62 Journal of Acute Disease 2016; 5(1): 62–70

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Journal of Acute Disease
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Original article http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joad.2015.08.006

Acute and sub-acute toxicity studies of aqueous and methanol extracts of Nelsonia campestris in
rats

Janet Mobolaji Olaniyan1, Hadiza Lami Muhammad1, Hussaini Anthony Makun1, Musa Bola Busari2*,
Abubakar Siddique Abdullah3
1
Toxicology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
2
Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Global Institute for Bioexploration Unit, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
3
Federal Medical Centre, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria

A R TI C L E I N F O ABSTRACT

Article history: Objective: To evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of aqueous and methanol ex-
Received 8 Jul 2015 tracts of Nelsonia campestris (N. campestris) in rats.
Received in revised form 25 Jul, Methods: Acute oral toxicity study of aqueous and methanol extracts was carried out by
2nd revised form 16 Aug 2015 administration of 10, 100, 1 000, 1 600, 2 900 and 5 000 mg/kg body weight of
Accepted 26 Aug 2015 N. campestris extracts to rats in the respective groups. Sub-acute toxicity study was
Available online 9 Oct 2015 conducted by oral administration of the extracts at daily doses of 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg
body weight to another group of rats for 28 days, while rats in the control group received
0.5 mL of normal saline.
Keywords:
Results: The LD50 of the N. campestris extracts in rats was determined to be greater than
Nelsonia campestris
5 000 mg/kg body weight. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the test
Toxicity
groups administered with aqueous and methanol extracts in relation to the control group
Hepatic necrosis
for serum electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl−, HCO−3 ), serum albumin, total and conjugated bili-
Cortical necrosis
rubin. Similarly, mean organ-to-body weight ratio and all haematological parameters
(white blood cell, red blood cell, mean cell volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin,
mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume) evaluated were not
significantly different (P > 0.05) from the control. There was a significant increase
(P < 0.05) in the activity of serum liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline
phosphatase), serum urea and creatinine of rats administered with 300 and 600 mg/kg
body weight of the aqueous extract. Methanol and aqueous extracts at 600 mg/kg body
weight resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.05) in serum urea and total protein,
respectively. The activity of serum alanine aminotransferase decreased significantly
(P < 0.05) when the rats received 100 and 300 mg/kg body weight of both extracts.
Histopathological examination revealed mild to moderate hepatic and cortical necrosis of
liver and kidney respectively on administration of both extracts at 100 and 600 mg/kg
body weight. A moderate dose of 300 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous and methanol
extracts caused lymphocytic infiltration and portal congestion, respectively.
Conclusions: Intake of high doses of this plant extracts may exhibit mild organ toxicity.

1. Introduction affordability, safety and low cost[1]. There is also an emerging
increase in the consumption of herbal formulations by the
Herbs are alternative medicines for treatment of various public because of the strong belief that these products are
diseases due to their assumed acceptability, effectiveness, natural; hence, they are safe for the treatment of ailments[2].
However, herbal preparations assumed to be safe may
contain contaminants such as heavy metals[3], aflatoxins and
*Corresponding author: Musa Bola Busari, Centre for Genetic Engineering and
Biotechnology, Global Institute for Bioexploration Unit, Federal University of
pathogenic microbes due to the manner in which they are
Technology, Minna, Nigeria. prepared or as a result of acquisition of metals (e.g.
Tel: +234 8050501497 cadmium) from the soil[4,5]. There is also the belief that
E-mail: aosbmbas@gmail.com
Peer review under responsibility of Hainan Medical College.
because herbal remedies are derived from nature, they are

