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Front cover:

THEARUP Fabric membrane. designed by Arups , on the Deliberatif at Marsei lle Hotel
du Departement. (Photo: Paul Rafferty)
Back cover:
Allt-Ruigh Bridge, Glencoe. (Photo: Jim Burridge)

Vol.29 No.4 Editor:
4/ 1994 David J. Brown
Art Editor:
Published by Desmond Wyeth FCSD
Ove Arup Partnership
13 Fitzroy Street, Deputy Editor:
London W1 P 680 Helene Murphy
Tel : 0171 636 1531 Tel : 0171 465 3828
Fax: 0171 580 3924 Fax: 0171 465 3716

Hotel du The new county hall in Marseille for the Departement des Bouches-
Departement, du-Rhone is one of the most significant French public buildings of
Marseille recent years . Ove Arup & Partners designed the structure - derived
Bob Lang from a modular order that embraces the building's separate
Hugh Muirhead elements - and servicing , which incorporates an extensive use of
natural light and ventilation .

Motorway Widening existing motorways offers a huge range of engineering
widening and environmental challenges . Many parts of Arups have
projects contributed to the attempts to solve these problems, and the firm 's
Phil Hall expertise on major highways over the years has contributed to the
innovative approach needed to ensure that the widening programme
is handled in a sensitive but practical manner. The firm is currently
involved with widening sections of the M 1, M6. M25 , and M42.

Sellafield Ove Arup & Partners were commissioned by British Nuclear Fuels
geotechnical to investigate the geological suitability of a site at Sellafield for the
study construction of a proposed pressurized water reactor.
Colin Curtis
Andrew Law
David Pascall

Sellafield In another separate commission for BNFL. Arups carried out a
seawater comprehensive examination of the options for constructing
cooling tunnelling to convey seawater from the Irish Sea to the proposed
system PWR .
Martyn Stroud
Hakop Mirzabaigian

Allt-Ruigh This new arch bridge in the Highlands of Scotland was designed
Bridge, by Arups to blend unobtrusively with the natural beauty of its
Glencoe setting .
Jim Burridge

Note: The photo on p. 18of TheArupJournal 2/94]
captioned as Pagbllao p_ower sta. lion in fact showed a
model of Shenzhen lnternatiOnaJ Economic Trade
J Centre, Guangdong, China The scheme was
~igned by SOM with no Arup involvement.


curved-section building . wider. it is difficult to do retained . to house the council chambers . quantity surveyors. where people are used to wide temperature variation and Furthermore. create 75 000m 2 of office and conference Though perceived as a piece of visionary archi- space. the building has two major articulate the form of the building and make a elements of office space. so much international design competition for a new could be made of natural ventilation and ther- local government headquarters in Marseille. Hotel du Departement. Also the St Just metro station . were suc- By careful manipulation of the building cross- cessful and announced as winners in July 1990. justice to the plethora of design challenges prising three rows of office blocks spaced by and the processes involved in solving them . (excluding terraces. however. and 1000 below-ground car parking rationale . Bouches-du-Rhone announced an open . containing the The essential elements of the brief were to chambers and conference space . Marseille Bob Lang Hugh Mu irhead Introduction two atria. All this led to a first scheme com.well tions are described in the following pages. The blocks were to be tall and thin . Some of the issues and their solu- spaces . The buffer zones were thus omit- Alsop & Lyall (latterly William Alsop Architects). the Administratif. profiled. 1. THE ARUP JOURNAL 4/ 1994 3 . Administratif behind. building height restrictions intro- proposals. these natural phenomena were exploited to As seen today. the long. the external environment around strong winds: the notorious mistral is a feature such a building mass could be made more of life in this part of France. the building owes much to technical storage) .had to be such a short space. mal control from buffer zones formed by 156 entries were received . The completed building from the east: Deliberatif in the foreground . using internal teams presented their schemes in detail. circulation . in within the curtilage of the site . pressure profiles and controlled The competition-winning design made much aerodynamics could be grasped and used. and a long. hospitable. when the jury sat and the design much shorter. plant areas and tecture. and real contribution to how it would function . In early 1990 the French Departement des the Deliberatif. were selected in April 1990 to extend their However. ted and attention focused on wind effects to with Ove Arup & Partners as engineers and assist climate moderation. Deliberatif. Where possible. These were narrowed down to two duced after the competition finally called for a in June. section. from which five external corridors and circulation spaces. of the local climate of Marseille. treatment. Hanscomb Ltd.

