Circuit Breakers need a way to operate. This can be locally
(when you stand in front of the CB) or remotelly by giving an
electrical signal commanding the circuit breaker to close.
Before to be able to close CB you have to charge a strong
spring inside CB . This charged spring is used to close CB
contacts internally. So for local operation you manually charge
the spring using a particular lever for that purpose. With a
button mounted on the CB front face, you press it and you
close the CB. When you want remote operation of the CB you
need a kind of motor to charge the internal spring (so we call
this CB motorized). Moreover, for remote operation you need a
couple of electrical reles (coils) such as "close coil" and "open
coil". This coils are capable to be remotelly energized by a
signal and thus can close / open the CB. Since we talk about
open/close coils it is clear that coils need auxiliary power to
operate. If for some reason auxiliary power is lost, then you are
not able to operate the coils (close / open). Imagine that you
have sucessfully closed circuit breaker (by remotely energizing
close coil) but during operation for some stupid reason auxiliary
voltage is lost . As a result you can't open the CB!
UnderVoltage Coil comes to cover this hole. In case auxiliary
power required for the coils to work is lost, the undervoltage trip
coil forces the opening of the circuit breaker. Notice that
undervoltage trip coil is optional. Close and Open coils is
mandatory for remote operation.

Basic Specification
Rated voltage 400V, 690V
Rated current 200A to 1000A
Type Conventional
Nominal Insulation Voltage 400V
Poles Number 3
Detail Description

DW50 air circuit breaker (hereinafter referred as ACB), is suitable for
distribution network of AC 50Hz, with rated voltage of 400V/690V, rated
current of 200A ~ 1000A. It can be used to distribute electric energy, protect
the circuit and power equipment against overload, under-voltage, short-
circuit, single-phase earthing, etc. ACB has intelligent protection function,
accurate fault diagnosis, good selectivity, high sensitivity, and can improve
the reliability and security of power supply. It’s easy to operate. What’s more,
the operating mechanism and related accessories produced by our factory is
fully adapted to this product.
II. Working Description of the Operating Mechanism:
The product includes operating modes of manual and electric, and adopts
closing method of spring energy storage (pre-energy storage). Closing speed
has nothing to do with electric and manual operation. The product adopts a
cam to compress a set of springs to achieve the purpose of energy storage,
and has a trip-free function.
The ACB has three operating positions:
a ) Energy storage: electrically operated or manually operated external force
drives the cam to rotate. Energy storage lever is on the cam, the lever
compresses the energy storage spring as the cam rotates. When the cam
rotates to a certain angle, energy storage ends through a series of drive inside
the mechanism.

b) Closing: press the ON button (on the intelligent trip unit or the button
supplied by the user to connect the energy - releasing electromagnet), so that
the energy - releasing tripping Axle rotates, energy storage lever trips. Under
the force of energy storage spring, the spindle rotates driven by a powerful
series of transmission, so that the contact is closed.
c) Disconnect: pressing the OFF button or the signal from overcurrent,
undervoltage and shunt,and test trip signal on the intelligent trip unit, so
breaking trip Axle rotates, and lever trips, linkage mechanism changes, then
the ACB is disconnected rapidly under the reaction force of the contact and
the reset force of the spring.
* Interlocking mechanism: it’s installed on the right panel of the ACB, stack
assemble the ACB with rod connecting interlock, to flat the ACB(fixed or
drawout type) and interlock it by steel cable, when one of the ACB is on,
another will be off, the interlocking mechanism should be installed by the
III. The Operating Performance

Air Circuit breaker

1. 2. Electrical Circuit Breaker is a switching device 
which can be operated manually as well as
automatically for controlling and protection of
electrical power system respectively. As the modern
power system deals with huge currents, the spacial
attention should be given during designing of circuit
breaker to safe interruption of arc produced during