2221-6189/Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

It grows on the margins of billabongs. this herb has been used in overnight fast. benefit of the herbal drugs and neglect their toxic effects to The rodents were housed under standard laboratory environ- various organs.1. relative humidity and naturally kingdom plantae. all animals in various groups were anesthetized under a water bath at 65  C. the toxicity of traditional herbal medications is not often Niger State. Bosso In the second phase./Journal of Acute Disease 2016. weighed toxicity should be explored as in the case with conventional between 180 and 250 g. Following an rainy season. 100 and 1 000 mg/kg body weight of the methanol extract. Lapai. The absence of death of any animals in this phase necessitated the conduct of the Fresh samples of N. The plant material was washed. and genus Nelsonia R. and further observations were made every 8 h for 2.1. However. campestris were collected from the second phase. Nigeria. F and G) of four rats each. Federal University of Technology.2. by Muhammad et al.2. 2 900 and authenticated at the Herbarium Section of Department of Bio. two phases. Sample extraction and was administered with 0. 2. The extract was evaporated under reduced On the 29th day of the research. The 2. The plant was identified and rats each. This study aims to evaluate the dimethylsulfoxide for the aqueous and methanol extracts. the About 64 young adult albino rats of both sexes. Over the years. premises of Federal University of Technology. air-dried for four weeks and pulverized into coarse powder by using pestle and mortar. respectively). muslin cloth and the filtrate was further evaporated to dryness in The rats were observed daily for any signs of toxicity. The greenish liquid obtained was filtered with days.6.1. 2 900 and 5 000 mg/kg body weight. Collection and identification of plant material 24 h after administration of the extracts. Its prostrate growth habitat is maintained by high light levels The acute oral toxicity test of the aqueous and methanol and it does best in warmer water with CO2 and pH control[9]. illuminated environment of 12/12 h day light/dark cycles] for suborder Asteranae. three groups were administered with the methanol extract at Niger State. E.3.1. campestris fine powdered sample was orally gavaged with 100. campestris was evaluated in albino rats as reported In the northern part of Nigeria. Minna. chloroform and blood samples were collected by cardiac . The crude gastrointestinal complications of measles by the Nupe speaking extracts were suspended in a vehicle (normal saline and people of Niger State. Janet Mobolaji Olaniyan et al. Aqueous extract for 28 days. Minna.2. were purchased from the Animal House orthodox drugs that are properly researched and developed. for proper and documented herbal medicinal products. and used for this study.4. D. The animals were 2. B. F. creeks. campestris on some renal and hepatic function 1 000 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extract and the other indices in rats. 18 rats were grouped into six of three Campus. campestris fine powdered sample was 2. Sample preparation Further observation of all the rodents was made for a period of 14 days. 2. Rats in groups B.[10]. 5 000 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extract while the other logical Sciences. respectively once daily for 28 for 2 h at 100  C. Experimental animals synthetic drugs used in conventional medicine[6]. As such. and rivers and generally only 2. D and groups E.5. the rats were weighed and the dose was traditional medicine for the treatment of respiratory and calculated in reference to their body weight. Nigeria. They were fed with assessed[7]. N. Nigeria. C. extracts of N. Acute oral toxicity study near the edges of water and sometimes down into the water. Materials and methods observed keenly for about 30 min for any signs of toxicity or mortality. campestris) belongs to the [temperature of (27 ± 2)  C. The rats were observed for any signs of toxicity or mortality within 24 h. The first phase was conducted as follows. Nigeria. three groups were administered with 10.1. Eighteen tributes largely to the inavailability of this plant during the rats were grouped into six of three rats each. Niger State. and a water bath at 100  C. order Limiales brommhead. The first three groups received 10. 100 and tracts of N. following an overnight fast pressure by using a rotary evaporator and further concentrated in of 8 h. subclass Magnolidae. Facility of Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University. Sub-acute toxicity study coarse powder was further processed to fine particles with an electric blender. and allowed to acclimatize to the laboratory environment Nelsonia campestris (N. with little modifications which involved arid regions and mostly after the rain has ceased. campestris grows in semi. Group A served as control 2. class Equisetopsida.Br[8].2.2. 5(1): 62–70 63 devoid of adverse or toxic side effects often associated with 2. Nigeria) and tap water ad libitum. Termination of the experiment extracted with 250 mL methanol for 48 h by using Soxhlet apparatus at 65  C. their body weights were also recorded weekly throughout the experimental period. This con. The first three groups received 1 500. ment.5 mL of normal saline once daily 2. 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight of the extracted with 800 mL distilled water by continuous refluxing aqueous and methanol extracts. G were Fifty grams of N. acute and sub-acute toxicity of the aqueous and methanol ex. the users often look at the medicinal growers mash (Vital Feeds. About 28 albino rats were randomly grouped into seven (A. Methanol extract Fifty grams of N. family two weeks before the commencement of the research. 1 500. C. Acanthaceae juss.