Deliberatif office planning grid of 5.6m . furthermore. as well as prevailing west winds. It was accepted that the impact of such development should be reviewed retrospectively once plans were published . Sandstone. but if well understood might be used to advantage.4m: by doubling this structural to 10. Just metro station. Their retaining structures made it preferable to keep them as they were. The eastern and southern boundaries are bordered by highways raised 6-8m above a generally flat site. arriving over subur- ban terrain as the mistral.granular material and river deposits above this . accelerate through and above val- leys and hills to the north . the major 10·8 10·8 10·8 10·8 founding material. there was little natural shad- 3. roughly orientated 2. therefore. using an X-column diagram. Its origin is in the 4. Although the site was flanked by the eastern highway. Furthermore. In terms of climate. The northern one-third of the site is traversed obliquely by the St. A considerable area of flat land to the west was to be devel- oped. 4 THE ARUP JOURNAL 4/1994 . The metro contin- Salle de Rock 4 Block B with Aerofil above ues its journey south below ground and the Auditorium 5 Dellberatif tunnel forms the site's western boundary. Modular order I I Although it is not immediately obvious . and old.6m panels of cladding between major grids. significantly tall buildings could affect late evening sun . would carry load well . was. the highways being d iagram .' ' . here. Predominant winds. close to any future building. : som The geography and geometry of the site. south-west to north-east and semi-buried as it Site p lan . which in turn implied that a new perimeter ' road might act as separation between new .not competing with the more liberal volumes and surfaces . again avoiding awkward foundations. Later in the design development. gave clues as to how any develop- ment might function. arrangement of transfer structures. Geological conditions did not influence the building form at all. if overly complex founda- tions were to be avoided. this gave clues as to how the building might be arranged. four car parking spaces and a column zone are achieved . the metro had to be built over to accom- 1-4 Adm1rnstratif modate a linear building. leading to an extruded form by virtue I of the section being repeated and so becom- ing a linear building. a module of rich order . Potentially both friend and foe. In turn . the lowest common dimension of 300mm permits a neat transition between large-scale structure and smaller elements of construction within the building. the approximately north- south major axis of the site presented design opportunities. as always. 21-6 t installed to direct storm water from the north- tI I 3·6 3·6 ern area of the city. By again doubling to 21 . traffic noise would require Administratif structural special consideration .underlies the building 's arrangement. It was accepted that 1 Stock A transfer structures would be required and that 2 Atrtum these would play a fundamental role in how 3 Ovoid within Atrium the building was organized . and the remblais ./'. this links well with the geometric theme of the Deliberatif envelope and practi- cal considerations of panel manufacture. When such a linear form is superimposed on the site a number of fun- damental design issues arise. two options for this land were defined and incorporated into the wind model testing . and then a division of this yields six 3. Fine river deposits I and the former course of the River Jarret explained the presence of a large culvert. some Sm deep . ing. Possible future highrise building l The site The building as a whole was conceived in section. the wind effects obviously required careful study.8m in the basement. the main structural grid of the Deliberatif is defined . Evidence suggested that a dry basement could be constructed and traditional piles or barrettes used . for 5·4 5·4 5·4 5·4 example. An east-west axis naturally prompted consideration of sun-path and light intensity. Again.were 10·8 10·8 10·8 10·8 found to be dry and only requiring simple excavation techniques.