This was the basic introduction to circuit breaker . so care should be taken to quench these arcs in safe manner. Again after the fault is cleared. there would be large arcing in between switching contacts. This was the basic definition of circuit breaker. . So for timely disconnecting and reconnecting different parts of power system network for protection and control. In addition to that for proper controlling of power system. During short circuit fault or any other types of electrical fault these equipment as well as the power network suffer a high stress of fault current in them which may damage the equipment and networks permanently. the system must come to its normal working condition as soon as possible for supplying reliable quality power to the receiving ends. The circuit breaker is the special device which does all the required switching operations during current carrying condition. the operation of circuit breaker. 2. there must be some special type of switching devices which can be operated safely under huge current carrying condition. 3. The modern power system deals with huge power network and huge numbers of associated electrical equipment. 4. During interruption of huge current. different switching operations are required to be performed. For saving these equipments and the power networks the fault current should be cleared from the system as quickly as possible 3.

The circuit breaker mainly consists of fixed  contacts and moving contacts. the plunger inside them displaced. 6. This operating coil plunger is typically attached to the operating mechanism of circuit breaker. There is an arrangement stored potential energy in the operating mechanism of circuit breaker which is realized if switching signal given to the breaker. 7. All circuit breaker have operating coils (tripping coils and close coil). these two contacts are physically connected to each other due to applied mechanical pressure on the moving contacts. as a result the mechanically stored potential energy in the breaker mechanism is released in forms of kinetic energy. 6. 5. The potential energy can be stored in the circuit breaker by different ways like by deforming metal spring. After a cycle of operation of circuit breaker the total stored energy is released and hence the potential energy again stored in the operating mechanism of circuit breaker by means of spring charging motor or air compressor or by any other . whenever these coils are energized by switching pulse. which makes the moving contact to move as these moving contacts mechanically attached through a gear lever arrangement with the operating mechanism. Release of potential energy makes sliding of the moving contact at extremely fast manner. by compressed air. But whatever the source of potential energy. 5. it must be released during operation.4. In normal "on" condition of circuit breaker. or by hydrolic pressure.

7. Due to this large power there is always dangerously high arcing between moving contacts and fixed contact during operation of circuit breaker. Till now we have discussed about mechanical working principle of circuit breaker. 9. But there are electrical characteristics of a circuit breaker which also should be consider in this discussion of operation of circuit breaker. 11. According to their services the circuit breaker can be divided as 1) Outdoor Circuit Breaker 2) . 10. by cooling the arcing media since cooling increase the resistance of arcing path or by replacing the ionized arcing media by fresh gasses. 9. like by compressing the ionized arcing media since compressing accelerates the deionization process of the media. 8. Hence a numbers of arc quenching processes should be involved in operation of circuit breaker. According different criteria there are  different types of circuit breaker According to their arc quenching media the circuit breaker can be divided as  10. Let's have a discussion on electrical principle of circuit breaker The circuit breaker has to carry large rated or fault power. Again as we discussed earlier the arc in circuit breaker can be quenching safely if the dielectric strength between the current carrying contacts of circuit breaker increases rapidly during every current zero crossing of the alternating current. 8. means. The dielectric strength of the media in between contacts can be increased in numbers of ways.

established between the separating contacts. For total interruption of current the circuit breaker it is essential to quench the arc as quick as possible. The main designing criteria of a circuit breaker is to provide appropriate technology of arc quenching in circuit breaker to fulfill quick and safe current interruption. Indoor Breaker According to the operating mechanism of circuit breaker they can be divided as 1) Spring operated Circuit Breaker 2) Pneumatic Circuit Breaker 3) Hydrolic Circuit Breaker 11. 13. on load current contacts of circuit breaker open there is an arc in circuit breaker. 12. 13. Arc in Circuit Breaker Whenever. This is called arc. What is arc ? During opening of current carrying contacts in a circuit breaker the medium in between opening contacts become highly ionized through which the interrupting current gets low resistive path and continues to flow through this path even the contacts are physically separated. 14. . Before going through details arc quenching or arc extinction technologies employed in circuit breaker we should know first what is arc actually. During the flowing of current from one contact to other the path becomes so heated that it glows. As long as this arc is sustained in between the contacts the current through the circuit breaker will not be interrupted finally as because arc is itself a conductive path of electricity. According to the voltage level of installation types of circuit breaker are referred as 1) High Voltage Circuit Breaker 2) Medium Voltage Circuit Breaker 3) Low Voltage Circuit Breaker 12.