Cl− and HCO−3 ) were not showed no significant difference in heart and kidney (Figure 1). Calculation of organ-to-body weight ratio 1 000 0/3 5 000 0/3 mg/kgbw: Milligram per kilogram body weight. campestris organs to body ratio (Figure 2). Tissues embedded in paraffin wax were sectioned 5 mm thick. Methanol extract 10 0/3 1 600 0/3 100 0/3 2 900 0/3 2. All results were represented as mean ± SEM (n = 4). Haematological analyses White blood cell. red blood cell.05). Mean organ/body weight ratio of rats administered various doses significantly different (P < 0. 2. Values with different superscripts were Figure 2. Blood Acute oral toxicity of aqueous and methanol extracts of N. 100. doses: 100. campestris. Biochemical analyses Commercial kits from Randox Laboratories Limited. Values were considered statistically significant at P < 0.10. Data with different alphabets are significantly different (P < 0. samples collected into clean non-heparinised bottles were Extract Phase 1 Phase 2 allowed to clot and centrifuged according to groups. 100 and 300 mg/kg body weight aqueous extract addition. significantly higher than both control and aqueous group. campestris. Organ-to-body weight ratio was calculated by dividing the weight (g) of each organ by the weight (g) of rats before sacrifice.9. Aqueous extract 10 0/3 1 600 0/3 100 0/3 2 900 0/3 logical saline and weighed. affected by the administration of both extracts at all test doses . One-way ANOVA was used to test the means. of methanol extract of N. All in aqueous extract group as compared to other groups. mounted on glass slides and examined under a standard light microscope[11]. 2.05). Histopathological examination The liver and kidneys excised from all the experimental rats were fixed in 10% buffered formalin in labeled bottles. Table 1 matological and biochemical investigations respectively. 3. The liver and kidneys were then 1 000 0/3 5 000 0/3 fixed in 10% formalin for histopathological examination. doses of aqueous extract of N. 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight of methanol The results obtained from the acute oral toxicity study extract treated group showed no significant difference in all the showed that aqueous and methanol extracts of N. 2. mean corpuscular haemoglobin.8. immediately cleaned of blood by using physio.05) serum urea concentrations at 300 and The mean organ-to-body weight ratio of rats that received the 600 mg/kg body weight (Figures 3 and 4) except 100 mg/kg various doses of the aqueous and methanol extracts was not body weight of those receiving methanol extract which was significantly different from the control group (Figures 1 and 2). demonstrated high safety margin when the animals tolerated up Administration of both extracts at all doses resulted in the to 5 000 mg/kg body weight of the extracts orally (Table 1). 5(1): 62–70 puncture into heparinised and non-heparinised bottles for hae. In However. Results However. increased (P < 0./Journal of Acute Disease 2016.7. The liver. kidneys and heart were excised from dissected rats.64 Janet Mobolaji Olaniyan et al. 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight treated groups also Serum electrolytes (Na+. mean cell volume. and serum was separated from the clot into clean bottles for the biochemical Dose Mortality Dose Mortality (mg/kgbw) (mg/kgbw) analyses.05).11. Mean organ/body weight ratio of rats administered with various analyzer. Data with different alphabets are significantly different (P < 0. the concentration of creatinine was significantly higher treated groups showed no significant gain in weight of liver. K+. campestris. 2. mean corpuscular haemoglobin con- centration and packed cell volume were analyzed by using a Diatron Diagnostic Abacus Junior automatic hematology Figure 1.05. United Kingdom and Agappe Diagnostics (Switzerland) were respec- tively used for the assay of liver and kidney indices. and processed for histological examination. stained with haema- toxylin and eosin. Statistical analysis Data collected from the biochemical and haematological analyses were expressed as mean ± SEM.

