Part VI: The Next Generation Web

The Semantic Web

Need, Basics, Concepts, Technologies

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
WWW – Current Scenario
Devices

More than 2 billion users
Data More than 50 billion indexed Webpages
More than 5 million terabytes of data

Users WWW

Static Social IoT

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Limitations of the current Web

 Due to the ever-growing volume, the current Web is facing problems
relating to:

 finding relevant information

 extracting relevant information

 combining and reusing information

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Limitations of the current Web
Finding relevant information

 On the Web, keyword search has limited recall and low precision due to:
 Synonyms:
 Direct Synonyms – ‘long’ vs. ‘extended’
 Cognitive Synonyms – ‘bachelor’ vs. ‘unmarried men’
 Metonyms – ‘New Delhi’ used to mean ‘Indian Government’
 Polysemy:
 Bank – “a financial institution”, “the side of a river”, “rely upon”
 Hypernyms/hyponyms:
 ‘vehicle’/ ‘car’
 Homonyms:
‘bank’, ‘lie’…

 Capitonyms: ‘polish’ vs. ‘Polish’, ‘march’ vs. ‘March’
 Spelling variants/mistakes, Multiple languages ….

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Limitations of the current Web
Extracting relevant information
 One-fit-all automatic solution for extracting information from Web
pages is not possible due to different formats, different syntaxes.
 Extracting relevant information even from a single Web page is difficult.

1-Nov-16 Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal
Limitations of the current Web
Combining and reusing information (contd.)

1. Searching for the same information in different digital libraries

Example: I want to travel from Mangalore to New Delhi

1-Nov-16 Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal
Limitations of the current Web
Combining and reusing information (contd.)

2. Information may come from different sources & has to be combined
Example: I want to travel from Mangalore to Delhi where I want
to stay in a hotel and visit the city in a hired taxi.

1-Nov-16 Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal
What would we like to have?
 Use the data on the Web the same way as we do with documents:
 be able to link to data (independently of their presentation)
 use that data the way I want (present it, mine it, etc)
 agents, programs, scripts, etc, should be able to interpret part of
that data.

 We would like to extend the current Web to a “Web of data”:
 Allow applications to exploit the data directly and on demand.

* To a limited extent, this is what mashup based applications are
currently doing!

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Today’s Web may be defined as -

 A Syntactic Web...

...a web where –
 Computers do the presentation using colour schema, headers, and links
encoded in web pages
 Web apps (e.g. search engines, websites) provide ways to access available
content. (easy)

 Web apps provide limited support to interpret the available content in
meaningful ways.
 the task of the actual interpreting from large volume of Web data is
delegated to humans (hard).

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
The Semantic Web
 The next generation of the WWW where web resources have
machine-processable structure and machine-understandable semantics.
 Not a separate Web but an augmentation of the current one.

“ The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web in which
information is given a well-defined meaning, better enabling
computers and people to work in cooperation. It is the idea of having
data on the Web defined and linked in a way that it can be used for
more effective discovery, automation, integration and reuse
across various applications.”

-- Tim Berners-Lee, James Hendler and Ora Lassila,“The SemanticWeb”, Scientific American, May 2001

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, 1-Nov-16
NITK Surathkal
Semantic Web Architecture

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
The Semantic Web is about…
 Web Data Annotation (AnnotatedWeb)
 connecting (syntactic) Web objects, like text chunks, images, webpages
etc to their semantic notion or concepts
 e.g., this image is about Surathkal, Surathkal is a place, NITK is in
Surathkal, NITK is a technical institute…..

 Seamless Data Linking on the Web (Web of Knowledge)
 global networking of knowledge through URI, RDF, and SPARQL
 e.g., connecting my calendar with my RSS feeds, my travel pics, ...

