PROGRAM Master of Business Administration- MBA
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MBA106 –Human Resource Management
BK ID B1626
CREDITS & MARKS 4 Credits, 30 marks Each
Assignment Set- I

Q.1 What is human resources management? Discuss the scope & functions of HRM



Human Resource Management is the pr0cess 0f recruitment and selecting empl0yee,
pr0viding 0rientati0n and inducti0n, training and devel0pment, assessment 0f empl0yee
(perf0rmance 0f appraisal), pr0viding c0mpensati0n and benefits, m0tivating, maintaining
pr0per relati0ns with empl0yees and with trade uni0ns, maintaining empl0yees safety,
welfare and health measures in c0mpliance with lab0ur laws 0f the land.

Acc0rding t0 Le0n C. Meggins0n “Fr0m the nati0nal p0int 0f view human res0urces are
kn0wledge, skills, creative abilities, talents, and attitudes 0btained in the p0pulati0n;
whereas fr0m the view-p0int 0f the individual enterprise, they represent the t0tal 0f the
inherent abilities, acquired kn0wledge and skills as exemplified in the talents and
aptitude 0f its empl0yees”.

Human Resource Management: Scope

 Personnel aspect- This is c0ncerned with manp0wer planning, recruitment, selecti0n,
placement, transfer, pr0m0ti0n, training and devel0pment, lay0ff and retrenchment,
remunerati0n, incentives, pr0ductivity etc.

 Welfare aspect- It deals with w0rking c0nditi0ns and amenities such as canteens,
crèches, rest and
lunchr00ms, h0using, transp0rt, medical assistance, educati0n, health and safety,
recreati0n facilities, etc.

 Industrial relations aspect-This c0vers uni0n-management relati0ns, j0int
c0nsultati0n, c0llective bargaining, grievance and disciplinary pr0cedures, settlement
0f disputes, etc.

Functions of HRM :

 Human resources planning - Human res0urce planning 0r Human Res0urce
Planning refers t0 a pr0cess by which the c0mpany t0 identify the number 0f j0bs
vacant, whether the c0mpany has excess staff 0r sh0rtage 0f staff and t0 deal with this
excess 0r sh0rtage.
 Recruitment and selection - Based 0n inf0rmati0n c0llected fr0m j0b analysis the
c0mpany prepares advertisements and publishes them in the newspapers. This
is recruitment. A number 0f applicati0ns are received after the advertisement is
published, interviews are c0nducted and the right empl0yee is selected thus
recruitment and selecti0n are yet an0ther imp0rtant area 0f Human Res0urce

 Training and development - Every empl0yee g0es under training pr0gram which
helps him t0 put up a better perf0rmance 0n the j0b. Training pr0gram is als0
c0nducted f0r existing staff that have a l0t 0f experience. This is called refresher
training. Training and devel0pment is 0ne area where the c0mpany spends a huge

 Performance appraisal - 0nce the empl0yee has put in ar0und 1 year 0f
service, perf0rmance appraisal is c0nducted that is the Human Res0urce department
checks the perf0rmance 0f the empl0yee.

 Motivation, welfare, health and safety - M0tivati0n bec0mes imp0rtant t0 sustain
the number 0f empl0yees in the c0mpany. It is the j0b 0f the Human Res0urce
department t0 l00k int0 the different meth0ds 0f m0tivati0n.
Q. 2 Describe the process of HR Planning. Explain HR Forecasting Techniques


Process of HR Planning:

1. Assessing Human Resources

The assessment of HR begins with environmental analysis, under which the external
(PEST) and internal (objectives, resources and structure) are analysed to assess the
currently available HR inventory level. After the analysis of external and internal
forces of the organization, it will be easier for HR manager to find out the internal
strengths as well as weakness of the organization in one hand and opportunities and
threats on the other.

2. Demand Forecasting

HR forecasting is the process of estimating demand for and supply of HR in an
organization. Demand forecasting is a process of determining future needs for HR in
terms of quantity and quality. It is done to meet the future personnel requirements of
the organization to achieve the desired level of output.

3. Supply Forecasting

Supply is another side of human resource assessment. It is concerned with the
estimation of supply of manpower given the analysis of current resource and future
availability of human resource in the organization. It estimates the future sources of
HR that are likely to be available from within an outside the organization.
4. Matching Demand And Supply

It is another step of human resource planning. It is concerned with bringing the
forecast of future demand and supply of HR. The matching process refers to bring
demand and supply in an equilibrium position so that shortages and over staffing
position will be solved.

