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**Solving the Common
**

Core Equation

Teaching Mathematics CCSS

to Students With Moderate

and Severe Disabilities

Alicia F. Saunders, Keri S. Bethune, Fred Spooner, and Diane Browder

For years Joseph, a student with mod- Joseph and his classmates to calculate special educators who work with stu-

erate intellectual disability, received perimeter and area, find a point on a dents with moderate and severe dis-

instruction on the same early mathe- coordinate plane, and create a graph. abilities have the added challenge of

matics skills. Although he made a little She began to teach Joseph the Com- understanding the standards and

progress in telling time, naming coins, mon Core State Standards for his knowing how to adapt instruction

and counting items, by the time he assigned grade. Surprisingly, Joseph to ensure that students with disabili-

reached fourth grade he seemed frus- grasped concepts like perimeter and ties also receive standards-based

trated doing the same mathematics he coordinate planes even while continu- instruction.

had practiced since he was a pre- ing to master basics. Ms. Harris is rep- Other than the legal requirement

schooler. He refused to do his lessons, resentative of teachers who have that all students have access to the

and it seemed like Joseph just did not found ways to adapt the Common general ctirriculum content and be pre-

like mathematics. By the end of fifth Core State Standards in mathematics pared for state assessments (e.g., alter-

grade, however, it was another story. for students with moderate and severe nate assessments; No Child Left Behind

While the schoors morning announce- disabilities. Act of 2001, 2006), why try to teach

ments were blaring over the speaker students with moderate and severe dis-

and Joseph was getting his backpack The Common Core State Standards abilities grade-aligned mathematics?

put away, he was eagerly asking, (CCSS) initiative has provided focused One rationale for teaching the CCSS is

"Math? Ms. Harris! Math?" and rigorous standards of what stu- that demands for mathematical compe-

What changed? Well, in part, Ms. dents are expected to know in English tence in today's world have greatly

Harris had decided to expect more of language arts and mathematics, to increased. This is true as well for stu-

Joseph. She continued to promote his better prepare students for college dents with moderate and severe dis-

learning of basic skills such as telling and career readiness (http://www abilities who will face expectations in

time and counting during the course of .corestandards.org/). Forty-five states jobs and daily living (e.g., workplace

many everyday activities, but she also and three territories have adopted the charts and graphs, using numerically

began to teach him the same skills all CCSS for all students, including those operated machinery). When teaching

fifth-graders would learn. Using real- who participate in alternate assess- the CCSS to students with moderate

world mathematics stories, interactive ments based on alternate achievement and severe disabilities, it will be impor-

whiteboard materials, and hands-on standards. Although most educators tant to incorporate real-life examples in

manipulatives, she began to teach are currently learning about the CCSS, daily instruction.

24 COUNCIL FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN

TEACHING EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN | J A N / F E B 2013 25 .