 Seamless Data Integration over the Web (Web of Services)
 seamless integration of data based on different conceptual models
 e.g., integrating data coming from two different sources in two different
contexts
Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation
 Metadata is typically a collection of property-value pairs.
 Property names established by convention
 For example - What is my data? Where is my data? When was this data
created? How was it created? Who created it? ………

 Important in information retrieval and aggregation to enable knowledge
representation & machine reasoning.
 Semantic Web provides general purpose, standardized languages for
describing any metadata.

 Popular domain-independent formats – Dublin Core, Microformats, RDF
and RDFS

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Other types of Metadata specifications
 Media Specific: For images, videos, dialogues….
 EXIF, MPEG4, MPEG7, VoiceXML …

 Domain/Concept Specific: Ontologies, namespaces
 For describing people – FOAF
 For Web services – SAWSDL, OWL-S, hRESTS …

 Industry Specific (metamodels): RosettaNet, MARC (Library systems) …

 Application Specific: ICE (Syndication and Publishing) ..

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation - Methods
Dublin Core
 a small set of generic vocabulary terms used as metadata for Web
resources
 can be used to describe web resources (video, images, web pages, etc.),
as well as physical resources such as books or CDs, and objects like
artworks.

 Dublin Core Metadata Element Set consists of 15 metadata
elements:
 Title, Creator, Subject, Description, Publisher, Contributor, Date, Type,
Format, Identifier, Source, Language, Relation, Coverage, Rights

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation - Methods
Dublin Core
 Example –

<meta name="dc.language" CONTENT=“EN">
<
<meta name="dc.source“ CONTENT="http://infotech.nitk.ac.in/">
<
<meta name="dc.relation" CONTENT="http://www.nitk.ac.in/">
<
<meta name="dc.title" CONTENT=“Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal">
<
<meta name="dc.keywords" CONTENT=“NIT Karnataka, NITK Suratkal,
,
NITK”>
<
<meta name="dc.subject" CONTENT=“institute">
<
<meta name="dc.description" CONTENT=“Homepage of IT Dept at
NITK Surathkal">

 Dublin Core metadata is stored as name-value pairs within META tags
 These meta tags are to be added to all webpages in a particular
domain, to improve SEO and resource discovery.

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation - Methods
Microformats
 Provide means to embed structured data in HTML pages
 Can not only be read by people, but also can be understood by machines.

 A set of tag classes and patterns used for storing information in web pages
 Microformat tags are typically kept brief and descriptive.

 Is a Open format
 Microformats are not controlled by any one company or individual
 Anyone can suggest new Microformats or request revisions.

 Some examples - hCard, hCalendar, hEvent, hReview, hMedia, hAudio,
hNews, hResume, hProduct....
Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation - Methods
Microformats (example)

Consider the HTML:

<ul>
<li>Joe Doe</li>
<li>The Example Company</li>
<li>245 Main Street</li>
<li>New York</li>
<li>202-555-1234</li>
<li><a ref="http://example.com/">http://example.com/</a>
</li>
</
</ul>

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation - Methods
Microformats (example)
With microformat markup, that becomes:
<link rel="profile"
href="http://microformats.org/profile/hcard">
...
</head>
...
<
<ul class="vcard">
<li class="fn">Joe Doe</li>
<li class="org">The Example Company</li>
<li class=“adr”>245 Main Street</li>
<li class=“city”>New York</li>
<li class="tel">202-555-1234</li>
<li><a class="url"
href
href="http://example.com/">http://www.example.com/</a></li>
</
</ul>

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation - Methods
Microformats (example)

A live hCard as displayed on the webpage in the browser:

John Doe
The Example Company
245 Main Street
New York
Phone: 202-555-1234
Web: http://www.example.com/

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation - Methods
Microformats (example)

Consider another example

<div> Dragon-Age, Origins of PC Review by GameSpot on
Nov 3, 2009. Wii, Dragon age, Tiger Woods in this
GameSpot update for your benefit. I had a great hope
for …… Rating: 5 </div>