All this both protects the extruded using a module of penetrations through the form of the Administratif and articulates the web to allow free passage of services. commencing at lower mezza- Block A The higher. within the Atrium . This Each block is stabilized against horizontal feature is further emphasized by the glazing. and the simplicity of the X-columns is. permanent shuttering not dissimilar to the Omnia system. continuous throughout ance . the way several simple elements interact. housing amenities Detail of the Ovoid and exploit instead the geometry of ex. uses pre-dalles. Some parts of the total project are complex. Blocks A rolling gantry and jig. 7. The somewhat smaller V-columns are of commence their work. transfer load over one storey from Aerofoil building above terrace level . Longitudinally. is a large but generally expensive and cumbersome transfer beams 5. separated by the continuous Atrium to 10. load by four cores. Gable under construction. cast in a specially fabricated cast columns. the Ovoid. partitioning and pre. from the peri- throughout their 150m length. longitudinal beams were cast on plan . a form of concrete was made at mezzanine level. Protection of outer cores. also carries the nine level . the X-columns were cast 8. the internal V-columns below mezzanine. The columns on the load from the external columns by a series of perimeter have an elliptical section with two inclined struts and ties and transfers it back to continuous slots for fixing partitions. The stability system and X- this higher order simplicity yields pockets of columns interact longitudinally due to the high complexity . and perhaps the key reference point.4m grid. shutters. two each for Blocks A and B. Blocks A and Tapering in section . dimensional concrete structure. it was decided to avoid Administratif. whilst the internal columns to those below. meter columns of the offices above. These are located in the two allowed an elegant transfer of load from 5. making three spans laterally. cantilevering over 90m deliberately set behind the X-columns to from foundation level . the height of the building. and consolidated office space for the pressed structure.8m over three storeys .the consequence.5m beyond the last X.5 floor and the level at which the X-columns days.The Administratif escape stairs at approximately 32m intervals. The in situ concrete precast concrete with an in situ stitch at the floors above are supported by four in situ/pre. the Aerofoil . Clarity of line system of beams and slab permitted the con. at the same time turning the forces through 90° The central. central 50m length. There are expansion joints at each end of the not from technical vanity or design exuber. then.4m blocks. arranged around leave their form exposed . is compacted in three stages: from reinforcement level 1. all tractor to standardize and use rolling shutters that remains externally despite the apparent for the two outer spans. The X-columns at level 1 Departement. and that most penetrated by stabilized by temporary frames until the tie services. and the Atrium in situ using four specially fabricated steel constitute the Administratif. the Ovoid . THE ARUP JOURNAL 4/1994 5 . It gathers ferred office module. A system of bayo- nale that allows the vast majority of it to be net joints prevent excessive torsion in the two realised with great economy. though . simple concrete building . primarily. The In the basement. A series erence the lower block and most westerly is of V-columns . These arrived on site in four pieces . The two elements of the V were The centre span . January 1993. The structure within the building. of shear stiffness of columns below level 1. These five elements . the Atrium houses a free-standing structure. Administratif gable end structural diagram. cantilever of 7. complete with Despite their geometric differences. For ease of ref. Block B. lower knuckle. approximately 12m above the arrival cage construction to finished column took 2. which balances well The ossature du pignon is very much a three- with the glazing module. 6. but from the defence of ordered ratio. Common to levels allowed concrete to be poured and both. steel shutter. the columns The gable frame are on the 5. Access points at three and Bare constructed identically.