5. Action Plan

It is the last phase 0f human res0urce planning which is c0ncerned with surplus and
sh0rtages 0f human res0urce. Under it, the HR plan is executed thr0ugh the
designati0n 0f different HR activities. The maj0r activities which are required t0
execute the HR plan are recruitment, selecti0n, placement, training and devel0pment,
s0cializati0n etc.

HR Forecasting Techniques:

 Trend Analysis- Trend analysis is m0re appr0priate f0r an existing business because
it requires hist0rical staffing data t0 make future staffing predicti0ns. This creates a
relati0nship between past and future staffing needs by linking the tw0 using a
perf0rmance 0r financial metric called an 0perati0nal index.

 Ratio Analysis- A new businesses, 0r 0ne having less than five years 0f hist0rical
staffing data, 0ften uses a rati0 analysis f0recasting technique. Rati0 analysis uses
elements called causal fact0rs that can be linked t0 and help predict future staffing

 Supply Forecasting- Supply f0recasting techniques 0ften start internally f0r human
res0urces. Replacement charts are a visual t00l f0r identifying internal candidates
available and qualified t0 fill demand estimati0ns. Replacement charts include b0th a
hierarchical diagram and inf0rmati0n relating t0 current empl0yee perf0rmance,


Q. 3 What is succession planning? What are the benefits of having a formal Succession
Planning System in an organization?


Meaning of Succession Planning:

Successi0n planning is an 0ng0ing pr0cess that identifies necessary c0mpetencies, then
w0rks t0 assess, devel0p, and retain a talent p00l 0f empl0yees, in 0rder t0 ensure a
c0ntinuity 0f leadership f0r all critical p0siti0ns. Successi0n planning is a specific strategy,
which spells 0ut the particular steps t0 be f0ll0wed t0 achieve the missi0n, g0als, and
initiatives identified in w0rkf0rce planning. It is a plan that managers can f0ll0w, implement,
and cust0mize t0 meet the needs 0f their 0rganisati0n, divisi0n, and/0r department.

The c0ntinued existence 0f an 0rganizati0n 0ver time require a successi0n 0f pers0ns t0 fill
key p0siti0n. S0me 0f these reas0ns are given bel0w:

 Superannuation- Empl0yees retiring because they reach a certain age.

 Resignation- Empl0yees leaving their current j0b t0 j0in a new j0b.

 Promotion- Employees- m0ving upward in the hierarchy 0f the 0rganizati0n.

 Diversification- Empl0yees being redepl0yed t0 new activities.

 Creation of New Position- Empl0yees getting placed in new p0siti0ns at the same

Benefits of Formal Succession Planning:

 F0rmal successi0n planning is a systematic appr0ach f0r preparing empl0yees at
l0wer levels t0 handle the resp0nsibilities 0f next higher levels in the c0ming years.
 It pr0vides a l0gical appr0ach f0r successi0n 0f t0p n0tch p0siti0ns by the next
l0wer-level empl0yee.

 Successi0n planning gives the answers t0 all the questi0ns regarding preparing an
individual f0r the next level in the 0rganizati0nal hierarchy.

 It reduces the rand0mness in 0rganizati0n’s pr0cesses and managerial devel0pment
m0vements and establishes f0rmal steps and acti0ns, p0licies and pr0cedures t0
supp0rt the pr0cess 0f selecting the CE0 and 0ther t0p management executives.

 A f0rmal successi0n planning pr0cess is a pr0active appr0ach t0 fill a t0p p0siti0n. It
helps HR pr0fessi0nals t0 anticipate pr0blems in the pr0cess bef0re they get started.

 It f0sters cr0ss-functi0nal devel0pment and facilitates the integrati0n 0f HR planning
c0mp0nents, pr0cesses and pr0cedures.

 F0rmal successi0n planning helps in further expl0itati0n 0f c0mputer systems, HRP
s0ftware applicati0ns, HR t00ls and techniques in 0rder t0 supp0rt the identificati0n,
devel0pment and training 0f the individuals.

 It helps HR managers in 0verc0ming the limitati0ns 0f reactive management
appr0aches and f0sters pr0-active management appr0aches t0 make 0rganizati0n a
better place t0 w0rk.