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation – Methods
Microformats (example)
With microformat markup, the HTML is transformed into :
<div class="hreview">
<span class="item“> <span class="fn“> Dragon-Age:
Age: Origins
of PC</span> </span>
Reviewed by <span class="reviewer“>GameSpot</span> on
<span class="dtreviewed“>3 Nov<span class="value-title"
title="2009
title="2009-11-03"></span> </span>
<span class=“fn">Dragon Age: Origins of PC</span>
<span class="description“> Wii, Dragon age, Tiger Woods
in this GameSpot update for your benefit. I had a great hope
for ..….…….</span>
Rating: <span class="rating">5</span>
</div>

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation - Methods
Microformats (example)

 A live hReview as displayed on the webpage in the browser when a
search engine encounters this microformatted data during a search:

 Similarly, microformats also provide aggregated review capabilities.

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation - Methods
Schema.org

 provides a collection of shared vocabularies webmasters can use to mark
up Webpages

 Provides a set of vocabularies called schema.org vocabularies.
 Microdata used is a set of tags, introduced with HTML5.

 can be understood by major search engines: Google, Microsoft,Yandex
and Yahoo!
 All major search engines have already announced support for structured
data exposed as schema.org vocabularies.
 Structured data to be exposed in Microdata, JSON-LD or RDFa
formats.

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation - Methods
Schema.org – Microdata Example

 Imagine you have a page about the movie Avatar—a page with a link to
a movie trailer, information about the director, and so on.

<div>
<h1>Avatar</h1>
<span>Director: James Cameron (born August 16,
1954)</span>
<span>Science fiction</span>
<a href="../movies/avatar-theatrical-
trailer.html">Trailer</a>
</div>

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation - Methods
Schema.org – Microdata Example (contd.)

 To begin, identify the section of the page that is "about" the movie
Avatar -

<div itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Movie">
<h1>Avatar</h1>
<span>Director: James Cameron (born August 16, 1954)
</span>
<span>Science fiction</span>
<a href="../movies/avatar-theatrical-
trailer.html">Trailer</a>
</div>

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation - Methods
Schema.org – Microdata Example (contd.)

 Movies have interesting properties such as actors, director, ratings. To
label properties of an item, use the itemprop attribute.

<div itemscope itemtype ="http://schema.org/Movie">
<h1 itemprop="name">Avatar</h1>
<span>Director: <span itemprop="director">James
Cameron</span> (born August 16, 1954)</span>
<span itemprop="genre">Science fiction</span>
<a href="../movies/avatar-theatrical-trailer.html"
itemprop="trailer">Trailer</a>
</div>

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation - Methods
Schema.org – Microdata Example (contd.)
 Search engines can leverage this metadata to create rich snippets and
enriched views of Web content.

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation - Methods
Schema.org – JSON-LD Example
 JSON-LD format for an address, to be added within the header of the
page whose content is to be exposed as structured data.
<script type="application/ld+json">
{
"@context": "http://schema.org",
"@type": "Organization",
"url": "http://www.your-company-site.com",
"contactPoint": [{
"@type": "ContactPoint",
"telephone": "+1-401-555-1212",
"contactType": "customer service"
}]
}
</script>

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation - Methods
Schema.org – RDFa Example

 RDFa format for created structured text with HTML content.

<p vocab="http://schema.org/" typeof="Person">
The Head of the Department of IT is <span
property="name">Prof. G.R.M. Reddy </span> and
he can be reached at <span
property="telephone">+91-824-247-3551</span>
and his email is <a property=“email”
href=“mailto://profgrmreddy@nitk.ac.in“>profgrm
reddy@nitk.ac.in</a>.
</p>
Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation - Methods
Resource Description Framework (RDF)

 defined by World Wide Web Consortiums (W3C) (1999)
 similar to classical conceptual modelling approaches such as entity–
relationship or class diagrams
 In RDF format, data is represented as a set of triples

 Visualization of RDF as a graph

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation – Methods
Resources in RDF

 A resource may be:
 Web page (e.g. http://www.w3.org)
 A person (e.g. http://www.narendramodi.in)
 A book (e.g. urn:isbn:0-345-33971-1)
 Anything denoted with a URI!

