normally, the management systems are operated
independently by different departments in the same
company.

1.5.1 Overview of Management system
• The certification of the management system standards
such as ISO9000, QS9000 and ISO/TS16949 for Quality
Management System (QMS), ISO14000 for
Environmental Management System (EMS) and
OHSAS18000 for Occupational Health and Safety
Management System (OHSMS) are also conducted
separately.
• However, the business trend nowadays requires the
related management systems to be integrated in order
to reduce paperwork, minimize costs, eliminate
redundancies and eventually improve system efficiency
and effectiveness [6,7].

46
1.5.2 Occupational Health and Safety Management
System (OHSMS)
• Organizations of all kinds are increasingly concerned
with achieving and demonstrating sound occupational
health and safety (OH&S) performance by controlling
their OH&S risks, consistent with their OH&S policy and
objectives.
• Many organizations have undertaken OH&S “reviews”
or “audits” to assess their OH&S performance.
• On their own, however, these “reviews” and “audits”
may not be sufficient to provide an organization with
the assurance that its performance not only meets, but
will continue to meet, its legal and policy requirements.

1.5.2 Occupational Health and Safety Management
System (OHSMS)
• To be effective, they need to be conducted within a
structured management system that is integrated
within the organization [14].
• An Occupational Health and Safety Management
System (OHSMS) is a system to manage the
occupational health and safety risk faced by the
workers, employees, or collaborators through good
working conditions [15].

47
1.5.2 Occupational Health and Safety Management
System (OHSMS)
• The OHSAS Standards covering OH&S management are
intended to provide organizations with the elements of
an effective OH&S management system that can be
integrated with other management requirements and
help organizations achieve OH&S and economic
objectives.
• These standards, like other International Standards, are
not intended to be used to create non-tariff trade
barriers or to increase or change an organization’s legal
obligations [14].

1.5.2 Occupational Health and Safety Management
System (OHSMS)
• The OHSAS Standard specifies requirements for an
OH&S management system to enable an organization to
develop and implement a policy and objectives which
take into account legal requirements and information
about OH&S risks.
• It is intended to apply to all types and sizes of
organizations and to accommodate diverse
geographical, cultural and social conditions. The basis of
the approach is shown in Figure 1.3.

48
1.5.2 Occupational Health and Safety Management
System (OHSMS)

Figure 1.3: OHSMS model for OHSAS 18001:2007 Standard [14]

1.5.2 Occupational Health and Safety Management
System (OHSMS)
• The success of the system depends on commitment
from all levels and functions of the organization, and
especially from top management.
• A system of this kind enables an organization to develop
an OH&S policy, establish objectives and processes to
achieve the policy commitments, take action as needed
to improve its performance and demonstrate the
conformity of the system to the requirements of this
OHSAS Standard [14].

49
1.5.2 Occupational Health and Safety Management
System (OHSMS)
• The worldwide standard for OHSMS is OHSAS 18001. It
has been first published in 1999 and has been
developed using the principles of BS 8800 [6].
• The overall aim of this OHSAS Standard is to support
and promote good OH&S practices, in balance with
socio-economic needs.
• It should be noted that many of the requirements can
be addressed concurrently or revisited at any time.

1.5.2 Occupational Health and Safety Management
System (OHSMS)
• The second edition of this OHSAS Standard is focused
on clarification of the first edition, and has taken due
consideration of the provisions of ISO 9001, ISO14001,
ILO-OSH, and other OH&S management system
standards or publications to enhance the compatibility
of these standards for the benefit of the user
community.
• As shown in Figure 1.3, OHSAS 18001:2007 Standard
consists of five major clauses which are: (1)
Occupational Health and Safety policy, (2) planning, (3)
implementation and operation, (4) checking and
corrective action, and (5) management review [14].

50
1.5.2 Occupational Health and Safety Management
System (OHSMS)
• There is an important distinction between this OHSAS
Standard, which describes the requirements for an
organization’s OH&S management system and can be
used for certification/registration and/or self-
declaration of an organization’s OH&S management
system, and a non-certifiable guideline intended to
provide generic assistance to an organization for
establishing, implementing or improving an OH&S
management system.

1.5.2 Occupational Health and Safety Management
System (OHSMS)
This OHSAS Standard is based on the methodology known
as Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA). PDCA can be briefly
described as follows [14]:
• Plan: establish the objectives and processes necessary to
deliver results in accordance with the organization’s
OH&S policy.
• Do: implement the processes.
• Check: monitor and measure processes against OH&S
policy, objectives, legal and other requirements, and
report the results.
• Act: take actions to continually improve OH&S
performance.

51
1.5.2 Occupational Health and Safety Management
System (OHSMS)
• Many organizations manage their operations via the
application of a system of processes and their
interactions, which can be referred to as the “process
approach”.
• ISO 9001 promotes the use of the process approach.
Since PDCA can be applied to all processes, the two
methodologies are considered to be compatible [14].