and a student in high school not equation when task analytic instruc. Michael often would slap. Browder. such as identify- ideas from the Internet to identify real-life activities in ing numbers to 10. session without seeking to escape the lesson. However. Adams programmed his Vantage Point mathematics educators at her school. vidualized education program. count with one-to-one correspondence. Adams. He could not identify numbers. dence to 10) and on grade-aligned skills (e. Ms. he would need some instruction in fourth-grade-aligned math- ematics to be ready for the state's alter- nate assessment.g. using a cal- tics story problems for each skill. Kearns. and Trela shows that students with moderate and Emerging research suggests that (2012) demonstrated that middle and severe disabilities often lack the most students with moderate and severe high school students with moderate basic of mathematical skills. addition." After one semester. To teach the a coordinate plane). Collaborating with identification. A task analysis of the culator to solve equations. Ms. kick. for students with moderate and severe 26 COUNCIL FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN . used systematic prompting strategies to help the group per Michael's aggressive behaviors also decreased substantially. graphing coordinates on tion and collecting data on student progress. and developed mathema. teaching the content-rich two quantities but also to graph it as a Browder. and Browder. the CCSS require a fifth. and Thomas (2011) found that about one quarter of this population Students with moderate and severe disabilities could count with one-to-one correspon- dence to 10 and only a small percent- can learn content aligned with grade-level standards age (4%-8%) of this population could while continuing to work on basic numeracy. We worked with Ms. she targeted priority device so he could communicate responses such as fourth-grade standards of the CCSS. when given an equation template. She used word prob. struggled to find the best approach for Michael. and colleagues (2012) CCSS can seem daunting. research linear equation. In the beginning of the school year. or throw his head back to avoid most mathematics tasks. Jimenez. state standards from the grade level division) to solve real-world problems. form each step of the task analysis. Trela. Adams began by reading the real-life problem Michael to apply his newly learned skills on community- to Michael and two other students in a small group. dence-based practice in mathematics only to analyze a relationship between tion and manipulatives were used. Adams to create a bet. such as number and symbol ter mathematics program for Michael. task analysis.. autism could learn a wide range of Kleinert. Jimenez. multiplication. grader to solve real-world problems students with moderate intellectual and math story were used. Accessing the CCSS: Michael's Success Story Michael is a fourth-grade student with moderate intellectual disability who attends a self-contained classroom for students with moderate and severe intel- lectual disability.. "length" and "width. and Courtade associated with their chronological age In contrast.g. finding the area of rectangles mathematics process was created to use for both instruc. apply computational procedures (e. Ms. and primari- ly worked on tasks such as matching and sorting. He is nonverbal and communicates using his Vantage Point device. Kleioert.. Michael had lems from the fourth-grade mathematics textbook and shown progress on both basic skills (e. Ms. with grade-level standards while con. (2008) demonstrated that high school if a graphic organizer. subtraction. counting with one-to-one correspon- which each skill would be used. She based instruction trips and in other school activities.g. disability could learn to solve a linear ies built on a large framework of evi- tions. These stud- using addition and subtraction of frac. These lessons also and he was able to participate in the full 30-minute math incorporated basic mathematics skills from Michael's indi. Towles-Reeves. Adams set up opportunities for lessons. For exam. disabilities can learn content aligned and severe intellectual disability or ple. his teacher. tinuing to work on basic numeracy.