 A URI is an identifier and not a location on the Web

 RDF allows making statements about resources:
 http://www.w3.org has the format text/html

 http://www.narendramodi.in has first name Narendra

 urn:isbn:0-345-33971-1 has author Tolkien

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation – Methods
RDF Triple Graph Representation

 The triple data model can be represented as a graph
 Such graph is called a semantic net, in the Artificial Intelligence community

 Labeled, directed graphs
 Nodes: resources, literals
 Labels: properties
 Edges: statements

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation – Methods
RDF Literals
 Plain literals
 E.g. ”any text”
 Optional language tag, e.g. ”Hello, how are you?”@en-GB

 Typed literals
 E.g. "hello"^^xsd:string, "1"^^xsd:integer
 Recommended datatypes: - XML Schema datatypes

 Only as object of a triple, e.g.:
<http://example.org/#john>,
<http://example.org/#hasName>,
”John Smith”ˆˆxsd:string

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation – Methods
RDF Containers

 Three types of containers:
 rdf:Bag - unordered set of items

 rdf:Seq - ordered set of items

 rdf:Alt - set of alternatives

ELEMENT EXAMPLE
rdf:Bag “The lecture is attended by John, Mary and Chris”
rdf:Seq “[RDF-Concepts] is edited by Graham and Jeremy (in that order)”

rdf:Alt “The source code for the application may be found at
ftp1.example.org, ftp2.example.org, ftp3.example.org”

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation – Methods
RDF Containers (contd.)

 Every container has a triple declaring the rdf:type

 Items in the container are denoted with
 rdf:_1, rdf:_2, . . . ,rdf:_n

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation – Methods
RDF Containers Graph Representation: Bag

“The lecture is attended by John, Mary and Chris”

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation – Methods
RDF Containers Graph Representation: Seq

“[RDF-Concepts] is edited by Graham and Jeremy (in
that order)”

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation – Methods
RDF Containers Graph Representation: Alt

“The source code for the application may be found at
ftp1.example.org, ftp2.example.org, ftp3.example.org”

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation – Methods
RDF Collections

 RDF provides support for describing groups containing only the
specified members, in the form of RDF collections.

“[RDF-Concepts] is edited by Graham and Jeremy (in that
order) and nobody else”

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web Data Annotation – Methods
RDF: a Direct Connected Graph based Model

 Different interconnected triples lead to a more complex graphic
model

 Basically a RDF document is a direct connect graph and all such
data together are stored in RDF Datastores.

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Some tools for creating structured data…
 hCard Creator, hReview Creator….

 FOAF-a-matic, FOAF:maker

 Microdata Generator using Schema.org , RichSnippet Generator.

 Open Calais by Thomson Reuters, Alchemy, Cypher, D2RQ
 For automatically generating RDF from plain text/legacy data.

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web of Knowledge – Linking Open Data
Web of Knowledge
Linked Open Data & Services

 builds upon standard Web technologies such as HTTP, RDF, URIs

 Linked Data Principles -
 Data/service is self-describing.
 Entities are connected by links
 creating a global data graph that spans data sources and enables the discovery
of new data sources.
 The Web of Data/Services is open
 applications can discover new data sources at run-time just by following links.

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web of Knowledge
Linked Open Data & Services (contd.)

1. Use URIs as names for things.
2. Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names.
(dereferencible URIs)
3. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful RDF information.
4. Include RDF statements that link to other URIs so that they can
discover related things.

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web of Knowledge
Linked Open Data & Services (contd.)

