Unit 1 The Earth, Moon, and Sun System

Lesson 1 Astronomy
 From the Greek
o astron – star arrangement and nomos – regulation

Solar System Models

 Geocentric model – ?
o Accepted theory until 16th century
o
o Accepted theory until 16th century
o Why was this the model ancient astronomers came up with?
o Apparent Diurnal Motion
 Heliocentric – ?
o Proposed by ?

Gravity and Satellites

 Satellite -?
 Gravity - ?
o Size of force is dependent on mass of objects and distance between the objects
o The larger the two objects, the ?
o The farther apart, the ?

Gravity

 Responsible for
o ?
o ?
o ?
o ?
o Earth rotates at 1000+ mph

Lesson 2 Cycles - Days and Nights/Seasons
Day and Night

 Caused by ?
 Sun and stars appear to move because of rotation
 Time Zones - ?
 Earth rotates ?
 Around imaginary axis tilted at ?

Precession - http://safeshare.tv/w/zWfMCpXdfu

 Because the axis wobbles, the direction the axis is pointing is changing
 Precession - ?
 Precession cycle for Earth – 26000 years
 Axis at North Pole currently points toward ?

 If the year can be evenly divided by 100. 21 o In twilight until early October o Full darkness for the winter until early March Lesson 3 Seasons/Solstices and Equinoxes Summer Solstice – o ? . it is NOT a leap year.  The year is also evenly divisible by 400.?  Perihelion – ?  Aphelion occurs in ?  Perihelion occurs in ?  Period of revolution o 365 days. Seasons  Caused by ?  Summer o North Pole ? o South Pole ?  Winter o South Pole ? o North Pole ? Earth’s Path Around the Sun  Orbit is ? o Peri – near o Apo – farthest away o Helios – refers to sun  Aphelion . 6 hours. 9 minutes Seasons  North Pole o Sun rises above horizon about March 20 o About June 21 sun reaches its highest point of elevation o Sun sets about Sept.  In 13000 years it will point toward ? Leap Year  Sideral Day is 23 hours 56 minutes (compared to star position)  Solar Day is 24 hours (compared to sun position)  The Earth completes a revolution around the sun in 365.24199 days  February 29 is added every 4 years to keep the Gregorian calendar in sync with sun Which Are Leap Years?  In the Gregorian calendar 3 criteria identify leap years:  The year is evenly divisible by 4. Then it is a leap year. unless.

time it takes to complete one full revolution around Earth with ?  Synodic (Lunar) Month – time it takes for the moon to complete its ? The Moon  What shape is the moon?  Describe the surface. o ? o ? o Summer solstice in northern hemisphere is called ? in the southern Winter Solstice o ? o ? o ? o Winter solstice in northern hemisphere is called ? in the southern hemisphere. only far side  Revolves around Earth and rotates on its axis at the same rate Revolution and rotation are counterclockwise (CCW) Lunar Time  Sidereal Month .7% mass of Earth  1/6 the gravity of Earth .?  Only 1 side of moon visible to Earth  No actual “dark” side.  What is the source of the moon’s light? o ? The Moon  5th largest moon in solar system  Surface area is less than that of the continent Asia  27% size of Earth  1. What is the difference in the positon of the sun in the sky at summer solstice and winter solstice? o ? Equinoxes  ?  ?  ?  Spring or vernal equinox ?  Fall or autumnal equinox ?  Opposite in southern hemisphere The Moon  Revolves around Earth in ?  Perigee – ?  Apogee .

com/26684- moon-lemon-shape-tidal-forces. vaporized and condensed together via gravity to form moon  Websites  want to know more about the shape check out this website: http://www. o While your mass would remain the same.html Lesson 4 The Moon Lunar Phases  Appearance due to ? o Moves West to East o Results in phases of the moon As the moon orbits the Earth…  One half of moon is lit. your weight would be only about 1/6 of what it is on Earth o What you weigh on the moon if you weighed 120 pounds on Earth? Origin of Moon  Many theories  Which is the most widely accepted theory about the origin of the moon? ? o Rocky object about size of Mars collided with Earth o Hot surface layers of Earth ejected. sets at dawn  Earth directly between moon and sun  See entire lighted side .space. the other half not  Lunar cycle starts with ?  Rises later each day as it travels around Earth o Each phase is up at different times o New moon rises with the sun and sets at dusk o Full room rises at dusk and sets at dawn New Moon  ? is directly between ? and ?  What do we see when we look for new moon? Waxing Crescent (waxing – ?)  Rises shortly after dawn and sets after dusk First Quarter  Moved a quarter of the way around the Earth  “half moon”  On eastern horizon about noon  Overhead at 6pm  On western horizon at midnight Waxing Gibbous  Rises later in afternoon  Sets in early morning  Gibbous o ? Full Moon  Rises at dusk.

sets shortly after dawn  When right side of moon is illuminated. moon is waning Last Quarter  About 3 weeks after new moon  Rises at midnight.nasa.org/nightsky/moon  The Moon  http://solarsystem.cfm?Object=Moon  http://www. left. sets at noon  “Last quarter. moon is waxing  When left side of moon is illuminated.gov/planets/profile. leaving” Waning Crescent  Rises before dawn and sets before dusk  Last phase The Tides  ?  High tides and low tides generally occur twice each day o Diurnal  ? o Semidiurnal  ? o Mixed  Two high and two low tides of dissimilar range.com/ Lesson 5 Eclipses Solar and Lunar Eclipses .  Created by ? Tidal Range  ?  Vary depending on location Why do Tides Vary?  ?  Geological land forms  Shape of the bay  Meteorological phenomena Types of Tides  Spring Tides o ? o ?  Neap Tides o ? o ? Websites  Check this website for calendar of phases  http://stardate.moonconnection.Waning Gibbous (waning – ?)  Rises in late evening.

? o ? o ?  Penumbra o ? o ?  Antumbra o ? o ? Lunar Eclipse  Moon passes directly behind the Earth into its shadow  ? Types of Lunar Eclipses  Penumbral o Moon in penumbra area  Partial o Part of Moon in umbra  Total o Moon entirely in umbra Lunar Eclipse  Color is due to ? o Blue light waves filtered out Solar Eclipse  ? Types of Solar Eclipses  Total o Locations on Earth in ?  Partial o Locations on Earth in ?  Annular o Locations in ?  Where in the shadow is this dark spot?  What type eclipse is occurring? .  ?  Shadow has 3 parts Parts of a Shadow  Umbra .