15. In America ACBs were exclusively used for the system up to 15 KV until the development of new vacuum and SF6 circuit breakers. For interrupting arc it creates an arc voltage in excess of the supply voltage. 15. 16. 17. the medium voltage air circuit breaker (ACB) is replaced completely by oil circuit breaker in different countries. After development of oil breaker. the mobility of the particle in arc plasma is reduced. is those kind of circuit breaker which operates in air at atmospheric pressure. It is also good choice to avoid the risk of oil fire.14. This type of circuit breakers. As the temperature of arc plasma is decreased. This circuit breaker increases the arc voltage by mainly three different ways. ACBs are still preferable choice up to voltage 15 KV. Arc voltage is defined as the minimum voltage required maintaining the arc. It may increase the arc voltage by cooling the arc plasma. It may increase the arc voltage by lengthening the arc path. 16. in case of oil circuit breaker. The air circuit breaker does the same but in different manner. hence more voltage gradient is required to maintain the arc. The main aim of all kind of circuit breaker is to prevent the reestablishment of arcing after current zero by creating a situation where in the contact gap will withstand the system recovery voltage. As the length of arc path . Working principle of Air Circuit Breaker The working principle of this breaker is rather different from those in any other types of circuit breakers. But in countries like France and Italy.

1) Plain air circuit breaker  2) Air blast Circuit Breaker. The arc is driven into it. 19. and if the arc can be made conform to the shape. The third technique is achieved by using metal arc slitter inside the arc chute. 18. the resistance of the path is increased. the arc chute wall will help to achieve cooling. Every air circuit breaker is fitted with a chamber surrounding the contact. is increased. 20. is achieved concurrently with fist objective. That means arc voltage is increased. There are mainly two types of ACB are available.   18. This chamber is called 'arc chute'. Splitting up the arc into a number of series arcs also increases the arc voltage. The lengthening of the arc path increases the arc resistance. If inside of the arc chute is suitably shaped. This type of arc chute should be made from some kind of refractory material. 19. If the inner walls of the arc chute is shaped in such a way that the arc is not only forced into close proximity with it but also driven into a serpentine channel projected on the arc chute wall. High temperature plastics reinforced with glass fiber and ceramics are preferable materials for making arc chute. The main arc . 17. The second objective that is lengthening the arc path. Operation of ACB The first objective is usually achieved by forcing the arc into contact with as large an area as possible of insulating material. and hence to maintain the same arc current more voltage is required to be applied across the arc path.

These metallic separation plates are actually the arc splitters and each of the small compartments behaves as individual mini arc chute. When circuit breaker is being opened. As the current gets. much higher than the system voltage. In this system the initial arc is split into a number of series arcs. 21. The arcing is only initiated when finally the . The air circuit breaker. 21. 22. The additional pair is the arcing contact and is made of carbon. operated within the voltage level 1KV. These breakers normally have two pairs of contacts. 23. a parallel low resistive path through the arcing contact during opening of main contacts. each of which will have its won mini arc chute. make the over all arc voltage. Mainly for heavy fault current on low voltages (low voltage level above 1 KV) ABCs with appropriate arc control device. 22. So each of the split arcs has its won cooling and lengthening effect due to its won mini arc chute and hence individual split arc voltage becomes high. These collectively. This was working principle of air circuit breaker now we will discuss in details the operation of ACB in practice. there will not be any arcing in the main contact. are good choice. does not require any arc control device. 20. The main pair of contacts carries the current at normal load and these contacts are made of copper. the main contacts open first and during opening of main contacts the arcing contacts are still in touch with each other. chute is divided into numbers of small compartments by using metallic separation plates.