W3C Linking Open Data Project
 Grassroots community effort to
 publish existing open license datasets as Linked Data on the Web
 Some examples – US Census Data, Project Gutenberg, Open Election
Data, BBC Programmes, British Museum…
 interlink things between different data sources
 Expose new data as open datasets.

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
May 2007

 Over 500 million RDF triples
 Around 120,000 RDF links between data sources
Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
In April
2014

http://data.dws.informatik.uni-mannheim.de/lodcloud/2014/
Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web of Knowledge
Tools to generate Linked Data

 From Legacy data
 D2R Server (data in Relational DB to Linked data)
 SparqPlug (extraction of linked data from plain HTML
documents)

 From RDF data
 Virtuoso Universal Server
 Talis Platform (can be used as a SaaS over HTTP)

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web of Knowledge
Some Interesting Applications ...

 Linked Data Browsers
 Marbles
 DISCO Hyperdata Browser

 Linked Data Search Engines
 Sig.Ma (DERI, Ireland)
 Falcons (China)

 Linked Data Mashups
 DBPedia Mobile

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Further Reading
 Linked Data - Connect Distributed Data across the Web
http://linkeddata.org/

 Christian Bizer, Tom Heath and Tim Berners-Lee (in press). Linked
Data - The Story So Far. International Journal on Semantic Web and
Information Systems, Special Issue on Linked Data.

 IEEE Internet Computing article on Exploiting Linked Data For
Building Web Applications. Michael Hausenblas.

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
The Semantic Service Web

Semantic Web Service Approaches

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
“Semantic Wave” (Web X.0)
“The semantic wave embraces four stages of Web growth:
Web 1.0,
1.0 was about dissipating information ...
Web 2.0 is about connecting people.
Web 3.0,
3.0 is about … connecting knowledge…
Web 4.0 is about … connecting intelligences in a ubiquitous web where both
people and things can reason and communicate together.”
together
[“
[“Semantic Wave 2008” , Mills Davis ]

Web 5.0 is the ultimate aim and it is about connecting models in a “Global
Understanding eNvironment (GUN)”, which will be such proactive, self-
managed evolutionary Semantic Web of Things, People and Abstractions where all kinds of
entities can understand, interact, serve, develop and learn from each other.
[
[Vagan Terziyan]
Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Existing Web Service Technologies…

Points to Description
UDDI WSDL
Registry

Points to
Service Describes
Finds
Syntax / keyword based only!
Services
Service

Service Web
SOAP
Consumer Service

Communicate with
XML Messages
Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
125
Deficiencies of Existing WS Technologies
 current technologies focus on manual usage of Web Services.
 Manual discovery, selection, invocation, execution, composition.
 Manual binding!!

 Web service technologies currently have -
 only syntactical information descriptions.
 No dynamic support during discovery, composition and execution.
 Web Service usability, usage, and integration needs to be inspected
manually.
 no semantically marked up content / services.
 no support for the Semantic Web.

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Semantic Web Services

Semantic Web Technology
 allow machine supported data interpretation
 ontologies as data model

+

Web Service Technology
 automated discovery, selection, composition and
execution of services

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Web of Intelligence powered by Services/Agents
Intelligent
Agents and
Applications Facilitates Intelligence-to-
Intelligence interaction
Web of intelligent
entities (intelligent
services), browseable,
searchable, composable,
self-managed, dynamic,
mobile …

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Intelligent Agents are needed !
An intelligent agent (a kind of “software robot”) will act, communicate
and collaborate on behalf of each Web resource

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Global Understanding eNvironment (GUN)
GUN - Ubiquitous Eco-System
for Ubiquitous Society.
• proactive
•self-managed
•evolutionary

Human-to-Human
Human-to-Machine
Machine-to-Human
Machine-to-Machine Agent-
Software-to-Human
to-
Software-to-Machine Agent
Software-to-Software
… Human-to-Software

