# High voltage substation

Sag & tension

introduction
Sag and tension are calculated to
have three basic principles :
 Safety
Reliability
economy

Influence on Sag and Tension

Conductor behavior:

Weight of conductor

Creep

Iced or snow

Wind

Change in Temperature:

Ambient

Fault current

Short circuit Force

Span Length

Conductor stringing type
Level Span

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Inclined Span Inclined Span .

Parabola method This method is used for span length less than 500 metres .Catenary method This method is used for span length more than 500 metres 2.Calculation Method The calculation has two methods: 1.

Free body diagram of Level span .

:Where wc = Conductor weight per unit length [kg/m] T = Conductor tension [kg] H = Horizontal component of tension [kg] L = Actual conductor length [m] D = Conductor sag [m] X1.X2 = Distance along X-axis (X-Y Coordinate) [m] S= Span length [m] .

Centenary &parabola method calculations .

What is a ruling span Transmission lines are normally designed in line sections with each end of the line section terminated by a strain structure that allows no longitudinal (along the line) movement of the conductor. but allow free movement of the conductor attachment point either longitudinally or transversely . . Structures within each line section are typically suspension structures that support the conductor vertically.

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Effect of Tension Stress = Conductor tension to cross section area ratio T/A [kg/mm2]= Strain = Elongation to original length ratio Strain=ε=δ/ L E= Stress/strain =(T/A)/( ΔL/L) =TL/AΔL Then elongate conductor length which is due to tension is ΔL= TL/ AE .

. if the metal is held under stress for a long period of time . However. Metal that is stressed below the yield point will normally return to its original shape and size when unloaded because of its elasticity.Creep Creep is the plastic deformation that occurs in metal at stresses below its yield strength. This deformation is in addition to the expected increase in length resulting from the stress-strain characteristics of the metal.permanent deformation will occur.

the temperature of conductor will be higher causing the elongation of the conductor and more sag. The elongation of the conductor which is due to temperature: ΔL th = αLΔt . the temperature of conductor will be lower causing the shrinking of the conductor and less sag.Effect of Temperature In case of high temperature and/or an increase of power flow. In case of low temperature and/or an decrease of power flow.

Conductor Elongation Elastic elongation (springs)• Settlement & Short term creep• (before sagging ) Thermal elongation• •Long term creep (After sagging. over the life of the line) .

Thermal Elongation .

Effect of suspension insulator For short spans. which is added to . The following procedure can be used to calculate the insulator effect. such as substation strain buses. the suspension insulators can have an appreciable effect on span sags.

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Where : C i= Insulator catenary constant [m] C c = Conductor catenary constant [m] Xac = Horizontal distance from insulator support point to center of insulator catenary [m] X bc= Horizontal distance from connection point of insulator string and conductor to center of insulator catenary [m] X bd= Horizontal distance from connection point of insulator p string and conductor to center of conductor catenary [m] L ab= Length of insulator string [m] L ac= Arc length from insulator support point to center of insulator catenary [m] D= Total bus sag Dac = Sag from insulator support point to center of insulator catenary [m] .

Dbc= Sag from connection point of insulator string and conductor to center of insulator catenary [ m] D I = Insulator sag [m] D c= Conductor sag [m] T= Horizontal conductor tension [m] w= Insulator string weight [N/m] w i = Conductor weight [N/m] S = Span length [m] .

= Aerodynamic Factor = 1.5mm Dc 15.2 for Dc ≥15.0047 x Aero xV 2xD  Give :  wp= Wind force [kg/m]  Dc = Overall diameter of conductor [m]  Aero. It can be calculated by  wp = 0.1 for 〈 12.5 ≤  = 1.8 mm  V = Wind speed [km/hr]   .0 for  Dc 〈 12.8 mm  = 1.Effect of Wind Load  The effect of wind pressure on conductor is to increase the transverse  wind load.

Effect of iced or snow If ice loading has to be considered in the design it is usual to consider that this is of a uniform radial thickness with a density of 900 kg /m3 .

Wi=2.87*10^3r(Dc+r) Where : w i = Iced weight [kg/m] r= Radial ice thickness [m] Dc = Conductor diameter [m] .

ice loading and conductor weight.Total conductor pressure The total conductor pressure consist of wind pressure. It can be calculated according to Where : w= Total conductor pressure [kg/m] wc= Conductor weight [kg/m] wi= Iced weight [kg/m] wp= Wind pressure [kg/m] k= NESC constant .

Tension Calculated Where: .

Where : T1= Initial conductor tension at t1 [kg/m] T2= Final conductor tension at t2 [kg/m] A = Cross section area conductor [mm2] E = Final Modulus Elasticity of Conductor [kg/mm2] α= Coefficient of linear expansion t1= Initial temperature t2= New temperature Dc = Conductor diameter [m] wc = Conductor weight [kg/m wp1= Wind pressure on conductor at temperature t1 [kg/m] wp2= Wind pressure on conductor at temperature t2 [kg/m] w1= Total pressure on conductor at temperature t1 [kg/m] w2= Total pressure on conductor at temperature t2 [kg/m] .

Tension Limits Tension Limits • The NESC recommends limits on the tension of conductors based on a percentage of their Rated Breaking Strength (RBS). – Tfinal < 25% RBS. upon installation. Initial. – Tinitial < 35% RBS. – Tmax < 60% RBS @ NESC Loading. 16 oC. 16 oC . unload after maximum loading.

Effect of Short Circuit (Fault) If fault current flowed in conductor. The designer will consider this event. it will be swing that may be flashover. .

Conductor Swing under fault current flow in conductor .

Short circuit force can be calculated according to below equation Where: Fsc = Short circuit force [kg/m] μ0=4π x10^−7 Isc Symmetrical fault current (RMS) D = Distance between stringing point conductor [m] S = Span Length [m] Li = Insulator length [m] g = Reach of conductor [m] .

The sag allowable can be calculated according to below equation .What is the cascade fault? One place have fault and this cause will be occurred to follow fault in the another. The cascade fault cannot occurred when sag allowable shall be less than maximum sag. This event is called cascade fault.

Where: Salw = Sag allowable [m] R = Reach [m] Fsc = Short circuit force [kg/m] n = The number of conductor per phase wc = Conductor weight [kg] The reach can be calculated according to below equation. .

Where:  R = Reach [m] D = Distance between stringing point conductor [m] Dc = Conductor diameter [m] Da = Minimum phase to phase clearance [m] Ds = Spacer distance [m] .

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The cascade fault cannot occur when Dmax ≤ Dalw .

Line characteristics .

Sag-Tension Tables .

a bullwheel or crawler tractor for pulling the conductor through travelers. This Figure illustrates a typical stringing and sagging setup for a stringing section and the range of stringing equipment required . and various other special items of equipment. travelers (stringing blocks) attached to every phase conductor and shield wire attachment point on every structure.Tension Stringing Equipment and Setup Stringing equipment typically includes bullwheel or drum pullers for back-tensioning the conductor during stringing and sagging.

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CONCLUSION . sag calculations of two different overhead lines are presented. . that the sag behaviour of the close-by spans is affected by the deflection of the tension insulators The sag of the span with the largest distance between the rods will increase much more than in smaller spans. The results show. The safety distance will reduced by the elongation of the overhead conductors.