though the blade-like precast external pilotis which elevate it have their own character. Rather than be left exposed . This is in part Deliberatif. and by a central solar paddle whose angle is moved in response to the sun's position by a computer to give maximum shading. tensile screens attached to each roof truss. The system is in turn linked to a Building Management System (BMS). raked. As with all large glazed spaces. this com- prises three 1152kW units and one 562kW.4m centres. These enable maximum benefit to be derived from natural phenomena. and arranged as a series of frames at 5. Cooling is supplied from the central chiller plant. it is difficult to control the internal environment as a whole.The Aerofoil includes two floors. Administratif Block A. The bridges link Blocks A and B across the Atrium at each level. 6 lliE ARUP JOURNAL 411994 . but also a piece of 'machinery' which actively End elevation. whilst in summer a secondary cooling circuit . they can experience large temperature varia- tions due to stratification of air in summer and cold draughts in winter. the Atrium. but also actively via pro- grammed sensors on the roof that track the sun and measure wind velocity. The Aerofoil The Aerofoil continues Block B's four-column arrangement upward. and houses the presidential suite. Serving the whole building. The Atrium roof is at the highest level of Block A and spans 1Bm to level 5 on Block B. framed in structural steelwork bent to differing radii . Vents on the roof open and close in response to the wind-induced pressure distribution. control- ling the intake and exit of air. a circle of small diameter at the base transforming to a long ellipse at their head. is bolted to the main concrete floors. In the event of fire the solar paddles are rotated to the verti- cal position to give maximum area for smoke dissipation. 9. showing from left to right: moderates its internal climate. A: Sun path Shading 8. Each frame. This form suggests a portal structure for stability. these highest office levels in each Block need pro- tection from solar gain. controlling and adjusting shutters and blinds in response to changing conditions and climate. but this is not the case. using the same pipework. each bridge is partially enclosed and has an electric underfloor heating system. The automatic venting control can be over-ridden and manually controlled by firemen from the fire control panel. the Atrium can experience violent swings and steep gra- dients of temperature. Administratif Block B with Aerofoil achieved by static measures like roof and above. Due mainly to the sheer volume of the space. It also allows commanding views over Marseille and to the sea beyond. stable in its own right. Those areas subject to frequent human occu- pation were considered and addressed on the basis of local control. Elevated as they are. Radiated heat from these warms the lower reaches of the Atrium in winter.The Atrium venti- lation and smoke extract system relies com- pletely on natural means. In section the Aerofoil has a curved profile . The Atrium is not only the cathedral-scale dividing element between Blocks A and B. Laid within the screed of the latter (rez-de- chaussee) is a network of pipes for underfloor heating. levels 8 and 9. More sensors on the roof relay wind velocity to the BMS. This is achieved in two ways : by static. gable glazing. the Aerofoil takes its stability from cores. the latter handling equipment loads from the Administratif in winter. like the rest of Block B. Two major areas were identified: the bridges (passere//es) which traverse the Atrium (two groups on four levels) and the Atrium floor. B: Sirocco Wind protection Response of building form to specific The Atrium C: Mistral Wind protection environmental criteria. provides a radiant cooling effect from the slab . They vary in section with height.