tiling squares to find the area. world activity that students work to measurement have been primarily tar.. task analytic lesson with systematic TEACHINC EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN I JAN/FEB 2013 27 . resources. & dents' current level of numeracy. In addition to sys- Because teachers of students with simply checking in with her colleague. In addition to online back.. in a middle school class exploring Step 2 : Identify a Real-Ufe al. finding area using smaller num. Ms. sphere. generalization of the targeted skill 2011). calculators. Through mathematics skills.nctm. and the eighth. could use a formula and calcula. The combined group of Teaching core content in a meaningful based practice for teaching mathemat- students could be taught these skills way leads to better maintenance and ics to this population (Spooner et a l . Select a Topic To gain deeper understanding of the tion. deeper understanding of the content over muhiple grade levels.. The first step is selecting a grade. used. Also. Word problems in Wakeman. which requires careful considera. the Internet. the concept of lesson. (Collins. 2008. First. exclusion of remaining domains such /»unmath). A tion teacher is using. Knight. ics activities with real-world applica- Slep 1 . In addition. activity. Stu. Also. For example. For the lesson. to use for step-by-step instruction. such as selecting boxes by vol. This can be done by level expectation (e.g.disabilities that support using system. it moderate and severe disabilities may oping a real-world application.g. cation. gle and width the shortest. and talk with math. teachers must expected to understand and complete Evidence-Based Practices prioritize because. instruction. & Calloway. given the intensive by grade level. such as constant time delay and familiar with prioritized skills within a resources.. ask "What are your laboration with a general educator who for teaching mathematics to this popu- top 5 priorities for students to learn in knows the content. 2008). tices and how they apply to teaching priority. It's also important to consider stu. stu- moderate and severe disabilities often she avoided teaching her students the dents need repeated opportunities to teach more than one grade level of stu. 2008). Our six-step geometry objective for students with mathematics textbooks ofien give a approach to teaching students with little to no concept of number might be real-life context where the skill will be moderate and severe disabilities mathe. Systematic instructional proce- ments and by consulting with a general area. text to the lesson (see Table 1). the SMART Exchange matics aligned to the new CCSS uses dents with counting skills could use (http://exchange. who have computation Mathematics (http://www. Content experts in use a story problem. if a state has specific access points. this unit. et al. 2008). & Smith. area 23" X 57")..us relate to this real-world activity helps moderate and severe disabilities. learn the basics (e. application activities the general educa- Spooner. Spooner.and sev. web sites provide numerous mathemat- tor to find the area. computation of ing mathematics to students with mod- reviewing which standards are priori. Table 2 these provide a clear guide to the most school.org) Story").nc. and fading and task analysis (Browder. ment on the CCSS. she was surprised to learn that describes three evidence-based prac- important standards to consider as a length is the longest side of the rectan. when lation (Browder et al. Browder. Providing manipulatives that geted when teaching students with useful (http://www. least intrusive prompting. and retain learned skills (Browder et ple. to identify the area by shading It. 2011). dures with error correction and feed- education mathematics teacher who is bers [2" X 5"]). This web site provides as geometry and algebra (Browder et explanafions of what the student is Step 3: Incorporate al. sixth. select a real-life activity to provide con. a teacher could tion. Activity Using the Skill It can be helpful to write a task enth-graders could find the volume of After prioritizing content to teach. they may be able to erate and severe disabilities into the tized by the state for alternate assess.. aloud format. the concept of volume. it helps to have ongoing col. Although students with After prioritizing standards and devel- instruction this population requires. Task graders the volume of a cube.state. area with a mathematics teacher in her Browder. ing Standards" that teachers may find solve. common misconception that length is respond—both within a lesson and dent in a class. Taking a field trip to observe the and Create Ob¡ectives prioritized standards targeted for real-life activity may not be feasible. include textbooks. For exam. clip on the Internet that shows the get. rate evidence-based practices for teach- within a domain. 2011). and a real-life appli. 2012. using graphic organizers to fill in for.smarttech. prior research the state of North Carolina have devel. over multiple days—in order to gain a consider how standards are addressed cal side of a rectangle. skills. analysis of the mathematical procedure a rectangular prism. Resources for real-world lesson ideas atic instruction procedures like prompt ume in a packaging job. it may be helpful to the horizontal side and width the verti. Ahlgrim-Delzell. attend professional develop. consult state or national but it is often possible to find a video aligned standard from the CCSS to tar.g. Harris. Harris shared her idea for teaching Trela. tematic instructional procedures. taught in a read- domains is important. ranked from 1 to 5?"). are effective grade level (e. Hager.dpi. analytic instruction is an evidence- or cylinder. incorpo- is impossible to teach all the content not be able to perform the exact grade. to illustrate the real- shows the domains of computation and oped documents called "Math Unpack. selecting standards from all ematics teachers.com/) and this research as a foundation (see box. Students National Council of Teachers of "Accessing the CCSS: Michael's Success like Joseph. to the /acre/standards/common-core-tools make the word problem come to life. Figure 1 illustrates a scripted mulas..