The each of the arc contacts is fitted with an arc runner which helps. and therefore the arc is quenched finally during the current zero. lengthen and split hence arc voltage becomes much larger than system voltage at the time of operation of air circuit breaker. 3) Arc quenching is much faster during operation of air blast circuit breaker. consisting of splitters. 26. 5) As the duration of arc is smaller. 420KV and even more. Air Blast Circuit Breaker has some specific advantages over oil circuit breaker which are listed as follows. 25. 4) The duration of arc is same for all values of small as well as high currents interruptions. 25. arcing contacts are separated. 2) The breaking speed of circuit breaker is much higher during operation of air blast circuit breaker. 1) There is no chance of fire hazard caused by oil. so lesser amount of heat realized from arc to current carrying contacts hence the service life of the contacts becomes longer. Although this type of circuit breakers have become obsolete for medium voltage application. 24. As the arc is driven upward it enters in the arc chute. These types of air circuit breaker were used for the system voltage of 245KV. 6) The stability of the system can be well maintained as it depends on the . The arc in chute will become colder. especially where faster breaker operation was required. the arc discharge to move upward due to both thermal and electromagnetic effects as shown in the figure. 24. 23. but they are still preferable choice for high current rating in low voltage application.

the high pressure air is introduced into the arcing chamber. 28. speed of operation of circuit breaker. 29. a) Axial Blast ACB. But the later can be sub divided further into three different categories. There is a nozzle orifice in the fixed contact which is blocked by tip of the moving contact at normal closed condition of the breaker. The air pressure will counter the spring pressure and deforms the spring hence the moving contact is withdrawn from the fixed contact and nozzle hole becomes open. When fault occurs. b) Axial Blast ACB with side moving contact. 26. 28. 3) Due to high speed current interruption there is always a chance of high rate of rise of re-striking voltage and current chopping. There are also some disadvantages of air blast circuit breakers 1) In order to have frequent operations. c) Cross Blast ACB. 27. it is necessary to have sufficiently high capacity air compressor. 27. 7) Requires much less maintenance compared to oil circuit breaker. plain air circuit breaker and air blast circuit breaker. As we said earlier that there are mainly two types of ACB. In Axial Blast ACB the moving contact is in contact with fixed contact with the help of a spring pressure as shown in the figure. At the same time the high pressure air starts flowing along the arc through the fixed contact nozzle . 2) Frequent maintenance of compressor. 4) There also a chance of air pressure leakage from air pipes junctions. associated air pipes and automatic control equipments is also required.

30. 31. When moving contact is withdrawn from fixed contact. In this type of axial blast air circuit breaker the moving contact is fitted over a piston supported over a spring. an arc is drawn between the fixed and moving contacts. and at the same time high pressure air coming from blast pipe will pass through the contact gap and will forcefully take the arc into exhaust . orifice. so that the air comes from blast pipe can straightly enter into exhaust chamber through the contact gap of the breaker. 30. The working principle of Cross Blast Air Circuit Breaker is quite simple. In order to open the circuit breaker the air is admitted into the arcing chamber when pressure reaches to a predetermined value. The air blast immediately transfers the arc to the arcing electrode and is consequently quenched by the axial flow of air. In this system of air blast circuit breaker the blast pipe is fixed in perpendicular to the movement of moving contact in the arcing chamber and on the opposite side of the arcing chamber one exhaust chamber is also fitted at the same alignment of blast pipe. The exhaust chamber is spit with arc splitters. an arc is established in between the contact. it presses down the moving contact. 29. This axial flow of air along the arc through the nozzle orifice will make the arc lengthen and colder hence arc voltage become much higher than system voltage that means system voltage is insufficient to sustain the arc consequently the arc is quenched.

chamber where the arc is split with the help of arc splitters and ultimately arc is quenched 31. If the circuit breaker opens under one of these conditions. One of the most commonly used low-voltage air circuit breakers is the molded case circuit breaker (picture above). 32. A circuit breaker will automatically trip when the current through it exceeds a pre-determined value. with the exception of very small ones. The trip-free position is midway between the ON and OFF positions and cannot be re- shut until the handle is pushed to the OFF position and reset. All breakers. References : 1) Electrical Engineering Online Electrical Engineering Study Site A low-voltage circuit breaker is one which is suited for circuits rated at 600 volts or lower. the handle will go to the trip-free position. The handle is also designed so that it cannot be held shut on a short circuit or overload condition. A circuit can be connected or disconnected using a circuit breaker by manually moving the operating handle to the ON or OFF position. have a linkage between the operating handle and contacts that allows a quick make (quick break contact action) regardless of how fast the operating handle is moved . In .