creating prestress in the cables and thus controlling loss of tension.4m grid. Due to possible differential hor- izontal movement between A and B. each girder sits in sliding bearings at each floor level. and only longitudinal forces from wind transferred to them .. A and B can then move independently. Two-point funicular The Deliberatif has a distinctive aerofoil-like trusses. ~ 10. geometry. THE ARUP JOURNAL 4/1994 7 . l'rX. each Computer image of Oeliberatif geometric form . rather than being pre-defined. similar to those pendent movement of Blocks A and B is pos. dic- Gable glazing tated that a larger number of small panels Given that lateral movement between the should be used. Potential then folding into a wing profile .u. very early that the glazing should be sus. a geometric stresses are relieved by sliding joints in the starting-point was defined . shaped and then mirroring this in the bottom The catalyst was an exercise in paper folding . To prevent this. placed horizontal bracing. ~~ E(}p. The Atrium . them. its shape the product of a the glazing and window cleaning equipment.. the accommodation to be nate circular hollow sections which make up created inside the Deliberatif.. cropping the corners to Just as the Administratif Blocks are broken by create a symmetrical coffin-like shape . centre portion supporting the axle of the solar would respond to panel size and section paddle . glazing should fill the gap between Blocks A and B. which give lateral stiffness to the glazing and double as clean- ing platforms. At T 12.?R. as well as prac- the principal elements of each truss. the whole structure was pre-loaded during erection . pended. Developing the Deliberatif geometric form. taking vertical load and preventing twist in the horizontal wind girders. west wind flow. Fabricated steel mountings termi. the roof. rtM l>£'1£Lbl£b rHC"1 cross-section that serves to smooth out east- have a dual function . 8£/:b. and the floor. ::::C>r<:t>-. It was predicted that the cables may loosen under certain loads. so is its roof. tical considerations in panel production . Form-finding techniques .The structural efficiency of the roof truss sec. local bending is resolved by the axle By scoring isosceles triangles onto a rectan- taking its support at position of greatest depth. used in membrane structures.e-c. The top boom carries ~ -----. In making the solar paddles aerofoil. and movement joints. Furthermore. gular piece of card ./4 geometric study aimed to create a surface whilst the three-part bottom boom has outer where each cladding panel is identical. The elements supporting fabric shades and a structure ..iY."1-. boom. This exercise sug- longitudinal members and strategically gested that each panel could be similar. Lateral and inde.J~ol. roof level they have cables attached. arranged to match the 5.. demonstrated sible by fixing roof trusses to the former and that extending this philosophy beyond 12 tri- using a guided bearing on Block B. with the glass suspended between. Differential longitudinal movement between each Block is not significant and a system of flexible gaskets form a resilient seal to the glass and buildings. angular panels would create distortion in site side. A system of jibs (similar to cranes) were designed as part of the roof structure. it was decided ~ 11 . The Deliberatif tion and the overall geometry are in harmony A study in form wi th the shading system. the oppo. The distortion therefore had Blocks could be significant and that the gable to be quantified and further tested .