and location of fruits and vegetables for the activities of a school carnival Application: Use coordinate plane to in the garden.NS.1 N-RN.NS. 7. which number is the most/least. 3. polygons.3. investigate how video game designer uses transformations to create images on screen.and Plot coordinate points on the Identify types of transformations: plane y-axes.DPS.2 5. subtraction. 4. and Activities Mathematics Domain Elementary Middle Algebra 3.DPS.RE1.lf3.DPS. 6. use calculator Collect (pose questions).3 6. and transla- Locate and graph points in first in the coordinate plane to create tions. locate and decimals in scientific notation (e. using a number line. G-C0.3.g. Aligned Components.3. find y if X is provided. problems with fractions. using a number line. organize. Numbers and 3. enough money to make purchase. 4. 28 COUNCIL FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN .MD. 7.ld A.RE1. 7.. 5. school and favorite foods in class. and a spinner.OA.DPS. and decide if student has enough Application: Calculate area of Application: Find volume of a gift paint to create a picture for family classroom floor for carpeting and that needs to be shipped and select member.NS. S-MD. Calculate percentages Application: Calculate sales tax for Application: Four scenarios about in real-world contexts.NO.3 S.3 Area and Find area using both tiling and Find area of a 2-D object and volume Determine appropriate unit of volume formula.DPS.DPS. 7." interpret data (answer questions). share equally with friends. order fractions on Convert fractions to decimals. number line. form line segments reflections.DPS.lg3. Data analysis/ 3.4.1.1.MD. 7.lfl.5.3.7..EE.3. represented by unknown variable.2 G-C0. tax. 7.RP.2.OA. number lines).3 Solve one-step equations for an Solve one-step equations for an Solve two-step equations with two unknown variable.G. 5.EE.3.g. create and and probability of various events.1C1 7. is congruent to another when Application: Students plan a garden Application: Students plan the layout transformed.MD.NF. and compare fractions. and tip on purchasing high preference items at Application: Find sales price of restaurant bill and total cost.2 operations: Identify fractions.7 probability 4. 7.MD. coordinate plane.2.g.2b Spinner experiment. of student's yearbook.OA. rotations.4.2 operations: Solve one-step story problem using Solve multistep ratio and percent Solve two-step equations with Four operations addition. 30% off). 7. S-MD.G. hundredths.I. of a 3-D object using formulas and measurement and flnd volume of Application: Find the area of a paper calculators. a bag of marbles.MD.G. 4 + A = 10 4 +X =6 Y = 3x -H 6 Application: Use a number line to Application: Use a number line Application: Calculate amount determine how many more stickers to determine how many more of money needed for teacher to a student needs to earn to fill signatures are needed to fill a page purchase classroom supplies and sticker book page. or more likely. 6. decimals).6. Sample Mathematics Standards. determine if odds are "good" or graph data using a bar graph. and Describe probability as less likely. 4.G. Application: Determine number of winning certain prizes when and interpret data on types of trans.NF2 6.NS. Geometry: 3. honor roll. using the coordinate plane. room (e. 3. 8.7 A-REI. discount (e. an item and final price..EE.5 Coordinate Define coordinate system (x.4.G.1.DPS.1. 5.6 A.3.OA. Use table to a shape. Numbers and 3.lgl. the best size box for shipping. box. Application: Determine odds of Application: Gather. Student selects appropriate an item using original price and Students determine if they have operation to solve. problems (e. markdowns). and thousandths.NS. equally likely.Table 1 .DPS. 4.NE1.. 4. represented variables using a table. markups and rational numbers (e.1J1. Application: Divide a candy bar to compare decimals and fractions on a base 10 with negative exponent). or division and a calculator. token economy) and Student writes amount received in locate the fraction of dimes each scientific notation and determines student received on a number line. amount of money earned if getting paid to wash cars. 4. multiplication..G. S-MD. 5.g. write Fractions number line.7.G.6. 7.lf2. organize Determine number of outcomes to convert ratios to percentages and (record data in table). origin point. Geometry: 4.2d2. the mall. "bad.1.2dl. outcomes and probability using the spinning a spinner for making portation students use to get to dice. Application: Cafeteria worker at high Application: Divide a set number of school divides brownie into tenths. by a letter.NF2. dimes among students in the class.2 6.G. graph. volume of pool. understand that a 2-D figure quadrant of coordinate plane. solve Convert fractions to decimals.g.5.