1.5.2 Occupational Health and Safety Management
System (OHSMS)
• In Malaysia, there is a guideline on OHSMS. This
guideline has been developed to guide and assist
organizations on the implementation of the MS1722:
Occupational Safety and Health Management Systems -
Requirements standard.
• It is developed in replacement of the MS 1722:
Part 2:2003 - Occupational Safety and Health
Management Systems - Guidelines standard which has
been withdrawn by Standards Malaysia.

52
1.5.2 Occupational Health and Safety Management
System (OHSMS)
• This guideline is to provide direction and assistance in
implementing OSHMS that can contribute to the
protection of employees from hazards and its
associated risks, the elimination of work-related
injuries, disabilities, ill health, diseases, near misses and
fatalities [16].
• This guideline is intended to [16]:
- interpret the requirement MS1722:2011
- assist compliance to legal requirements
- ensure continual improvement in OSH performance
- cultivate OSH culture in organization

1.5.2 Occupational Health and Safety Management
System (OHSMS)

Figure 1.5: OHSMS main elements (MS1722) [16]

53
1.5.2 Occupational Health and Safety Management
System (OHSMS)
As shown in Figure 1.5, the OHSMS consists of five major
elements [16]:
• Policy: Include activities related to the development of
the organization’s OSH policy statement and structures
and practices that insure active and meaningful
worker participation in OSH arrangement.
• Organizing: Addresses the establishment of OSH
responsibilities and accountabilities structures, a
training system, competency definitions,
documentation practices and a communication system.

1.5.2 Occupational Health and Safety Management
System (OHSMS)
• Planning & Implementing: Addresses those activities
associated with the fulfillment of the principles
expressed in the OSH policy statement. These
activities include the initial assessment of the OSH
arrangement that then support the actual system
planning, development and implementation functions.
• Evaluation: Addresses those functions associated with
measuring the management system’s performance. This
involves the development of performance
monitoring and measurement protocols, investigation
practices for accidents, auditing methods and
management review arrangement.

54
1.5.2 Occupational Health and Safety Management
System (OHSMS)
• Action for Improvement: Addresses issues associated
with preventive/corrective actions and continual
improvement. With the information obtained from
performance monitoring and measurement,
investigations, audits, and management review,
appropriate prevention/corrective and continual
improvement actions can be taken

1.5.2 Occupational Health and Safety Management
System (OHSMS)

Figure 1.5: OHSMS Implementation framework (MS1722) [16]

55
1.5.2 Occupational Health and Safety Management
System (OHSMS)

Figure 1.6: Sub elements in OHSMS (MS1722) [16]

1.5.3 Environmental Management System (EMS)

• An Environmental Management System (EMS) manages
the environmental aspects of the companies.
• The most well-known EMS standard in Malaysia is
ISO14001.
• The first version of ISO14001 was published in 1996,
and the latest version was published in 2015.
• ISO 14001 is an internationally agreed standard that
sets out the requirements for an environmental
management system.

56
1.5.3 Environmental Management System (EMS)

• It helps organizations improve their environmental
performance through more efficient use of resources
and reduction of waste, gaining a competitive
advantage and the trust of stakeholders.
• ISO 14001 is suitable for organizations of all types and
sizes, be they private, not-for-profit or governmental.
• It requires that an organization considers all
environmental issues relevant to its operations, such as
air pollution, water and sewage issues, waste
management, soil contamination, climate change
mitigation and adaptation, and resource use and
efficiency.

Source: International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (2015)
http://www.iso.org/iso/home/standards/management-standards/iso14000.htm

57
What benefits will it bring
to my business or organization?
Users of the standard have reported that ISO 14001:2015 helps:

• Demonstrate compliance with current and future statutory
and regulatory requirements
• Increase leadership involvement and engagement of
employees
• Improve company reputation and the confidence of
stakeholders through strategic communication

Source: International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (2015)
http://www.iso.org/iso/home/standards/management-standards/iso14000.htm

ISO 14001: benefits

• Achieve strategic business aims by incorporating
environmental issues into business management
• Provide a competitive and financial advantage through
improved efficiencies and reduced costs
• Encourage better environmental performance of suppliers
by integrating them into the organization’s business systems

Source: International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (2015)
http://www.iso.org/iso/home/standards/management-standards/iso14000.htm

58
1.6 Safety, Health and Environment Culture
Department of Commerce

Safety Culture
APOSHO 26 – Australasian Safety Conference 2011
Ian Munns, Director Policy and Education WorkSafe WA

Source : http://www.powershow.com/view4/534fa0
ZTExN/Safety_Culture_powerpoint_ppt_presentation

1.6 Safety, Health and Environment Culture
Department of Commerce
Safety Culture

59
1.6 Safety, Health and Environment Culture
Safety Culture
We use the term “culture” in many
varied contexts -
• Society Groups

• Sporting Teams

• Organisations

• Historic period

• Others

1.6 Safety, Health and Environment Culture
Safety Culture

Culture –

• the beliefs, way of life, art, and customs
that are shared and accepted by people in
a particular society.
• the attitudes and beliefs about something
that are shared by a particular group of
people or in a particular organisation.