. The circuit breaker will then be opened by spring action. If an extremely high current is developed. will cause the element to deflect and trip the linkage that holds the circuit breaker shut. This bimetallic element. Thermal trip elements consist of a bimetallic element that can be calibrated so that the heat from normal current through it does not cause it to deflect. the circuit breaker will be tripped very rapidly. which could be caused by a short circuit or overload condition. which is responsive to the heat produced by current flowing through it.lower current ratings. An abnormally high current. has an inverse- time characteristic. automatic tripping of the circuit breaker is accomplished by use of thermal tripping devices. A cutaway view of the molded case circuit breaker is shown in Figure 1.

an arc develops between the two contacts. When the arc is drawn into the arc chute. Molded case breakers with much larger current ratings also have a magnetic trip element to supplement the thermal trip element. The magnetic unit utilizes the magnetic force that surrounds the conductor to operate the circuit breaker tripping linkage.Cutaway view of the molded case circuit breaker For moderate overload currents. Different manufacturers use many designs and arrangements of contacts and their surrounding chambers. it is divided into small segments and quenched. it will operate more slowly. . Figure 1 . When the separable contacts of an air circuit breaker are opened. The construction of this arc chute allows the arc formed as the contacts open to draw out into the arc chute. This action extinguishes the arc rapidly. The most common design places the moving contacts inside of an arc chute.

known as a “stored energy mechanism. and current interrupting ratings are the same for all circuit breakers of a given frame size. Once these springs are compressed. positive closing action. The size. These circuit breakers are available in much higher continuous current and interrupting ratings than the molded case circuit breaker. and interrupting ratings as high as 150.which minimizes the chance of a fire and also minimizes damage to the breaker contacts. contact rating. the latch may be operated to release the springs. Much larger air circuit breakers are used in large commercial and industrial distribution systems. and interrupting capacity ranges as high as 100.000 amps.” for fast. The continuous current rating of a breaker is governed by the trip element rating. and spring pressure will shut the circuit breaker. The range of voltage available is from 120 to 600 volts. There are six frame sizes available: 100. Energy is stored by compressing large powerful coil springs that are attached to the contact assembly of a circuit breaker. and 2. 800. Circuit breaker closing springs may be compressed manually or by means of a small electric motor. This . Molded case circuit breakers come in a wide range of sizes and current ratings. 400. Breakers of this type have current ratings as high as 4.000 amps. Most large air circuit breakers use a closing device.000 amps.000 amps. 225. 600.

or electrically-operated circuit breaker. As the circuit breaker is closed. are compressed. Manually operated circuit breaker The manually-operated circuit breaker closing springs are normally compressed by a hand crank just prior to operation of the breaker. the operating mechanism is latched. circuit breakers may be operated either manually or electrically. Tripping this circuit breaker is done by means of the tripping lever. When a large air circuit breaker is closed. . located at the bottom front of the breaker. and the circuit breaker may then be tripped by means of a trip latch. Closing this circuit breaker is accomplished manually by depressing the small closing lever. Electrically-operated circuit breakers are used when circuit breakers are to be operated at frequent intervals or when remote operation is required. Figure 6 shows a large air circuit breaker which is classified as a manually- operated stored energy circuit breaker. The closing springs are compressed by pulling downward on the large operating handle on the front of the breaker. As previously stated. The trip latch mechanism may be operated either manually or remotely by means of a solenoid trip coil. or coils. a set of tripping springs.type of circuit breaker can be classified as either a manually.