An example of a support than is needed. "What kind of triangle is this?") and immediately uses the prompt to help the student get the right answer. 4.. 5. a gesture to the correct answer. TEACHING EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN | J A N / F E B 2013 29 . Write or say that number. Find the zero on the ruler. It could be a verbal model (teacher presents an a skill. "What kind of triangle is this?") and waits 4-6 seconds before delivering fhe prompt. or even a physical prompt by moving the student's hand to the correct answer. shows the student a division problem and says "Use the calculator to solve the problem"). and breaks it down into a series of steps. the teacher provides a verbal cue ("Enter the first number into the calcula- tor"). systematic way. verbal prompt (tell them what to do). and stays the same throughout the time it takes the to help the student learn student to learn the skill. entering a prompting prompting that provides division problem into a calculator) and a hierarchy of prompts to use. Find the edge of the object. If the student continues to not respond. The teacher provides the natural cue (e. physical prompt (help them do it). This gives the student time to answer independently. data on) each step in a 2. Task analysis A method of breaking The teacher identifies a skill to teach the student (e. Look down the ruler and find where the object stops. starting with the prompts) student to get the correct least intrusive prompt and moving towards the most intrusive prompt. then waits a few seconds. Least to most A leveled system of The teacher identifies a skill to teach the student (e..g. the teacher uses a physi- cal prompt (e. 3.. This allows the steps every time (combined with a method for prompting) : teacher to teach (and take 1.g. Least to most prompting is self-fading: The student never gets more prompting than needed and eventually will be able to perform the skill independently.. If the student still does not respond. This data also can be used to make educational decisions and assess progress towards goals on student individualized education programs.g. 6. the teacher provides a model ("Watch me as I enter the first number into the calculator. prompt hierarchy is independent (student responds to natural cue with no additional help).g. like this.Table 2 . acute. the teacher fades that prompt by simply delaying it: The teacher presents the problem (e. or right angles) and finds an appropriate prompt to help the teacher gradually delays student get the right answer. the teacher uses the same steps.. If the student does not respond. but not more which guarantees that the student responds correctly.g. the teacher presents the problem (e. answer. After doing this for a number of trials (sessions). obtuse triangle and says "obtuse"). This prompt is anything the student needs to the delivery of a prompt get the right answer. how to use a ruler down a long. Find the number on the ruler that is closest to where the object stops. model (show them what to do). task into its component When teaching the student how to use a ruler..g. how to identify delay instruction where the obtuse. complicated to measure an object).g. Now you do it"). This allows the teacher to see on which steps the student is making progress. takes the student's hands and supports entering the first number into the calculator). the teacher simply moves on to the next step. First. (or system of least just enough support for the This hierarchy should include 3-4 levels of prompts. or areas where the student needs help.. but also provides support. Line the ruler up with the object so that the zero is on the edge. If the student completes the first step correctly. Evidence-Based Practices for Matiiematics Instruction Evidence-Based Practice ^^^^^P^'™'t^it%oes It Look like in the Classroom? Constant time A method of sysfematic The teacher identifies a skill to teach the student (e.

" X-axis. provide response prompt ("This is the y-axis. provide response prompt ("If you don't know the answer. and we will create a location for each event using points and line segments."). wait." an ordered pair."). provide response prompt ("This is the coordinate coordinate plane. provide response prompt ("If you don't know the answer. Show SMART Board template or poster with carnival pictures as anticipatory set. • If student waits 4 seconds. Maintain a fast pace and have student identify items. and I'll help you. points on a • If student responds incorrectly.coordinate on the coordinate dinate point.").")."). Teachers will use a SMART Board template or poster showing the school gymnasium. • If student responds incorrectly. • If student responds incorrectly." to y-axis on a • 4-second delay trials: That is the coordinate plane. Have you ever been to a carnival before? It takes a lot of planning so we better get started! We have to have the carnival in the gym because it will be cold outside. provide response prompt ("If you don't know the answer.") "Show me the Student points Q Zero-delay trials: immediately prompt "That's right: coordinate to one of the Q 4-second delay trials: That is a point. Show me the Student points • Zero-delay trials: immediately prompt "That's right: y-axis."). Introduction This lesson plan has students planning the school carnival." continues 30 COUNCIL FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN . provide response prompt ("This is the X-axis. provide response prompt ("If you coordinate don't know the answer. "Show me an Student points to • Zero-delay trials: immediately prompt "That's right. Sample Scripted Mathematics Lesson Lesson plan objective: Students will demonstrate their understanding of coordinate grids by plotting coordinate points and connecting points with line segments to make polygons on a coordinate grid. provide response prompt ("This is a coor. plane. wait. plane. wait. students will be plotting different points and line segments to create the layout where activities will be at the carnival. and I'll help you." plane. Q 4-second delay trials: That is a plane. completing minimally 80% of task analyzed steps independently. • If student waits 4 seconds." • If student responds incorrectly. and I'll help you. wait. Say: Today we are going to plan a carnival." y-axis." • If student waits 4 seconds. Show SMART Board template or poster of coordinate plane."). We are going to use a coordinate plane to help us plan the space for all the events. point. provide response prompt ("If you don't know the answer. and I'll help you. provide response prompt ("This is an pairs to plot ordered pair." coordinate points • If student waits 4 seconds."). so we must make sure there is enough space for every game and activity! This is going to be so much fun. and I'll help you. • If student responds incorrectly. ordered pair. wait.Figure 1 . "Show me the Student points Q Zero-delay trials: immediately prompt "That's right: X-axis. • 4-second delay trials: we use ordered • If student waits 4 seconds.")." to X-axis on a • 4-second delay trials: That is the coordinate plane. Targeted Prompting Teacher response (Constant time delay) Reinforcement "Show me the Student points to Q Zero-delay trials: immediately prompt "That's right: coordinate coordinate plane.