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Semantic Web Services Initiative - Vision
To overcome limitations of traditional Web-Services Technology by
integrating it with Semantic Technology, such as -
(1) To enable automatic, personalized and on-the-fly service discovery;
(2) To enable automatic, on-the-fly service invocation ;
(3) To enable on-the-fly, semantic mediation of Web-Services.
(4) To enable automatic, on-the-fly service composition and integration;
(5) To enable automatic, on-the-fly service invocation and execution
monitoring;
(6) To enable learnable, agent-based proactivity and service-to-service
communication;

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Example: Automatic Service Discovery, Invocation, Mediation,
Compositions and Integration with Personalization
A full-fledged Semantic Web scenario -

The entertainment system was belting out the Beatles' song "We Can
Work It Out" when the phone rang. When Peter answered, his phone
turned the sound down by sending a message to all the other local
devices that had a volume control. His sister, Lucy, was calling
from the doctor's office: She said - "Mom needs to see a specialist and
then has to have a series of physical therapy sessions. Biweekly or something.
I'm going to have my agent set up the appointments." Peter immediately
agreed to share the chauffeuring. …

Excerpt from: Scientific American: The Semantic Web: May 2001
<http://www.sciam.com/2001/0501issue/0501berners
<http://www.sciam.com/2001/0501issue/0501berners-lee.html>
Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Example: Automatic Service Discovery, Invocation, Mediation,
Compositions and Integration with Personalization

• “At the doctor's office, Lucy instructed her Semantic Web
agent through her handheld’s Web browser. The agent promptly
retrieved information about her Mom's prescribed treatment
from the doctor's agent, looked up several lists of providers,
and checked for the ones in-plan for Mom's insurance within a
20- mile radius of her home and with a rating of excellent
or very good on trusted rating services.

• (The emphasized keywords indicate terms whose semantics, or meaning,
were defined for the agent as per SemanticWeb standards.)

Excerpt from: Scientific American: The Semantic Web: May 2001
<http://www.sciam.com/2001/0501issue/0501berners
<http://www.sciam.com/2001/0501issue/0501berners-lee.html>
Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Example: Automatic Service Discovery, Invocation, Mediation,
Compositions and Integration with Personalization

• “………. It then began trying to find a match between available
appointment times (supplied by the agents of individual
providers through their Web sites) and Lucy's busy schedule.”

• (The emphasized keywords indicate terms whose semantics, or meaning,
were defined for the agent as per SemanticWeb standards.)

Excerpt from: Scientific American: The Semantic Web: May 2001
<http://www.sciam.com/2001/0501issue/0501berners
<http://www.sciam.com/2001/0501issue/0501berners-lee.html>
Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Example: Automatic Service Discovery, Invocation, Mediation,
Composition and Integration with Personalization


 In a few minutes the agent presented them with a plan. Peter
didn't like it—University Hospital was all the way across town
from Mom's place, and he'd be driving back in the middle of rush
hour. He set his own agent to redo the search with stricter
preferences about location and time. …

 (The emphasized keywords indicate terms whose semantics, or meaning,
were defined for the agent as per SemanticWeb standards.)

Excerpt from: Scientific American: The Semantic Web: May 2001
<http://www.sciam.com/2001/0501issue/0501berners
<http://www.sciam.com/2001/0501issue/0501berners-lee.html>
Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Example: Automatic Service Discovery, Invocation, Mediation,
Composition and Integration with Personalization with Trust


 Lucy's agent, having complete trust in Peter's agent in the
context of the present task, automatically assisted by
supplying access certificates and shortcuts to the data it
had already sorted through. …

 (The emphasized keywords indicate terms whose semantics, or meaning,
were defined for the agent as per SemanticWeb standards.)

Excerpt from: Scientific American: The Semantic Web: May 2001
<http://www.sciam.com/2001/0501issue/0501berners
<http://www.sciam.com/2001/0501issue/0501berners-lee.html>
Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Example: Automatic Service Discovery, Invocation, Mediation,
Composition and Integration with Personalization & Trust


 Almost instantly the new plan was presented: a much closer
clinic and earlier times—but there were two warning notes.
First, Peter would have to reschedule a couple of his less
important appointments. He checked what they were—not a
problem.