its name a legacy of earlier follow the folded paper concept. derived from planning the internal space instead carrying two levels of walkways and The end panels are clear. and boiler plant are remote from the building than 25mm using a flat triangular panel of bay of the building. also sized for low velocity air-flow so that ed use. This required the selection of high perfor- reached by escalator. Circular membrane (white). and the aerofoil-like having a comparatively resilient cladding sys. public galleries. each being fed from central plant. By By introducing a stretched fabric structure to above the floor of arrival. forced by welding on a T-section . the walkways are structure wrapping around it. <111 14 Layers of Deliberatif roof. and consists of an retain each panel identical and calculate serves as a surface to attach cladding. the western columns are vertical and those to the east inclined. since the concrete frame is largely enclosed. central. the western leg kicks out at 45° to permit the metro line to pass below. enclosing a volume This is exposed arid free of cladding panels.5 x 1m). The latter concept was tested against a max. By careful understanding and manipulation of stress levels. being laid over the white membrane. As elsewhere. The trailing edge.6m on the exposed. systems to meet demand. This also the concrete structure. stair or high level walk. The results of computer drawings giving support to a stretched membrane Climate control within the Deliberatif is and mathematics revealed that distortions structure. by dedicated all-air systems. shaded . and spaced at 21 . frame controls both strength and deflection. At the most northerly frame. carried by the concrete frame to which rings continually modulated by the central control are attached around their perimeter.very served by four pipe fan coils to condition the much a public space and a focal point of the permanent elements are installed. Each steel ring was pre-cambered to com- pensate for the deflection that occurs when all Function suites. it was decided modate movement of the concrete frame. required . lateral forces are air to re-circulated air is pre-programmed.or.6m x 1m. it was possible to estimate shrinkage forces and design the structural elements accordingly. Thermal effects are less significant. sharp edge the T is omitted and a lattice steel and pre-tensioned against movement. library.6m. freedom of movement. proposals. Accommodation is arranged on three floors . middle: plywood particular to that grid line and one other on panels. cables translates imparted force back to the spaces and debating chambers are served tained much greater imperfection and would principal frame. steel annular frames. tem that meets stringently low noise levels. for restrict. Surrounding the accommodation is a shell-like outer skin of triangular metal cladding panels. equally. The building The steel frame responds to expansion and Special attention was paid to designing a sys- The Deliberatif is physically separated from contraction by through central braced bays. Predicted occu- require special panels or a closing strip. con. Ductwork was way. however. All the columns are linked by storey-height concrete beams which complete portal frames for lateral and longitudinal loads. Panels are 3. ments are omitted at intervals to allow greater mance grilles and attenuators. top : insulation and vapour barriers Each steel frame is bent to a specific radius. again of the same triangular geometry. sity as it progresses away from the building. the Administratif. Specially designed steel gantries allowed each pair of columns to be cast in one operation . for those areas immediately behind . each frame was checked to accom. design. It is clad in glass whose blue tint varies in den- imum panel size of 3-4m. This would help create the continuous shell-like 13.IAL 4/1994 . It contains the noise is not regenerated within the system. longitudinal ele. Furthermore. The concrete platform is supported on 16 columns. cladding. Conveniently located behind the membrane pancy levels of the major spaces can vary Accepting distortion allowed the building structure is the longitudinal stability system for considerably. Each tapers with height and is based on a cropped triangular section at its head (approximately 3 x 3m). bottom: weather seal the opposite side of the centre line. This steel structure follows the aerofoil section. Over 'aviary' walkway. the eastern exposed side. By so doing the structure was designed on the space. Insulation and vapour barriers lie beneath the plywood panels on separate chassis. Major public 3. are enclosed by a large glass screen. The building is readily divisible into two major elements: a concrete platform 8-1 Orn basis of strength and only in part stiffness. showing the concrete platform. Chillers could be readily absorbed by joints no wider extends for 21 . The weather seal lies beneath and consists of a membrane laid over plywood panels of similar geometry to the metal ones above. <111 15. supported at each cor- ner by the main. bending forces in the columns and beams were minimized by constructing from each end. and offices are reception halls and functional suites . There is separate lift access. the lower two which house plant and storage Metal cladding panels being continuous throughout the length. solar gain is controlled Equally. Generally. however. At the extruded circular section fabricated in tubular distortion in the joints. using two hollow sections form a continuous element At the southern end of the Deliberatif is the superimposed circles and varying the radii to that totally encloses the concrete frame. Due to shrinkage of the structure . which Although some 160m in length. bars. The section subtly changes to a flattened hexagon at its base (approximately 1. from which it can only be Where steelwork is exposed . to build the concrete frame without movement joints (contrary to common French practice).6m long. an important feature of the design. Consequently the ratio of fresh envelope to be developed and the overall the steel rings. By simplifying the cross-section. major debating chamber. 8 THE ARUP JOURJ. The fabric membrane (PTFE-coated) achieved by conventional means. 1n steel frame . This element cantilevers 12m from ble to quantify panel distortion . A network of stays and and part of the central system. tem such movement is readily absorbed. The upper floor is intermittently omitted to allow large double-height volumes for the debating chambers. the majority of the surface the section is rein. arranged in pairs. The Deliberatif under construction . from the car-park. it was possi. leaving the central zone free until much of the movement had taken place. concept to proceed.