Trip Mechanism The trip unit includes a trip mechanism that is held in place by the tripper bar. the mechanism remains firmly locked in place. the trip unit includes elements designed to sense the heat resulting from an overload condition and the high current resulting from a short circuit. a circuit breaker must automatically open its contacts when an overcurrent condition is sensed. In addition. The trip unit is the part of the circuit breaker that determines when the contacts will open automatically. In a thermal-magnetic circuit breaker. some thermal magnetic circuit breakers incorporate a “PUSH TO TRIP” button. . As long as the tripper bar holds the trip mechanism. Thermal-Magnetic Trip Unit In addition to providing a means to open and close its contacts manually.

can be manually tripped by pressing the “PUSH TO TRIP” button on the face of the circuit . especially larger breakers. which opens the contacts. Trip Unit with Trip Mechanism The operating mechanism is held in the “ON” position by the trip mechanism. When a trip is activated. however. Manual Trip Some molded case circuit breakers. a DC source could also be used. the trip mechanism releases the operating mechanism. The operating mechanism is held in the “ON” position by the trip mechanism. Note: the drawings in this section show an AC power source.

. Manual trip mechanism Overload Trip Thermal-magnetic circuit breakers employ a bi-metalic strip to sense overload conditions. a spring located under the pushbutton causes the button to lift up and the breaker to trip. heat build up causes the bi-metalic strip to bend. The “PUSH TO TRIP” button also serves as a safety device by preventing access to the circuit breaker interior in the “ON” position. This allows the trip mechanism to “unlock” releasing the operating mechanism. When the button is pressed the tripper bar rotates up and to the right. If an attempt is made to remove the circuit breaker cover while the contacts are in the closed (“ON”) position.breaker. The operating mechanism opens the contacts. When sufficient overcurrent flows through the circuit breaker’s current path.

the bi-metalic strip makes contact with the tripper bar activating the trip mechanism. This allows a circuit breaker to be manually reset once the overload condition has been corrected. heat also rises. as when the circuit breaker contacts open. Circuit breaker contacts A bi-metalic strip is made of two dissimilar metals bonded together. the bi-metalic strip cools and returns to its original condition. so the bi-metalic strip bends when heated.After bending a predetermined distance. After the source of heat is removed. As current rises. . The hotter the bi-metalic becomes the more it bends. The two metals have different thermal expansion characteristics. Thermal-magnetic circuit breakers employ a bi-metalic strip to sense overload conditions.

SOURCE: SIE . When a short circuit occurs. however. current flow through a circuit breaker’s blow-apart contacts creates opposing magnetic fields.Short Circuit Trip As previously described. because the magnetic forces are proportional to the current. the shorter the time it takes to interrupt the current. the magnetic field surrounding this conductor provides sufficient force to unlatch the trip unit and trip the breaker. In addition. Short Circuit Trip The combined actions of magnetic fields forcing contacts apart while simultaneously tripping the circuit breaker result in rapid interruption of the fault current. At fault current levels. these opposing forces increase significantly. Under normal operating conditions. the greater the fault current. these opposing forces are not sufficient to separate the contacts. The current that flows through the contacts also flows through a conductor that passes close to the circuit breaker’s trip unit.

OFF). OFF) simultaneously  Contact condition of the main circuit is shown on the(O. first charge the spring by using the charging handle. ON) and open button(O. It can change to ON charging method by removing b(A×b) contact like beside circuit diagram . the closing spring is charged automatically. charge indicator indicate "Charge"  It is mechanically locked not to press the close button(I. OFF) for opening  When closing spring is completely charged. ON) for closing. -OFF charging method : When the breaker is opened. (I. and then press the close button(I. the open button(O. For closing. ON) indicator. Air Circuit Breakers : Charging method Manual charging type The closing coil is charged by manual charging handle. Motor charging type The closing spring is charged by a motor ON charging method or OFF charging method is available selectively.

Since the contact signal of charging completion switch is connected to the external terminal. -ON charging method : The closing spring is charged automatically when the breaker is closed. only manual charging is possible(motor charging cannot be performed)  With the open button(O. OFF) pressed.It can change to OFF charging method by using b(A×b) contact. TS-). (electrical and mechanical lock)  Opening should follow at least one second after completion of charging  Pumping prevent circuit is included with the closing coil(electrical lock)  Please note that pumping prevent circuit can be reset when the voltage of input signal drops Voltage Reset voltage AC Rated voltage 85% under DC Rated voltage 85% under . There is a contact to indicate the charging completion(TS+. ON). closing cannot be worked.Automatic closing circuit) by using that contact  Manual charging is also available  With the breaker closed(I. closing cannot be performed(electrical and mechanical lock)  When OFF Lock device is in use. It is easy to construct a circuit(ex.