 Lucy registered her assent for the new plan, her agent updated it
in her daily planner and it was all set.

Excerpt from: Scientific American: The Semantic Web: May 2001
<http://www.sciam.com/2001/0501issue/0501berners
<http://www.sciam.com/2001/0501issue/0501berners-lee.html>
Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Semantic Web Services - Standardization efforts

 Big Web Services –
 Web Ontology Language for Services OWL-S (Submission Status )
 Web Service Modeling Ontology WSMO (Submission Status )
 Semantic Annotations for WSDL and XML Schema SAWSDL
(Recommendation Status )

 RESTful Web Services
 hRESTS (Submission Status )
 WSMO-lite (Submission Status )
 MicroWSMO (Submission Status )

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
What are Ontologies??
BRIEF DISCUSSION ON ONTOLOGIES
Defining an Ontology
 Most common definition – Gruber’s
“An ontology is a formal, explicit specification of an conceptualization”
where,
concept – an abstract model
explicit – elements are clearly defined.
formal – specification is machine processable.

 Definition by Sowa
“the study of categories of things that exist or may exist in some domain, i.e.
 “An ontology is a catalogue of things that may exist in a domain of
Interest D, from the perspective of a person who uses a vocabulary V
for talking about D.”

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Formal definition of an Ontology
 An ontology can be described as a 5 –tuple O such that
O = { C, R, CH, rel, OA} where
 C - Set of Concepts Maedche (2002)
 R - Set of Relations
 CH is a concept hierarchy, where CH(C1, C2) indicates that C1 is a sub-
concept of C2
 rel : R  C x C is a function that relates the concepts non-taxonomically.
 OA – set of ontology axioms, expressed in appropriate logical language.

 Most existing knowledge representation languages are consistent with this
definition.
 E.g. OWL, OWL-S, WSMO etc.

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Ontology Example FOAF…

Concept name email
conceptual entity of the domain
Person
Attribute student
name
research
field
property of a concept isA – hierarchy (taxonomy)

Relation Student Professor
relationship between concepts or attends
properties holds

Axiom Lecture
coherent description between Concepts / lecture
Properties / Relations via logical name.
topic
expressions

holds(Professor, Lecture)  Lecture.topic  Professor.researchField

HANDS ON DEMO : http://vowl.visualdataweb.org/webvowl/index.html
Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Ontology Libraries
 DAML ontology library http://www.daml.org/ontologies/
 Protege ontology library
http://protege.stanford.edu/ontologies.html
 Ontolingua ontology library
http://www.cs.umd.edu/projects/plus/SHOE/onts/index.html
 WebOnto ontology library http://webonto.open.ac.uk
 SHOE ontology library
http://www.cs.umd.edu/projects/plus/SHOE/onts/index.html
 WebODE ontology library http://webode.dia.fi.upm.es/
 (KA)2 ontology library http://ka2portal.aifb.uni-karlsruhe.de/

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
OWL-S
 OWL-S represents an upper ontology for the description of Semantic
Web Services expressed in OWL.
 It has its roots in the DAML Service Ontology (DAML-S).
 It adopts existing Semantic Web recommendations (i.e. OWL).
 It maintains bindings to the Web Services domain by linking to WSDL
descriptions.

 W3C Member Submission

Ref: https://www.w3.org/Submission/OWL-S/

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
OWL-S
Conceptual Model – Service Class

 The class Service
 provides an organizational point of reference for a declared Web service.
 The class has three properties:
 presents
 Defines what service does.
 Points to the ServiceProfile instance.
 supports
 Defines how to access the described service.
 Points to the ServiceGrounding instance.
 describedBy
 Defines how the service works. OWL-S Conceptual Model

 Points to the ServiceModel instance.