ordered pair for point?" augmentative have student repeat) the coordinate and alternative • Physical prompt (e.") is [negative/ negative?" negative.g. show how to move finger left/right to the y-axis) • Physical prompt (e. point out the negative sign or no sign in front of positive].g....g. That is the x coordinate. This will give students the opportunity to apply the skills and practice managing the space. y-axis.g... Say: Before we can plan our carnival." communication device).g. hand over hand) the x-coordinate on the X-axis.g.g.g.g... " • Model prompt (e. "Put your finger on the point and move it to the how you find the pair for the the X-axis. First. "The y-coordinate is [left/right] of the origin point. find • Physical prompt (e. but do give each student an opportunity at the SMART Board or poster.3]. ingle coordinate point on the coordinate plane.. That is the y-coordinate. find the Student finds the • Independent "Yes! That's y-coordinate on y-coordinate on • Verbal prompt (e..g. TEACHING EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN JAN/FEB 2013 31 . " parentheses." number) • Physical prompt (e. hand over hand) point.. hand over hand) "What is the Student identifies Q Independent "Awesome work. ") x-coordinate.") x-coordinate! pair.g.g. Q Model prompt (e.g. hand over hand) "Is the Student identifies • Independent "Yes! The y-coordinate the y-coordinate • Verbal prompt (e. "The x-coordinate is (left/right] of the origin point. x-coordinate positive or as positive or so it is ¡negative/positive]. that's your ordered x-coordinate on Q Verbal prompt (e." "Is the Student identifies Q Independent "Yes! The x-coordinate the x-coordinate • Verbal prompt (e. "Put your finger on the point and move it to the how you flnd the the y-axis. hand over hand) "Next.. "Write the x-coordinate you just identified in the you write the in the ordered first space of first space of the parentheses.g.. Vary points selected c)n 18 subsequent days. You do not have to do every . Targeted Prompting Teacher response (Least intrusive prompting) Reinforcement "Let's identify Student finds the Q Independent "Good job. y-coordinate is positive or as positive or so it is ¡negative/positive]." the y-axis.g. Have students plot ordered pairs and identify polygons on the floor in the proper location using their coordinate jlane skills.. hand over hand) "Write the Student writes • Independent "That is how x-coordinate x-coordinate in • Verbal prompt (e. • Model prompt (e. Let's find the ordered pair for the coordinate point on the grid! Use the task analysis to teach students to identify ordered pairs.g. • Model prompt (e. " number) • Physical prompt (e.. let's practice finding ordered pairs for some coordinate points." parentheses. read the ordered pair. 3" for [2.g.. Continued Part 2: Task Analysis—Finding Ordered Pairs Introduction Show SMART Board template or poster of the coordinate grid. Q Verbal prompt (e.g. point out the negative sign or no sign in front of positive].g. show where to write y-coordinate in ordered pair) Nice work!" • Physical prompt (e. • Model prompt (e. X-axis.. show how to move finger up/down to the x-axis) point. Make poster activity cutouts representing activities and use tape on the floor to create the coordinate grid. ordered pair for ordered pair (read.") y-coordinate. have them plan a carnival for the classroom.") y-coordinate! pair. show where to write x-coordinate in ordered pair) Nice work!" • Physical prompt (e. hand over hand) "Write the Student writes • Independent "That is how y-coordinate y-coordinate in • Verbal prompt (e.") [negative/ negative?" negative. "Read the ordered pair that you wrote.Figure 1 .") you found the the coordinate ing aloud/using Ü Model prompt (e. Wrap-up Once students have completed the lesson plan..g..." coordinate Q Model prompt (e. such as "2.g. "Write the y-coordinate you just identifled in the you write the in the ordered first space of first space of the parentheses...

