THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TEACHING ENGLISH VOCABULARY

THROUGH TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE STORYTELLING (TPRS)

Nurlaili, Siti Nurani, Larisa Yohana
Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris,
Fakultas Bahasa dan Seni Universitas Indraprasta PGRI
Jl. Nangka 58 Tanjung Barat, Jakarta Selatan, Indonesia
lailu_nur@yahoo.com, nurani_city@yahoo.com, larisayohanna@gmail.com

Abstrak

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis efektifitas penerapan metode Total Physical Response Storytelling
(TPRS) dalam pembelajaran kosakata bahasa Inggris bangun datar matematika. Penelitian ini dilakukan di
Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Sirojul Banat Jakarta dengan menggunakan metode eksperimen. Sebanyak 31 peserta didik
kelas 1 yang sudah bisa membaca dan menulis sebagai sampel penelitian yang dipilih melalui teknik purposive
sampling. Data dalam penelitian ini dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan instrument tes dengan desain one-group
pretest-posttest. Analisis data dilakukan dengan menggunakan t-test. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa metode
Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS) efektif diterapkan dalam pembelajaran kosakata bahasa Inggris
bangun datar matematika yang ditandai dengan adanya peningkatan pemahaman terhadap makna kosakata serta
peningkatan motivasi dan kreatifitas peserta didik di dalam mengikuti proses pembelajaran secara lebih aktif dan
interaktif.

Kata kunci: pembelajaran kosakata, teknik bercerita, TPRS

EFEKTIFITAS PENGAJARAN KOSAKATA BAHASA INGGRIS MELALUI
METODE TOTAL PHYSICAL (TPRS)

Abstract

This present research aims at analyzing the effectiveness of Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS) method
in teaching English Math-shape vocabularies. The research was carried out in Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Sirojul
Banat Jakarta by using the experiment method. There were 31-first grade literate students as samples chosen by
purposive sampling technique. The data is gathered by using the test instrument with one-group pretest-posttest
design. The data was analyzed by using t-test formula. Findings have shown that Total Physical Response
Storytelling (TPRS) method is said to be effective applied in teaching English math-shape vocabularies which is
identified by the enhancement of students’ comprehension toward the vocabularies’ meaning as well as the
increase of their motivation and creativity experiencing the learning process more actively and interactively.

Keywords: vocabulary teaching, storytelling technique, TPRS

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most of the teachers in As previously mentioned. their interest relies on physical activities. Unfortunately. The method by which students are utterances. grade in Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Sirojul Banat That’s why. This situation. Nation learning process as the students will (1997) asserted the importance of learning motivate themselves to learn more. learning process really depends on teachers’ Teachers should analyze the students’ needs proficiency in using the appropriate to avoid harmful backwash as students teaching method and technique to convey might have at the end of the learning the message of vocabulary learning. without vocabulary nothing can It means that choosing the appropriate be conveyed”. enhancing one’s knowledge to put something across to others particularly in a Teaching vocabulary for elementary teaching-learning circumstance. 111) said that taught must have some effects on their “While without grammar little can be motivation and confidence (Hanmer. interesting. plays important role in teaching-learning when and how the vocabulary is used in process. may decrease students’ motivation by Hanmer (2010. In other words. students will need special attention in providing such learning materials since Vocabulary mastery in the teaching. and quite to a few wanted their teachers to be well-prepared and to be Since elementary students put their interest teachers they could confidence in”. In “The need for the teachers to motivate short.01 | Januari : 1-78 INTRODUCTION students develop their knowledge and skill in a higher learning achievement. p. In short. it is necessary for the teachers Jakarta who were formerly taught through to equip themselves with a good conventional way where they are only preparation in order to motivate the asked to memorize the series of new students through interactive. Similarly. In doing vocabulary which would increase language so. Here. a well-prepared teacher may be able to help Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS) method might be as the alternative 64 . teaching aids that are considered significant vocabulary plays important role in needed by the students. he pointed out that method and activities with a focus on learning vocabulary was more important students’ motivation will create a better than learning grammar. of and enjoyable classroom. 6) who affirmed that to explore their knowledge and skill. of learning mostly on physical activities. vocabulary is an important A professional language teacher would element that needs to be studied by the always apply the most appropriate methods students as foreign language learners and techniques as he/she knows that he/she because they need to know the meaning. teachers should be more creative to use in relation to the knowledge of the provide teaching materials as well as world and vice versa. 2010). This is supported course. vocabularies quite often. In the early stages of learning a foreign language. p. conveyed. 07 No. the teaching-learning process should students through enjoyable and interesting meet students’ needs. classes. Wilkins (1972. This situation is also memorize the series of new vocabularies experienced by the students of the first which causes the boredom to the students. particularly in learning vocabulary.DEIKSIS | Vol. process. teachers who are elementary schools still use conventional not well-prepared will give negative effect method where the students are asked to to the students.