 It establishes a l0gical basis f0r making ch0ices am0ng qualified candidates. Wh0
sh0uld be selected, why they sh0uld be selected and what skills and c0mpetencies
they 0wn and what needs t0 be devel0ped in them are critical fact0rs while
identifying the empl0yees f0r successi0n planning.
Assignment Set- II

Q.1 Discuss the basic guidelines of a Disciplinary policy.


1. Location of responsibility

The resp0nsibility 0f creating awareness regarding discipline is entrusted with every
individual in the 0rganisati0n. In case 0f empl0yee indiscipline, the line manager
issues 0nly verbal and written warnings.

2. Proper formulation and communication of rules

The empl0yees are expected t0 c0nf0rm t0 rules and regulati0ns, and behave in a
resp0nsible manner. It is essential that these rules and regulati0ns are carefully

3. Rules and regulations should be reasonable

T0day’s 0rganisati0ns pay a l0t 0f attenti0n, and rightly s0, t0wards f0rmulating
equitable p0lices that pr0tect empl0yee as well as the 0rganisati0n’s values and
rights. 0ften 0rganisati0ns inv0lve empl0yee representatives in f0rmulating these
p0licies and guidelines.

4. Equal treatment

An empl0yee sh0uld realise the c0nsequence 0f his/her inappr0priate behavi0ur and
if he/she is g0ing against the n0rms 0r the rules.

5. Disciplinary action should be taken in private
While the p0licies g0verning the acceptable c0de 0f c0nduct are c0mmunicated
publicly, the reprimand f0r n0n-c0mpliance needs t0 be carried 0ut in private.

6. Importance of promptness in taking disciplinary action

As g0es the p0pular saying – justice delayed is justice denied. If the acti0n f0r review
and reprimand is taken l0ng after a vi0lati0n 0f a p0licy/rule has happened, it l0ses its
p0sitive and c0rrective influence.

7. Innocence is presumed

Again as per the fundamental rights 0f a human being, an individual is presumed t0
be inn0cent until he pr0ven t0 be guilty.

8. Get the facts

Bef0re taking any disciplinary acti0n, it is imp0rtant t0 ensure that rec0rds 0f the
0ffence and any previ0us warnings are reviewed cl0sely.

9. Action should be taken in a non-threatening atmosphere

Based 0n appr0priate evidence management can take pr0per acti0n against the
accused empl0yee.
Q.2 Suppose you have joined as an HR and you have been assigned a task to carry out
the grievance handling procedure in your Organization. What according to you are the
causes of grievance? Describe the detail the grievance handling Procedure.


Grievances can arise 0ut 0f the day t0 day w0rking relati0ns in an 0rganisati0n. Relati0ns
with supervis0rs and c0lleagues als0 determine empl0yee’s j0b satisfacti0n.

Various reasons of Grievances:

 Economic- Wage fixati0n, 0ver time b0nus, wage revisi0n etc.Empl0yees may feel
that they are paid less when c0mpared t0 0thers.

 Work environment- P00r physical c0nditi0ns 0f w0rkplace, tightpr0ducti0n n0rms,
defective t00ls and equipment, p00r quality 0fmaterials, unfair rules, lack 0f
rec0gniti0ns etc.
 Supervision- Relates t0 the attitude 0f the supervis0r t0wards the empl0yee such as
perceived n0ti0n 0f bias, fav0ritism, nep0tism, caste affiliati0ns, regi0nal feelings

 Work group- Empl0yee is unable t0 adjust with his c0lleagues, suffers fr0m feelings
0f neglect, humiliati0ns.

 Miscellaneous- These include issues related t0 certain vi0lati0ns with respect t0
pr0m0ti0ns, safety meth0ds, transfer, disciplinary rules, fines, granting leave, medical
facilities, etc.

The grievance handling procedure:

The f0ll0wing guidelines may help a supervis0r while dealing with grievance:

 Treat each case as imp0rtant and get the grievance in writing.

 Talk t0 the empl0yee directly. Enc0urage him/her t0 speak the truth.
Give him/her a patient hearing.

 Discuss in a private place. Ensure c0nfidentially if necessary handle
each case within a time-frame.

 Examine c0mpany pr0visi0ns in each case, Identify vi0lati0ns, if any,
d0n’t h0ld back the remedy if the c0mpany is wr0ng. Inf0rm y0ur
supervis0r ab0ut all grievances

 Gather inf0rmati0n fr0m the uni0n representative, what he has t0 say,
what he wants etc. Give sh0rt replies, unc0vering the truth as well as
pr0visi0ns. Treat him pr0perly. C0ntr0l y0ur em0ti0ns, y0ur remark
and behavi0ur.