Jimenez. in Instructional supports help students rated in lessons to provide visual rep.g. researchers often summarize the num- interactive whiteboards. The specific criterion set for solve problems and also responds to resentation of the problem. making adequate progress. & Browder.. and increase engagement. press).. 2012. and Browder (2008). student performed without assistance Inslructional Supports munication systems) can be incorpo. promote student ance of the task analysis (e. Hands-on manipulatives In using student performance on a task information on scripted mathematics also may help make mathematical con. (e. An alterna- 32 COUNCIL FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN .e. For more Page. correct for 2/2 days). see Trela..g. calculators. all steps organizers are one type of support that responding. Nelles. Iwata. analysis of a mathematical process to lesson instruction. Jimenez.Figure 2. help with mastery can be based on this perform- individual learning needs. 2003). Neef. It can be difficult promotes problem solving in mathe. Technology (e. constant time delay et al. graphing on a coordinate plane.g. & Step 5: Monitor Progress and least intrusive prompts). Sample Interactive Wiiiteboard Template Quadrant I I (2) Quadrant I (1) Quadrant III (3) Quadrant IV (4) instruction {i.. Graphic problem solving. problem solving. Jimenez. cepts more concrete and may aid in monitor individual student's progress.. Mims. ber of steps of the task analysis the Step 4 : Include and alternative and augmentative com. Figure 2 provides a sample interactive to decide whether to hold back a small matics for students with moderate and whiteboard Screenshot of a lesson on group if one of the students is not severe disabilities (Browder.