campestris on serum creatinine concentration.05). and alkaline phospha- tase of the methanol extract groups also showed no significant difference from the control group (Figure 8) while the alanine aminotransferase of normal group showed significant higher Figure 3. The effect of aqueous extract of N. Figure 6. Data with different alphabets are significantly different (P < 0. Figure 7. Figure 8.05). The effect of methanol extract of N. However. Figure 9. campestris on activity of serum liver enzymes. (Figures 5 and 6). serum urea concentration. Total protein increase significantly (P < 0. 600 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous treated group when compared to other groups (Figure 9). Data with different alphabets are significantly different (P < 0.05).05) in 300 and Data with different alphabets are significantly different (P < 0. The effect of aqueous extract of N. received the various doses of the aqueous extract when Data with different alphabets are significantly different (P < 0. Data with different alphabets are significantly different (P < 0. The effect of aqueous and methanol extracts of N. campestris on serum Data with different alphabets are significantly different (P < 0. campestris on serum elec. a significant dose-dependent in./Journal of Acute Disease 2016. .05). electrolytes. 5(1): 62–70 65 Serum aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities significantly increased (P < 0. campestris on activity of crease was observed in the serum Na+ concentration in rats that serum liver enzymes. Janet Mobolaji Olaniyan et al. The effect of methanol extract of N. compared with control. The effect of aqueous and methanol extracts of N. Alanine aminotransferases activities was significantly higher in normal group when compare to others (Figure 7). campestris on trolytes. campestris on value as compare with others. serum total protein. The effect of aqueous and methanol extracts of N.05) in a dose-dependent fashion when the rats received various doses of the aqueous extract.05). Figure 5.05). Activities of aspartate aminotransferase. Figure 4.

All extracts at all doses exhibited a significant decrease in red blood cell count when compared with control and methanol extract dose having a more significant effect (Figure 14).05). Figure 10. However. The effect of aqueous and methanol extracts of N. Figure 16. meth- anol and normal saline (Figure 12).05) in serum albumin concentration as compared to the control group (Figure 10). Methanol extract showed reduction in haemoglobin concen- tration at all doses (Figure 15). campestris on mean cell volume.05). Data with different alphabets are significantly different (P < 0.05) (Figure 16). campestris on white blood cell count.66 Janet Mobolaji Olaniyan et al. The effect of aqueous and methanol extracts of N. Figure 13. The 100. No significant difference (P > 0. The effect of aqueous and methanol extracts of N. 300. The effect of aqueous and methanol extracts of N.05) in white blood cell Figure 14. The effect of aqueous and methanol extracts of N. campestris on serum albumin. campestris on red blood cell count. count (Figure 13). 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight doses of both extracts demonstrated significant decrease in haemoglobin concentration in aqueous extract while Figure 15.05) the lowest value of mean cell volume as compared with aqueous and methanol extracts at all dose levels (P < 0. The control group showed significantly (P < 0. campestris Figure 12. Data with different alphabets are significantly different (P < 0. on serum total bilirubin. campestris on haemoglobin concentration. and 600 mg/kg body weight of both extracts exhibited no significant difference (P > 0. Data with different alphabets are significantly different (P < 0. campestris showed no significant difference (P > 0. The effect of aqueous and methanol extracts of N. The same observation as shown in the concentration of serum albumin was also observed in the serum total bilirubin concen- tration where there was no significant difference (P > 0.05)./Journal of Acute Disease 2016.05). The effect of aqueous and methanol extracts of N. . on serum conjugated bilirubin.05) was observed in con- jugated bilirubin of all the groups treated with aqueous. 5(1): 62–70 Both aqueous and methanol extracts showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) in all the treated groups (Figure 11). the control group and aqueous extract of 100 mg/kg body weight Figure 11.