namely: 1) comprehending the meaning of vocabulary establishing meaning. and interactive as TPRS employs supports the cognitive and language such playful and enjoyable activities in development of the students as well as their relation to the physical movement. such as social skill. (Nurlaili. vocabulary given in the story. in literacy. Larisa Yohana) to overcome the students’ needs in learning story. teaching and learning language. and write). Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS) creative. laughing. Total Physical story-telling. For literate students repeats the story several times by increasing (i. Total students are expected to be more active. In other words. TPRS is also expected to be the According to Gross (2007) TPRS consists best alternative method to ease students in of three essential steps. The Effectiveness Of Teaching English Vocabulary Through Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS). However. asks them some questions related to appropriately called Teaching Proficiency the shapes. shows them Storytelling has evolved into a with gestures and pictures that indicated the methodology which is now more shapes. story. In establishing meaning. play. In the second step. Siti Nurani. through are treated by playing games. students who are already able to read more vocabulary. students who will be treated differently in However. they should be given a printed story that they could translate into Bahasa Ray (2012) asserted that story is interesting Indonesia which will be then discussed. methods. then makes the outline of the through Reading and Storytelling. the teacher Total Physical Response Storytelling introduces the new vocabulary (English (TPRS) has been described as an Math-shapes) altogether with its meaning improvement of James Asher’s Total by using flashcards and gestures. the teacher tells the story to the Furthermore. playing games and interacting Response Storytelling (TPRS) can increase with peers which cover giggling. namely: 1) Total Physical Lastly. such as 65 . there are many different ways to accomplish these steps and every teacher can do it in their own way by LITERATURE REVIEW adding a little personal flair to the method. communicate each other at the same time.. Total story comprehensively. checks and preliterate students. there are two types of Response (TPR) and 2) Storytelling. Those are literate and story by using visual aids. it was developed repetitions of new vocabularies will be as by Blaine Ray in 1990s with the purpose to the main focus for students instantly develop an efficient technique for the recognizing the words. and classroom condition. Moreover. In technique to increase the students’ interest contrast.e. This is designed to Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS) help students develop a tolerance ambiguity consists of two complementary pedagogical when listening to the target language. 2) story and 3) that suited to its contexts. the main idea of this method is accordance to their reading and writing storytelling where the teacher narrates a competence.. In addition. literacy. the students’ motivation in learning English body language and facial expression that vocabulary and can develop an enjoyable enable them to study.e. Total Physical Response students by using storyboard. the preliterate students (i. to listen each part of the story in a fully students who are not able to read and write) understanding. By applying this method. Spoken Physical Response (TPR). student’s attention will also be vocabulary-particularly English Math-shape focused on language structures and new vocabularies.

students who are Standard Deviation of pretest is 24.X2 The data analysis test was conducted by using the test of normality as well as the X1 : Pre-test test of homogeneity of variances. This is Table 1: Descriptive Statistics of Research Data employed to ease the students in comprehending the meaning of the vocabularies since they are not able to read and write. it can be design was quantitative research method by assumed that the TPRS method worked employing one-group pretest-posttest of well in teaching English Math-shape experimental design as proposed by vocabularies for the first grade elementary Lazaraton (1991) as follows: students. Standard Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Sirojul Banat with 31 Deviation of post-test is 31.05 then the data is Math-shape vocabularies for the first grade said to be having a normal distribution. with the basic conditions if method is effective in teaching English the score of Sig. In already able to read and write) as the conclusion. the data was compared and analyzed by using SPSS 19 for windows. Data Analysis Test X1 .200 and the 66 .211.01 | Januari : 1-78 talking box or picture dictionary. > 0. Mode. Mode score of post-test is 31 and this research was 41-first grade students of Mode score of pre-test is 14.52. 07 No.77 and Mean score of pre-test is Ibtidaiyah Sirojul Banat. The population of 40. From the table. the data shows that the score of Sig.DEIKSIS | Vol.T . the score of Mean. The purpose of this research The test of normality employed in SPSS 19 is to investigate whether the use of Total for Windows is the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS) test technique.310 and literate students (i. elementary students. The research than of pre-test scores.e.. in post-test is 0. METHODOLOGY This research basically aims at analyzing the effectiveness of Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS) method in teaching English Math-shape vocabularies The table shows that Mean score of post- for the first grade students of Madrasah test is 54. T : Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS) Treatment Test of Normality X2 : Post-test Tabel 2 : Tests of Normality FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION Findings After giving the tests. and samples who were chosen by using the Standard Deviation of post-test are higher purposive sampling technique. Therefore.