74. 266-274. R. A. A.C. M. D. 22-39. L. & Courtade. Education and Research Associate/Project Coordinator. sis at a time. D.. Professor of Special Education: and tions has been shown to be an evi. Charlotte. Verona. T. (2008). Bethune (North Carolina CEC). The student also may doing so. (2011).. J. Ahlgrim. instruction for students with moderate (2012). Browder. (2011). S. http://dx. A. 407-413. L. 24-33.. N. B. C .. Saunders (North Carolina CEC). & Galloway. 47(4). Assistant Professor of Exceptional Education.doi. Jimenez.36-21 complete an algebraic problem to find graphs. Education Building 306. B.g.. E. 43. F. 0. Browder. J. M. B. B. teaching a few steps of the task analy... Harrisonburg. Characteristics of and implica- tions for students participating in alter- Students will need opportunities to nate assessments based on alternate aca- demic achievement standards. Education. awarded to the Univer- Developmental Disabilities. mathematics to students with significant Virginia. and no official endorsement need skills to meet these changing ate developmental disabilities. The University 26-35. Harris dis. he small range of instructional targets § 6301 ei seq. E. 407-432.org/10. Education and ualized instruction for this student.. (2006). References disabilities. A meta-analysis on teaching alization and prevent memorization. The University of North Carolina at Char- problems and across different contexts. Students with G. tice for teaching academics to students write the solution. 20 U.. sary component when planning Browder. G. Jimenez.org/10. V. Delzell. Teaching mathematics and sci- der et al. J. Spooner. Institute of Education and Training in Autism and to help all students become ready for Education Sciences. & Wakeman. 344223 Neef. Address correspondence concerning this finding points on a plane. 2008). A. individ. U. in equations) instead of to a No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Although mathematics abilities. L. Grade-aligned math instruction for secondary students with moderate Alicia F.. Keri S. A. In H.. Addition of functional Final Ilioughts Support for this research was provided in content during core content instruction part by Cram No. K. need opportunities to practice skills Training in Autism and Developmental Project MASTERY. position or policy of the Department of moderate and severe disabilities will tion to high school students with moder.S.. Hager. B.. Professor of Special Education. Vol. Jimenez. M. 47.S. 45.doi. R. after ence standards to students with moder. B. C.. et al... The Jour- practice skills using different numbers and nal of Special Education. NC 28223 (e-mail: 466910369942 store to see the actual locations. & Flowers. lotte. Exceptional Child. M. teachers will be able to with severe developmental disabilities. earliest mathematics skills throughout D. M. Department of Education. 36. research guidelines for teachers of students Copyright 2013 CEC. K.g.doi.. & Browder. mathematics to this population (Brow- (2012). Courtade. The opin- Jimenez. D. No. Mims... & Thomas. which might include extra practice or chronological age (Browder. M. R324A080014 from the The CCSS in mathematics were created with students with moderate disabilities. ions expressed do not necessarily reflect the in an age of technology. Jimenez. Advance online publication.. with moderate and severe disabilities Trela. Analysis. TEACHING Exceptional Children. Tfaining in Autism and Developmental align with the grade level of their Disabilities. students ate and severe developmental disabilities. K. can make progress toward grade. James Madison University. Kearns. D. B. sity of North Carolina at Charlotte. R.. 46. edu). Spooner.2003..1177/0022 of North Carolina. Journal of Applied Behavior supports. A. K. Towles-Reeves. 3-14. Kleinert. Students will intellectual disability. Jimenez et al. (2012). CEC). pp. Trela. using different numbers and story Disabilities. recognizing numbers presented Smith.1177/0022466909 story problems and across different contexts. severe disabilities can learn skills that mental disabilities. F. College of Education. F. C.. C. http://dx. For example. 21-33. on /10. P.. A. Ms. Saunders® unce. 2012. fix and Joseph quickly reached mastery find useful ways of teaching students Remedial and Special Education. Teaching an algebraic equa... Browder. College of might apply this approach to a simple The Journal of Special Education. students may generalize their & Page. Fred Spooner (North Carolina Practicing these skills in real-life situa. and severe disabilities. 9201 University City grocery store layout and then go to the Blvd.1177/0741932511421634 place. E. Harris. the demands of future careers and life sity of North Carolina at Charlotte. (2011). 46. A. ren. A. This approach will help promote gener. 2008).doi. (2003).. and Training in Developmental Dis- expectations. M. 3. (2008). and students /lO. Teaching to the standards in Step 6: Plan for aligned mathematics skills. http://dx. P. Collins. For example. Knight. M. range of mathematics standards (e. article to Alicia Saunders. Evidence-based prac- order of numbers and how to correctly alone on flash cards). http://dx. D.tive is to continue instruction while has shown students with moderate and with severe intellectual and develop- providing additional intensive. D.. & Browder. cognitive disabilities. This was a simple step process. Data-based decisions the student's school career. Wl: Attainment Company. TEACHING EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN | J A N / F E B 2013 33 . 45. instruction could focus on a few of the Jimenez.. (2008). Knight. 373-388. & Trela. The Univer- dence-based practice for teaching Browder. V.org criterion once this support was in the CCSS in mathematics. Analysis of precur- rent skills in solving mathematics story benefit from additional instructional growing numeracy skills to a wide problems. Using this six. & still needed a number line to identify (e. K. Education should be inferred.. D. A. Nelles. mathematics: A literacy-based approach Generalization for students with moderate and severe Planning for generalization is a neces. B. Iwata.1901/jaba. Diane Browder (North Carolina CEC)..org covered that although Joseph could recognizing numbers in perimeter. the missing value with a calculator. Kleinert.

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