methanol extract of N. degeneration of hepatocytes (Figure 20D). The liver in rats administered with 0.5 mL normal cortical necrosis was presented in rats treated with 600 mg/kg saline for 28 days presented the normal hepatic plates (shown by body weight of methanol extract of N. crosis (Figure 19B). The effect of aqueous and methanol extracts of N. while 300 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of N. B: 100 mg/kg body weight aqueous extract of N.5 mL normal saline presented the normal hepatic plates (shown by long arrow) and portal vein (shown in short arrow) (Figure 20A). campestris treated rats showed moderate Data with different alphabets are significantly different (P < 0. For the rats administered with 100 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of N. For the Data with different alphabets are significantly different (P < 0. 5(1): 62–70 67 Extracts at all doses significantly elevated mean corpuscular For the rats administered with 100 mg/kg body weight of haemoglobin in all groups when compared with control group aqueous extract of N.05). . bules (shown by short arrow) (Figure 22A). campestris. The effect of aqueous and methanol extracts of N.05). campestris. Photomicrograph of the liver section of rats administered with 0. For the rats administered with 100 and 300 mg/kg body weight of methanol extract of N. The mild to moderate cortical necrosis (shown by long arrow) and tubular edema (shown by short arrow) were presented in rats treated with 600 mg/kg body weight of methanol extract of N. campestris (Figure 19D). The mild in Figure 19. campestris long arrow) and portal vein (shown in short arrow) (Figure 19A). campestris presented the intact glameli (shown by long arrow) and tu- on packed cell volume. campestris. campestris treated rats showed portal congestion (shown by long arrow) and bile lakes (shown by short arrow) in liver (Figure 19C).05) in packed cell volume in the respective are shown in Figure 21. campestris treated liver shows moderate hepatic necrosis. there was mild corticomedullary necrosis (Figure 22B). The results of histopathological examination of kidney Methanol extract groups at all doses showed significantly section in rats treated with normal saline and aqueous extracts decreased (P < 0. Figure 19. campestris treated liver shows portal congestion (long arrow) and bile lakes (short arrow). while the 300 mg/kg body weight of The results of histopathological examination of liver section methanol extract of N./Journal of Acute Disease 2016.5 mL normal saline Figure 18. campestris for 28 days. Haematoxylin and eosin staining (H&E). campestris treated rats showed in rats treated with normal saline and aqueous extracts are shown mild cortical and tubular necrosis (Figure 22C). there was mild hepatic ne- (Figure 17). C: 300 mg/kg body weight aqueous extract of N. campestris treated rats showed mild tubular ne- crosis (shown by long arrow) and lymphocyctic infiltration (shown by short arrow) (Figure 21C). Janet Mobolaji Olaniyan et al. magnification 40×. A: Normal saline treated liver shows normal hepatic plates (long arrow) and portal vein (short arrow). rats administered with 100 mg/kg body weight of methanol extract of N. The kidney in rats administered with 0.5 mL normal saline and aqueous extracts of N. The results of histopathological examination of liver section in rats treated with normal saline and methanol extracts are shown in Figure 20. The liver in rats administered with 0. campestris treated liver shows mild hepatic necrosis. while 600 mg/kg body weight of on mean corpuscular haemoglobin.5 mL normal saline presented the intact glameli (shown by long arrow) and tubules (shown by short arrow) (Figure 21A). there was mild hepatic Figure 17. 0. while the 300 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of N. campestris necrosis (Figure 20B and 20C). there was mild tubular ne- crosis (Figure 21B). (Figure 22D). The kidney in rats administered with groups (Figure 18). campestris (Figure 21D). The moderate hepatic ne- crosis was presented in rats treated with 600 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of N. campestris. D: 600 mg/kg body weight aqueous extract of N.