5 264 Note * The range of operating voltage : 85-110% .5 385 50/60Hz 220 7 3.Motor charging circuit Note *1 Since charging completion contact (TS+. *2 Charging completion contact capacity is equal to that high of capacity of auxiliary contact in page 27. Motor ratings Inrush Rated current Steady Power Charging voltage peak current(A) consumption(W) time(sec) value(A) AC/DC 110 7 3. TS-) terminal is for contact output power should not be allowed.5 437 5 Under DC 24 30 11 264 48 30 5.5 770 125 7 3.

ICCBs. White. and medium-voltage vacuum (MVVCB) circuit breakers. LVPCBs. Inc. This article covers basic components and operation of popular types of circuit breakers. low-voltage power (LVPCB). insulated-case (ICCB). . Understanding circuit breaker construction and operation is key to realizing their limitations and proper usage. We rely on them to protect our systems from damaging overcurrents and short circuits. Shermco Industries. The Basics of Circuit Breaker Maintenance Jul 1. | Electrical Construction and Maintenance  o EMAIL  INSHARE    COMMENTS 2 What is in this article?:  The Basics of Circuit Breaker Maintenance  Arc Extinguishers Understanding circuit breaker maintenance and the basic components and operation of MCCBs. MVACBs. including molded-case (MCCB). 2012By James R. medium-voltage air-magnetic (MVACB). & MVVCBs Circuit breakers are used in nearly all electrical systems — from residential dwellings to electric utility facilities.

Arc chutes are designed to interrupt the arc quickly. but use solid-state and digital trip units (as opposed to thermal-magnetic trip units) and have much higher interrupting ratings. Trip Unit — senses abnormal current flow and causes the operating mechanism to open the contacts. usually 1. Most manufacturers’ MCCBs have similar components and similar appearance. ICCBs have the same basic construction as MCCBs.  1. MCCB trip units are usually of the thermal-magnetic type. interrupting structure. ICCBs are often draw-out type. operating mechanism. although they can be either. 5. Key Components MCCBs contain five components — a frame. Frame — houses and supports the components and also provides insulation to contain the arc. 4. .5 to two cycles for MCCBs and ICCBs. Operating Mechanism — opens and closes the contacts. 1. trip unit. 3. These components are shown in Fig. Molded-case circuit breakers typically bolt directly to the bus. Terminal Connections — provides a suitable connection from the breaker to the conductor. and terminal connections. InterruptingStructure — includes the arc chutes and all current-carrying parts except the trip unit. 2. as opposed to bolt-in.

2. LVPCBs (Photo 1 at right) are also known as air-frame and draw-out circuit breakers. . Disconnects or Stabs  Main disconnects — connect the circuit breaker to the main bus.  Auxiliary — make and break the control circuits.  Secondary disconnects — connect the circuit breaker to the control circuits.  Ground disconnect — connects the circuit breaker to the ground bus. Contacts  Arcing — transfers the arc to the arc runners in the arc chute.  Main — carry the main load current. There are five major assemblies on a typical LVPCB: 1. 1.

while Photo 3 shows an MVVCB. Arc Extinguishers or Arc Chutes — interrupt and contain the arc. short-time delay (STD). but use protective relays that are separately mounted in the switchgear. instantaneous (INST).3.Photo 2 (right) shows a typical MVACB. although older units could be air dashpot or oil dashpot types. 5. Operating Mechanism — opens and closes the contacts. 4. Typical functions are long-time delay (LTD). and ground fault (GF). MVVCBs use a vacuum bottle instead of contact assemblies and arc chutes found on MVACBs. Overcurrent Trip Device — modern circuit breakers have digital trip units. Medium-voltage circuit breakers have the same basic components as their lower voltage counterparts. Main Disconnects (stabs) .