954 0.275 1 60 0. in H1: μ1> μ2.05.05 so the correlation is said to be concluded that the test of vocabulary significant. the data is said to be having a normal with degrees of freedom (df) = 30. the difference follows: 1) the Total Physical Response between pre-test and post-test Mean score is Storytelling (TPRS) method is said to be 54. Therefore. It means that there is a correlation of those two tests is significant. with the basic conditions if α = 0. and the significance (2-tailed) 0. t table = 2.042. is more method was applied. is 0. significant difference between the pre-test In this case the significance = 0.137>0. than 0.05.061>0. Because we did a one-sided test of Test of Homogeneity hypothesis H1: μ1> μ2.225 short.0245 < 0.00 In other words. hence. Post test Pair 1 31 0. then the significance (2-tailed) should be halved into 0. which gives value of t = 7.954. in pre-test is 0. The result of t-test effective in improving student’s vocabulary (for paired sample test) H0: μ1<μ2 against mastery. This can be seen from the results 67 . The hypothesis (level of significance). Siti Nurani.52 = 14. Median. the TPRS method is said to & Pre test be effective for student’s English Math- shape vocabulary improvement.000 and because of the significance (s- Levene tailed) less than α = 0. because of value oft ≥ 2. it can said that variance from the two groups of data is similar. Findings have shown that TPRS method Research Hypothesis Test has a significant influence on the student’s mastery of English Math-shape Tabel 4 : Paired Samples Correlations vocabularies with the analysis as follows: 1) the score of Mean. Larisa Yohana) score of Sig.05 DISCUSSION ≤ sig then data is said to be homogeneous.000<α = and post-test. 2) Based The above result shows that there is the on sample t-test. conclusion is drawn as Based on the above data. The Effectiveness Of Teaching English Vocabulary Through Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS). the score of Sig. it can be 0.225 ≥ 2. Since it is lower than 0.05 (0.77-40.137 ttable or7. N Standard Deviation of the post-test increases compared with those of pre-test. then there is an increase in the test results after TPRS Based on the test. Statistic rejected.05.25. acquisition was significantly improved after TPRS method was applied. (Nurlaili. the null hypothesis test is aimed to determine whether the is rejected. value of distribution.042. Moreover.000 : 2 = Tabel 3 :Test of Homogeneity of Variances 0. Mode and Correlation Sig.05 test in the amount of 0.05). Tabel 5 : Paired Samples Test CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION Conclusion From the hypothesis test and discussion of the findings.000. then H0: μ1<μ2 df1 df2 Sig. the significance (2-tailed) correlation between the pre-test and post.

In Schmitt. D. July 25). improvement. As the effort of teaching-learning quality Nation.DEIKSIS | Vol. (1972).pdf. TPRS word lists. N. R. TPR Storytelling: Teaching English Math-shape vocabulary really Proficiency through Reading. student’s capability in defining vocabulary meanings that are suited to its daily contexts. P. (2012). it can be concluded that only analyzes the effectiveness of TPRS student’s vocabulary mastery (English method on student’s mastery of English Math-shape vocabularies) is significantly Math-shape vocabulary with storytelling as increased after TPRS method was applied. Inc. interactive-communicative in conveying the MA: MIT Press. (1997). 3) the focus of this research post-test.). United Kingdom: as follows: 1) the effectiveness of TPRS Cambridge University Press. Hence. (eds. New York: Suggestion Pearson Longman. method applied in teaching-learning Ray.01 | Januari : 1-78 of hypothesis test and findings which and outside the class) in order to create a identify the significant difference between better and conducive teaching-learning the scores of pre-test compared to those of environment. (2010). Hanmer. Vocabulary: innovated learning media and learning Description. text coverage and teaching-learning vocabulary. the main media in delivering the message. Linguistics in hoped that teachers could be more Language Teaching. 2) the process of teaching-learning English Therefore. 07 No. The Practice of English Language Learning. M. particularly of English Vocabulary size. Utah: depends on how teacher delivers the Workshop. B. 3) TPRS method is also assumed REFERENCES as the method that could increase both student’s motivation and creativity. materials with an efficient-innovative learning media. message of learning materials. & Waring. A. 2) the application of TPRS method cannot also be separated from the participation of the school itself in providing the learning facilities (at class 68 . And. & method could be applied by using various McCarthy. TPR Storytelling: can be overviewed from student’s Teaching Proficiency through interaction in a more active-communicative Reading and Storytelling. This Gross. it is expected to other vocabulary through Total Physical researchers to explore TPRS for teaching Response Storytelling (TPRS) method other disciplines and also to elaborate other works well to enhance student’s vocabulary innovative teaching techniques which have comprehension. of course.com/articles/T could easily get across to learning materials HREESTEPS. Some suggestions are delivered Pedagogy. It is reflected from to be integrated with TPRS itself. Hence. (2007. it is Wilkins. J. Cambridge. given by the teacher. students’ motivation and comprehension would also be improved in following teacher’s instruction. Acquisition and techniques. S. Retrieved learning circumstance as they will have a from more enjoyable learning experience and http://susangrosstprs.