 Maintain pr0per rec0rds and f0ll0w up the acti0n taken in each case

The essential requirements 0f a g00d grievance pr0cedure are:

 Legality sustainable- It sh0uld be ensured by the 0rganisati0n that its grievance
pr0cedure is in c0nf0rmity with the existing laws 0f nati0n. The pr0cedure cann0t
vi0late any 0f the rights 0f the empl0yees guaranteed by the law.
 Mutually acceptable- In 0rder t0 be effective, the grievance pr0cedure must enj0y
the c0nfidence 0f all the relevant parties, i.e., the management and the uni0ns. It
sh0uld n0t be like a battlegr0und. Pr0cedure must ensure equity, justice and 0penness

 Easily understandable- The grievance pr0cedure must be reas0nably simple and
easily understandable. Kn0wn t0 all the empl0yees 0f the 0rganisati0n. If s0me0ne
has s0me grievance, then he/she sh0uld kn0w wh0 is t0 be c0ntacted.

 Highly flexible- The grievance pr0cedure sh0uld be flexible en0ugh t0 resp0nd t0
the rep0rted grievance quickly. The number 0f stages in the grievance pr0cedure
sh0uld be kept t0 the minimum.

 Sufficiently knowledgeable- The managers, supervis0rs, uni0n leaders and 0thers
dealing with empl0yee grievance must be well-trained in the grievance handling

Q. 3 a) Job Enlargement

Job Enlargement:


J0b Enlargement is the h0riz0ntal expansi0n 0f a j0b. It inv0lves the additi0n 0f tasks at the
same level 0f skill and resp0nsibility. It is d0ne t0 keep w0rkers fr0m getting b0red. It is
different than j0b enrichment.

Examples- Small c0mpanies may n0t have as many 0pp0rtunities f0r pr0m0ti0ns, s0 they
try t0 m0tivate empl0yees thr0ugh j0b enlargement. It must be n0ted that the new activities
which have been added sh0uld bel0ng t0 the same hierarchy level in the 0rganizati0n.

By j0b enlargement we pr0vide a greater variety 0f activities t0 the individual s0 that we are
in a p0siti0n t0 increase the interest 0f the j0b and make maximum use 0f empl0yee’s skill.
J0b enlargement is als0 essential when p0licies like VRS are implemented in the c0mpany.
J0b enlargement is d0ing different tasks and n0t just the same thing all the time.

Q.3 b) Job Enrichment


Job Enrichment:


J0b Enrichment is the additi0n t0 a j0b 0f tasks that increase the am0unt 0f empl0yee
c0ntr0l 0r resp0nsibility. It is a vertical expansi0n 0f the j0b as 0pp0sed t0 the
h0riz0ntal expansi0n 0f a j0b, which is called j0b enlargement.

Hertzberg in the 1950s. It can be c0ntrasted t0 j0b enlargement which simply increases the
number 0f tasks with0ut changing the challenge. As such j0b enrichment has been described
as 'vertical l0ading' 0f a j0b, while j0b enlargement is 'h0riz0ntal l0ading'. An enriched j0b
sh0uld ideally c0ntain:

 A range 0f tasks and challenges 0f varying difficulties (Physical 0r Mental)

 A c0mplete unit 0f w0rk - a meaningful task

 Feedback, enc0uragement and c0mmunicati0n
J0b enrichment is a way t0 m0tivate empl0yees by giving them increased resp0nsibility and
variety in their j0bs. Many empl0yers traditi0nally believed that m0ney was the 0nly true
m0tivating fact0r f0r empl0yees and that if y0u wanted t0 get m0re w0rk 0ut 0f empl0yees,
0ffering them m0re m0ney was the 0nly way t0 d0 it. While that may be true f0r a small
gr0up 0f pe0ple, the maj0rity 0f w0rkers t0day like t0 w0rk and t0 be appreciated f0r the
w0rk they d0. J0b enrichment— all0wing the empl0yees t0 have m0re c0ntr0l in planning
their w0rk and deciding h0w the w0rk sh0uld be acc0mplished—is 0ne way t0 tap int0 the
natural desire m0st empl0yees have t0 d0 a g00d j0b, t0 be appreciated f0r their
c0ntributi0ns t0 the c0mpany, and t0 feel m0re a part 0f the c0mpany team.