campestris treated kidney shows mild corticomedullary necrosis. indicating the recommended by Organization for Economic Cooperation and state of adverse effects led by the interaction between toxicants Development[13]. A: Normal saline treated liver shows normal hepatic plates (long arrow) and portal vein (short arrow). H&E. campestris treated kidney shows mild cortical necrosis.5 mL normal saline and methanol extracts of N. Photomicrograph of the liver section of rats administered with 0. D: 600 mg/kg body weight methanol extract of N. campestris treated liver shows mild hepatic necrosis. Photomicrograph of the kidney section of rats administered with 0. 5(1): 62–70 Figure 20. A: Normal saline treated kidney shows intact glameli (long arrow) and tubules (short arrow).5 mL normal saline and N. B: 100 mg/kg body weight aqueous extract of N. campestris methanol extract for 28 days. campestris treated kidney shows mild cortical and tubular necrosis. H&E. Discussion and cells[12]. campestris treated kidney shows mild to moderate cortical necrosis (long arrow) and tubular edema (short arrow). the crude extracts of N. magnification 40×. B: 100 mg/kg body weight methanol extract of N. D: 600 mg/kg body weight methanol extract of N. campestris treated liver shows mild hepatic necrosis.5 mL normal saline and N. C: 300 mg/kg body weight methanol extract of N. C: 300 mg/kg body weight methanol extract of N. 4. magnification 40×./Journal of Acute Disease 2016. campestris for 28 days. campestris aqueous extract for 28 days. campestris treated kidney shows mild tubular necrosis. According to the Guidance Document on Acute Oral Toxicity Testing based on oral LD50 value which were Toxicity is an expression of being poisonous. B: 100 mg/kg body weight methanol extract of N.68 Janet Mobolaji Olaniyan et al. C: 300 mg/kg body weight aqueous extract of N. campestris may be . magnification 40×. campestris treated liver shows moderate degeneration of hepatocytes. Photomicrograph of the kidney section of rats administered with 0. Figure 21. campestris treated kidney shows mild tubular necrosis (long arrow) and lymphocytic infiltration (short arrow). H&E. D: 600 mg/kg body weight aqueous extract of N. Figure 22. A: Normal saline treated kidney shows intact glameli (long arrow) and tubules (short arrow).