60
1.6 Safety, Health and Environment Culture
Safety Culture

Safety Culture, a definition -
“a safety culture is an
organisational atmosphere where
safety and health is understood to
be, and is accepted as, a high
priority”.

1.6 Safety, Health and Environment Culture

What factors in the workplace
influence a safety culture?

Attitudes Environment

Systems

61
1.6 Safety, Health and Environment Culture

What makes a good safety culture

• Commitment at all levels
• OSH is an investment
• OSH is part of continuous
improvement processes
• Training and information for all

1.6 Safety, Health and Environment Culture

What makes a good safety culture

• A system for workplace analysis,
hazard prevention and control is in
place.
• The environment is blame free.
• The organisation celebrates
successes.

62
1.6 Safety, Health and Environment Culture

Elements that need to be considered in
the development of a safety culture –
• Leadership
• Respect
• Just and fair
• Information
• Being Mindful
• Learning

1.6 Safety, Health and Environment Culture

The Regulator – WorkSafe WA
• Provides products that can assist in
building and maintaining a good
safety culture
www.worksafe.wa.gov.au
www.safetyline.wa.gov.au
• ?Enforcement.

63
1.6 Safety, Health and Environment Culture

There is always more than
one way to do things.
Think outside the square

1.6 Safety, Health and Environment Culture

What can I do ???

64
1.6 Safety, Health and Environment Culture

Discussion

• Describe the objectives of Occupational Safety and
Health Act.
• Explain the objectives of Factories and Machinery Act.
• Provide definition of system.
• Explain the five major clauses of OHSAS 18001:2007
Standard.

65
References

1. Rahman, R. A. (2008). OSH Management In Workplaces: The Legal
Obligation. Research Bulletin of the Faculty of Economics and Management
3, 11-13.
2. Occupational Safety and Health Act (1994). Retrieved 1 December 2014 from
http://www.dosh.gov.my/index.php?option=com_ docman&view= docman&
Itemid=180&lang=en
3. Regulations Under Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994. Retrieved 22
October 2014 from
http://www.dosh.gov.my/index.php?option=com_docman&task=cat_view&
gid=169&Itemid=181&lang=en
4. Factories and Machinery Act (1967). Retrieved 1 December 2014 from
http://www.dosh.gov.my/index.php?option=com_ docman&view= docman&
Itemid=180&lang=en
5. Regulations Under Factories and Machinery Act 1967. Retrieved 22 October
2014 from http://www.dosh.gov.my/index.php?option=com_
docman&task=cat_view&gid=168&Itemid=181&lang=en

References

6. Mohammad, M. (2006). Strategies for implementing Integrated
Management System in the Malaysian manufacturing companies.
Unpublished Master thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.
7. Mohammad, M., Osman, M. R., Yusuff, R. M., Masood, I., Yahya, M. S., & Jalil,
M. A. S. M. (2013). Strategies for Integrating Quality, Environmental, Safety
and Health Management Systems. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 315,
894-898.
8. Hellriegel, D., Jackson, S.E., and Slocum, J.W. (1999). Management (8th ed.).
Ohio: South-Western College Publishing.
9. Kast, F. E., & Rosenzweig, J. E. (1985). Organization and management: A
systems and contingency approach (4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
10. Jackson, M. C. (2003). Systems thinking: Creative holism for managers.
Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
11. Karapetrovic, S. and Willborn, W. (1998). The system’s view for clarification
of Quality Vocabulary, International Journal of Quality and Reliability
Management, 15 (1), pp. 99-120.

66
12. Willborn, W.O. and Cheng, T.C.E. (1994). Global Management of Quality Assurance
Systems. New York: McGraw-Hill.
13. Karapetrovic, S. and Willborn, W. (1998). Integration of quality and environmental
management systems. TQM Magazines, 10 (3), pp. 204-213.
14. OHSAS Project Group (2007). OHSAS 18001:2007 Occupational health and safety
management systems – Requirements. London: OHSAS Secretariat.
15. Matias, J.C.D.O. and Coelho, D.A. (2002). The integration of the standards systems of
quality management, environmental management and occupational health and safety
management. International Journal of Production Research, 40 (15), pp. 3857-3866.
16. Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) (2011). Guidelines on
occupational safety and health management systems. Cheras: DOSH.
17. Jorgensen, T.H., Remmen, A., Mellado, M.D. (2005). Integrated management systems
– three different levels of integration. Journal of Cleaner Production, pp. 1-10.
18. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (2004). ISO 14001:2004
Environmental Management Systems – Requirements with guidance for use.
Switzerland: ISO
19. Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127), Regulations, Rules & Orders
20. Munns, I., Safety Culture, http://www.powershow.com/view4/534fa0
ZTExN/Safety_Culture_powerpoint_ppt_presentation
21. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (2015)
http://www.iso.org/iso/home/standards/management-standards/iso14000.htm

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