Internet (Web) of Things

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
What is the Internet of Things?
 a global infrastructure for the information society,
 For enabling advanced services
 by interconnecting (physical and virtual) “things”
 based on existing and evolving interoperable information and
communication technologies

 A “thing” is an object of the physical world or the
information world (virtual thing), capable of being
identified and integrated via communication networks.

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
What is the Internet of Things?
 The Internet of Things –
 People
 Machines
 Vehicles
 Homes
 Factories
 Cities ....
 .....almost anything

 Interconnected and interoperating !!!

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
What is Internet of Things (IoT)
 IoT isn’t just about interconnectivity and interoperability..

 It is also about –
 Data gathering
 Analysis
 Applications
 Decision making
 Control
 Optimization
 ...............

 All done at scale!!

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
IoT Reference Model

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
The IoT World Forum Reference Model

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
IoT Reference Model

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
Sensors and IoT Endpoints
 The “Device” Network

Microcontrollers

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
Sensors and IoT Endpoints (contd.)

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
IoT Reference Model – Networking Layer

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
IoT System - Networking

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
IoT System – Networking (contd.)
 WAN - Cellular networks designed for smart-phone applications are
optimized for –
 High speed data and voice
 … and therefore are expensive and power hungry.

 IoT networks need to be designed for
 Low speed data
 … and should be inexpensive and low power.

 Solution: Low Power Wide Area (LPWA) optimized for IoT

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
IoT System – Networking with LPWA

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
IoT Reference Model – Service Layer

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
IoT Reference Model – Service Layer (contd.)
 IoT generates a lot of data
 Data is generated continuously (streaming data)..
 The amount of data increases with device population
 Data sources are highly distributed
 Data sources are on the move
 Data can become stale fairly soon
 Data location will depend on deployed application
 Data needs to be accurate
 Data needs to be secure
 Data needs to be useful ….
 ….

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
IoT Reference Model – Service Layer (contd.)
 Cloud computing –
 great solution when full, uninterrupted access to a cloud server capable
of processing and transmitting data quickly to the end device is available.

 IoT devices have to be able to reliably perform at task even during
service interruption –
 i.e. localized processing and storage capability becomes increasingly
essential.
 Introduced concepts of fog computing and edge computing.

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
IoT Reference Model – Service Layer (contd.)
Fog Computing
 Fog Computing – some preliminary computing nearer to the WAN,
instead of at the cloud.
 Processing of the large volume of data is closer to the end-points.
 Facilitates real-time processing and avoids data getting stale problem

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
IoT Reference Model – Service Layer (contd.)
Edge Computing

 Instead of doing the bulk of processing in a centralized server, each
device on the network would play its own role in processing the
information.

 Requires intelligent devices with processing power
 sensors are connected to programmable automation controllers (PAC)
which handle processing, communication, etc.

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
IoT Reference Model – Service Layer (contd.)
Fog Computing vs. Edge Computing

 E.g. Robotic room temperature sensor system in Smart Homes

 Fog computing
 a centralized fog node or IoT gateway would receive information
continuously from the temperature sensors, process that information,
and adjust the room temperature based on all sensor inputs.

 Edge computing
 an edge computing solution would enable each temperature sensor to
determine itself whether or not temperature is lower/higher than
room temperature and signal the adjusting mechanism.

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
IoT Reference Model – Service Layer (contd.)
IoT Data Collection System

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
IoT Reference Model – Service Layer (contd.)
IoT Data Collection System
 REST APIs

 MQTT - Message Queuing Telemetry Transport
 a machine-to-machine (M2M)/"Internet of Things" connectivity protocol.
 publish-subscribe-based "lightweight" messaging protocol
 designed for connections with remote locations where the network
bandwidth is limited.

 CoAP – Constrained Application Protocol
 Targeted for small low power sensors, switches, valves… controlled or
supervised remotely over the Internet
 Designed to easily translate to HTTP for simplified integration with Web
 Offers multicast support, very low overhead, and simplicity (important for
IoT where devices have much less memory and power)

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
IoT Reference Model – Application Layer

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
IoT- Real World Use Cases.
Smart Cities
 Focus has been on the implementation of communication-based
technologies, primarily led by Mobile Network operators (MNO)
 eGovernment

 Waste Management

 Intelligent Street Lighting

 Smart Parking and Intelligent Travel system

 Public Safety - Video Surveillance
 …………

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
IoT- Real World Use Cases.
Smart Cities

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
IoT- Real World Use Cases.
Automobile Industry
 Towards the future “Internet of Vehicles” and “Connected Vehicles”

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
IoT- Real World Use Cases.
Automobile Industry
 Towards the future “Internet of Vehicles” and “Connected Vehicles”

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
IoT- Real World Use Cases.
Automobile Industry
 Tesla Smart Car –
 Networked Data, Devices and Services
 Software controlled switches handle all vehicle control functions
 Over-the-Air Software Updates & Patches
 Add entirely new functionality to the car (e.g: Hill Start Assist )
 Data feed of near real-time traffic conditions (Source: Google Maps)
 Transmit vehicle status telemetry ………..
 The car has an API – Tesla API!!!

 Connected Ambulances

 Smart Bus System
Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
IoT- Real World Use Cases.
Healthcare
 Biomonitoring drugs, Pharmacy on a chip, Electronic pill dispensers,
electronic bottles etc…
 Smart watches, fitness monitors, Clinical monitoring, Home
monitoring, Kid care, Elderly care..
 Accident response, Emergency evacuation procedures, Critical care …
 Open data via “ Internet of Medical Things” !!

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
IoT- Real World Use Cases.
Smart Homes

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
Information Security
Office of Budget and Finance
Education – Partnership – Solutions

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
Technology Roadmap for IoT

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16
Further Reading
 IEEE Internet of Things Magazine "The Internet of Things: The story
so far“ (2016)

 Al-Fuqaha, Ala, et al. "Internet of things: A survey on enabling
technologies, protocols, and applications." IEEE Communications Surveys
& Tutorials 17.4 (2015): 2347-2376.

 W3C Semantic Sensor Networks
 http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/ssn/XGR-ssn-20110628/

Dr. Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 3-Nov-16