In this situation. be due to increased synthesis by the liver. An elevation in the activity of and ALP may be due to hepatic necrosis. kidney and pancreas of the that received 600 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extract may experimental subjects. be reabsorbed but all creatinine that is filtered in the glomerular Necrosis from hepatotoxic chemicals can occur within filtrate passes on through the tubular system and is excreted in distinct zones in the liver. also reported that large intake of in rabbits. it was designated to be the lowest toxicity class (no label. body weight resulted in portal congestions and mild hepatic ne- tracts caused hepatocellular damage.[19]. either distributed diffusely. 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight significant increase in serum total protein concentration of rats was not toxic to the heart. with control. The may not elicit any deleterious effect on the weight of kidney. Creatinine is not supposed to sections respectively. These bark extracts in rats. The plant is though a promising enzyme's activity and interference with the enzyme assay. suggesting that N. who carried out an period of several days. who carried out an cause significant changes (P > 0. They reported that a sig. They reported that 28-day suggests that the synthetic functions of the liver is not altered at oral administration of methanol extract of Tulbaghia violacea any of the test doses of the aqueous and methanol extracts. biochemical parameters and histologic changes in target organs duction or release of enzymes. However. rats. Increase in urea may be the moderate hepatocellular and cortical necrosis of liver and kidney result of high glomerular filtration. NH3 released during deamination is removed from aqueous and methanol extracts of N. They observed a dose-dependent increase in AST and Administration of aqueous and methanol extracts at 300 mg/kg suggested that sub-acute administration of Carica papaya ex. and the result is in consonance with the albumin and bilirubin in the treated and control groups further findings of Olorunnisola et al. campestris did not the findings of Muhammad et al. Over a earlier findings of Tarkang et al. total protein and bilirubin. liver. organ of protein synthesis. It was reported that the toxicity of some of researchers investigated an influence of age on sub-chronic the herbal medications might be a result of phytochemical toxicity of the aqueous extract of Calotropis procera leaves constituents. or occur the urine. Histopathological examina- when the experimental rats received higher doses of the kernel tion of the liver and kidneys in experimental rats that were extract of Sclerocarya birrea ranging from 3 000 to 4 000 mg/kg administered with 100 and 600 mg/kg body weight of the body weight.[25].e. Conflict of interest statement duction capacity[21]. agent in pharmaceutics. Serum ALT levels were found hepatocytes. AST and ALP) is conventionally an remarkable ability of the liver to regenerate itself makes it indicator of liver injury[18]. was typically dismissed as being of no toxicological unclassified). liver and heart. who investigated the toxicity of Parkia biglobosa stem with the findings of earlier work of Guy et al. ne- excreted in urine. campestris revealed mild to the blood by conversion into urea. especially in the bone marrow where the function indices evaluated in this study were serum urea. The significant increase in crosis respectively in the liver of experimental rats. insignificant change in serum concentrations of total protein. and 300 mg/kg body weight of the methanol extract when The result of this study is consistent with the findings of Builders compared with the control group. . They observed a significant decrease in serum ALT tannins may cause kidney and liver damage[23]. Sub-acute administration creatinine and electrolyte concentrations.05) in the haematological investigation on the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of kernel profile of rats that received the entire test doses when compared extract of Sclerocarya birrea in rats. European Document for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology stated that the biological The authors report no conflict of interest. which significance of the ALT enzyme decrease was unclear.[20]. i. inhibition or reduction of the of toxicity (liver and kidney). campestris at high doses caused elevation of some serum of this decrease included the decreased hepatocellular pro. creatinine is reabsorbed rather than massively. crosis confined to a specific zone of the hepatic acinus[24]. Alteration in organ-to-body weight ratio may be as a result of Impaired hepatocellular function may lead to a reduction in organ damage[14]. This correlates with of the aqueous and methanol extracts of N. glomeruli and intact tubules.05). animals in the control group had intact experimental rats (P > 0. portal vein. Muhammad et al. Kidney of toxic compounds. The to decrease significantly (P < 0.[16]. In contrast. 5(1): 62–70 69 assigned to be class 5 (LD50 > 2 000 mg/kg body weight). campestris serum concentrations of albumin. any decrease in liver synthesis can be seen as damage of hepatocytes with alteration of its pro. lymphocytic infiltration while rats administered with 300 mg/kg Administration of methanol extract at all test doses had no body weight of the methanol extract revealed mild cortical and significant effect on the serum levels of AST and ALP in the tubular necrosis. The result is an indication that N. importance[22]. necrotic cells are removed and investigation on the acute and chronic toxicity of the aqueous replaced with new cells.[26]. This result is in agreement et al./Journal of Acute Disease 2016. Assessment of liver and kidney function is a very vital index Haematopoietic system is one of the most susceptible targets in evaluating the toxicity of drugs and plant extracts. However.05) in rats that received occurrence of lymphocytic infiltration in organs has been attrib- 100 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous and methanol extracts uted to the presence of glycosides as reported by Adedapo et al. Janet Mobolaji Olaniyan et al. Histology of AST observed in this study suggests that administration of kidney section of rats that were administered with 300 mg/kg body higher doses of this extract may induce the destruction of the weight of aqueous extract revealed mild tubular necrosis and liver cells. the liver enzymes (ALT. concentrations in younger rabbits and suggested that the cause N. This result is in consonance with able to withstand moderate zonal or diffuse necrosis. production of red blood cell occurs[23].[15]. Many chemicals produce zonal necrosis. significant elevations in serum AST according the Rat Fan Club[17]. and normal hepatic architecture and and ethanol leaf extracts of Carica papaya Linn in Wistar function are restored[24]. campestris may not be toxic to nificant increase in serum urea and creatinine was observed the blood system (Figures 11–17). The rhizomes at doses of 125. As The values of all the electrolytes are within the normal range observed in this study. but can cause mild organ damage at Wallace also postulated that since liver was also a major high doses.

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