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
WSMO Ontology

 four main components are defined:
 Ontologies: provide formal semantics to the information used by all
other components.

 Goals: specify objectives that a client might have when finding a Web
service.

 Web Services: represent the functional (and behavioral) aspects
which must be semantically described in order to allow semi-
automated use.

 Mediators: used as connectors, they provide interoperability facilities
among the other elements.
http://www.w3.org/Submission/WSMO-primer/
Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
SAWSDL
 How to add semantic annotations to various parts of a WSDL
document
 Input and output message structures, interfaces and operations.

 Relies on adding simple extension attributes to WSDL itself.
 Compliant to WSDL v2.0 and v1.1, and XML Schema

 Independent of any ontology expression language and mapping
languages.
http://www.w3.org/TR/sawsdl/#Example

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
For ReSTful Web Services
hRESTS

 For Web APIs, "There's usually an HTML page"
 There's no ‘WSDL’ for Web apps. (WADL not adopted widely.)
 APIs described mostly in natural language text.

 hRESTS is used for identifying machine-readable parts like -
 Service information.
 Its operations
 Resource address, HTTP method
 Input/output data format

Ref: hRESTS: An HTML Microformat for Describing RESTful Web Services

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
For ReSTful Web Services
hRESTS (contd.)

 HTML for RESTful Service Description.

 Introduces the service model structure
 service (+ label)
 operations (+ address, method)
 input, output

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
hRESTS
Example Description

Description of the Find Hotels service:

The operation getHotelDetails
is invoked using the method GET at
http://example.com/h/{id},
with the ID of the particular hotel replacing
the parameter id. It returns the hotel details
in an ex:hotelInformation document.

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
hRESTS
Example HTML

<p>Description of the Find Hotels service:</p>

<p>
The operation <code>getHotelDetails</code> is
invoked using the method GET
at <code>http://example.com/h/{id}</code>,
with the ID of the particular hotel replacing
the parameter <code>id</code>.
It returns the hotel details in an
<code>ex:hotelInformation</code> document.
</p>

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
hRESTS
Example hRESTS

<div class="service" id="svc">
<p>Description of the
<span class="label">Find Hotels</span> service:</p>

<div class="operation" id="op1">
<p>
The operation <code class="label">getHotelDetails</code> is
invoked using the method <span class="method">GET</span>
at <code class="address">http://example.com/h/{id}</code>,
with <span class="input">the ID of the particular hotel replacing
the parameter <code>id</code>.</span>
It returns <span class="output">the hotel details in an
<code>ex:hotelInformation</code> document.</span>
</p></div>

</div>
Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Some tools currently available
 For generating OWL-S fro WSDL
 WSDL2OWL-S, OWL-S Editor
 Mindswap OWL-S API
 JAVA2OWL-S

 For creating WSMO
 WSMO Studio with WSMX

 For RESTful services
 SWEET (Semantic WEb service Editing Tool) for Web APIs
 Iridescent

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Some Semantic Web enabled real-world
applications

 Google’s Knowledge Graph

 Bing Semantic Search

 Semantic Q/A Engines
 IBM Watson
 Evi
 Wolfram Alpha

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Current Status
Knowledge/Experience

Adoption
Current State
Confidence in ability to
implement SW applications
Advocacy
Positive experiences of the
Enthusiasm power of Semantic Web
People are now asking “How”
questions as opposed to
Curiosity “Why” and “What”.

Skepticism
Commitment to Action
Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16
Further Reading
 Scientific American (May 2001) : “ The Semantic Web”
http://www.sciam.com/2001/0501issue/0501berners-lee.html

 McIlraith, Sheila A., Tran Cao Son, and Honglei Zeng. "Semantic web
services." IEEE intelligent systems. (CMU)

 Jim Hendler, “Agents on the Semantic Web”,
http://www.cs.rpi.edu/~hendler/AgentWeb.html

Dr.Sowmya Kamath S, Dept of IT, NITK Surathkal 1-Nov-16