the shutter opens. spring- loaded fingers to make contact with the bus bar. When the circuit breaker is racked into the “connected” position. although on larger frame sizes they may have round or “tulip-style” disconnects. Secondary Disconnects (stabs) The secondary disconnects bring power from the control circuits into the circuit breaker. secondary. allowing the primary disconnects to make. LVPCBs typically use either vertical or horizontal rows of straight. the shutter closes. which often has to be manually connected. Photo 6 shows the typical arrangement for an MVACB. Medium-voltage.The main disconnects connect the circuit breaker to the bus. Photo 4 shows the backboard assembly of an LVPCB with primary. and ground disconnects clearly visible. As the circuit breaker is removed (racked out). Most medium-voltage metal-clad circuit breakers will use “tulip-style” disconnects (Photo 5) and have some type of spring around them to ensure good contact with the bus.Photo 4 shows an LVPCB and its secondary disconnects. draw-out circuit breakers have the primary disconnects in the switchgear guarded by a shutter mechanism installed in the switchgear cubicle. Ground Disconnect (contact shoe) . The typical arrangement for this breaker is to connect and disconnect these stabs as the breaker is racked in and out of its cubicle.

so when the contacts open and close they will not deteriorate as quickly. The tungsten. This prevents the main contacts from carrying the arc and preserves them.” Wipe helps clean the contact surface. tungsten. and zinc. The ground disconnect connects the frame of the circuit breaker to the ground bus (Photo 7 at right). The contact surfaces are shaped so that they have a rubbing motion. again drawing the arc across them. When the circuit breaker opens. cadmium. the arcing contacts make first. and zinc make the arcing contacts harder. This ensures that the frame of the breaker is grounded whenever there is a possibility of the frame being energized.The frame of the circuit breaker must be connected to the ground bus so that a short circuit or fault will be taken to ground immediately and allow the protective devices to operate as quickly as possible. and is caused by one of the contact surfaces being contoured and the other . The ground disconnect is the first connection made when racking a breaker in and is the last connection broken when racking it out. the main contacts part first and then the arcing contacts part. When the circuit breaker closes. cadmium. drawing the arc across them. Arcing Contacts Arcing contacts are designed to prevent the main contacts from being damaged and can be made of alloys of silver. referred to as “wipe.

rather than the breaker frame.surface being flat. which also decreases their resistance. . Main Contacts The main contacts are constructed of a softer alloy using less tungsten or zinc and more silver. the contoured surface will have a wiping motion against the flat surfaced contact. When the contacts close. Arcing contacts will usually have an arcing “horn” on the very top of the contact structure. Auxiliary contacts are mechanically driven from the operating mechanism and are used for control and indicating circuits. Medium-voltage metal-clad switchgear will typically have the auxiliary contacts mounted in the switchgear. so they must have a lower resistance to current flow. The mains are larger. The arcing horn aids in transferring the arc from the arcing contact to the arc runner in the arc chute. such as turning the spring-charging motor on and off at the appropriate times. auxiliary contacts are mounted on the frame of the breaker (Photo 8 at right). They carry the load current. On LVPCBs. Auxiliary Contacts Auxiliary contacts control electrical functions within the circuit breaker. They are connected to the operating mechanism by a linkage and operate at the same time the main contacts do.

‫الميكانيزم الخاص بالمفتاح‬ ‫مجموعة النقاط المساعده‪1-‬‬ ‫مفتاح التوصيل‪2-‬‬ ‫مفتاح الفصل ‪3-‬‬ ‫مبين حالة الفصل او التوصيل للقاطع‪4-‬‬ ‫ملف الفصل‪5-‬‬ ‫ذراع نقل الحركه لغرفة اطفاء الشراره‪6-‬‬ ‫ملف التوصيل‪7-‬‬ ‫مبين الشحن للسوسته‪8-‬‬ ‫عداد عدد مرات الفصل والتوصيل‪9-‬‬ ‫السوسته الخاصه بالتوصيل‪10-‬‬ ‫‪ position switch‬مفتاح نهاية الشوط‪11-‬‬ ‫موتور شحن السوسته‪12-‬‬ ‫لوحة البيانات الخاصه بالمفتاح‪13-‬‬ .