10: John ed to the full beneath the Deliberatif. as well as the car parking boring resistance . To the north there are nine major computer in the cab of the machine. ground strength Architecture is about creating buildings. other shapes can be constructed to reflect the west. workshops and was monitored continually by measuring is also about people: people who design. stressing could occur and relating this to the Hugh Muirhead .gnes (adm1nistrahon) building . Ove Arup & Partners: Pierre Balosso. Chns McCarthy. T. constructed as mini diaphragm tests. viewed from the north east. Manan Shah. construction above. Terry Walson (public health) Rachel Kelly. speed and direction were therefore gathered Peter Chapman. technical facilities. people who comment. It would also serve to Foundations: Quantity surveyor: the buildings above was therefore undis. C W U . all of porting the full weight of the buildings above. Just metro station. permitted the pile to be terminated once the whom contribute in their own way to the Built around and through these beams is St required level of resistance had been creation of something enormous . The design team suspected that French reg. foundations are subject to considerable lateral Furthermore. William Alsop Architects beams . provided pressure contours around the 7. 8. I. Basement transfer Although traditional piling is used. so as to judge the effectiveness of pas- Project manager: ity so that only one core (the shortest and sive ventilation and the local effects around SCIC-AMO/G3A lightest) sat over the railway. Paul Pomp1li. By carefully co-ordinating the time at which from the local airport and used in a separate Ahstair Hughes. five football pitches. 6. Cegelec/EI/SNVD/CIREM 11 : Bob Lang . and then Wind study Conseil General des Bouches-du-RhOne lowered by jacks to their final resting position. monitored directly by a people who build . Soletanche turbed and an economy of scale achieved . Marcial Echenique. Dominic Munro. To the wind tunnel tests. H. Concrete structure Kitchen consultant: walls. development on the adjacent . A task transfer beams. Barrettes are generally used where and unique. the analysis could be used in Jonathan Ward. of the railway below. thermal effects from the structure above. which allowed varying directions to be OTH Mediterranee assessed. This opportunity was exploit. Jean-Paul Velon (structural) excessively deep transfer system was David Anderson. Mike Banh. Alan Burfoot. The Andrew Allsop (wind studies) that the station traversed the full width of object was to understand the pattern of wind Terence Has1e11 (computing) Ghislaine Frayss. behind the H6tel is the Salle de Rock. Electrical contractor: Edward Linden. Clodagh Ryan. Once complete.due to geometry. some knowledge was gained of local Lifts contractor: 12: Ove Arup & Partners. • 11. pressures around the Deliberatif structure. who observe. where the Atrium. 14-16: Hugh Albouy/AIC/TNEE Muirhead . 5. 1n the foreground . The Marseille context. Martin Walton of conditions to assess the building section.5m above take primarily vertical load . Colin Jackson. 13: Paul Rafferty. 9. End view of transfer beam over metro station. John Pllk1ng1on. Ruth Lees. govern the strategy for locating wind deflec. Arranged on two levels. Jolyon Drury The wind studies also modelled the effect on contractor: Barrettes allow the designer great scope to MCB/CBC Illustrations: create various geometric plan forms made up the building of two different options for future 1. a new community facility. These were commissioned Cohn English (acoustics) east the core of Block A rises above. Otis Elevator Co. load . although not modelled for this pur. Given and carried out by Bristol University. imposed on them. spanning up to 30m and sup. tors which would manage flow. Engineering Fire security A rotating table was used for scale model sub-consultant: consultant: The foundations are of two principal types: Casso Gaudin barrettes. Client their final position over the railway. achieved . so achieving a more realistic set Guy Banle. X and contractor: 2: Denis Kirtley. IJ. vacant site to Deliberat. Sean Billings (fa~ades) This related ground roughness and local John Ducke. flow. and to shrinkage and pose. an economic and not Sciences Data Unit. Chns Judd Man Kang. Below them passes the reached . done in three phases to avoid tem. Comparison to the design parameters then on this scale touches many hundreds. Statistical data on wind Consulting engineers: porary over-stress of the concrete . a deep car park to serve both buildings. 17: William the most efficient medium for retaining loads effective position of vents to be chosen and Mechanical contractor: • Alsop Architects . sure of wind effects. Ian Smith. Cohn Darlington. The study enabled the most Cabrol 3-4. people who use. and more conventional bored piles. 18: Cerf Blanc TttE ARUP JOURNAL 4/1994 9 . Marlin Fenn. people spaces. the piles People structure foundations were installed using an interesting technique The building was completed within budget in The basement covers an area equivalent to called the Starsol system. Howard Roscoe (geotechnical) rooms or access to the metro station. Hanscomb Ltd. but it shelters plantrooms. Lee Carter. Neil Noble. analysis using recent work by the Engineering Bob Lang. 18.. complex . The rhythm of the base of the building. Architect: The contractor chose to prestress the transfer ulations provided an overly simplistic mea. twin metro tracks and platforms. Phil Connor. (mechanical) Between each transfer beam are either plant.0 and 4. it piles were being installed .f cladding from a rectangular block shape. it was possible to arrange the stabil. Alain Marceneau. The overall depth of beams varies geography to judge wind speed as a function Mike Summers (elec1ncal) between 3. kitchens. Joanna Massey. Alan Foster.2m to follow the gradient of direction. While the bored October 1994 and is now fully occupied. Brian Forster. Maurice Mullaly. The transfer high bending or shear forces exist and piles Credits beams were cast in situ some 0.

.. used appointed by the MWU to join a data from interviews covering the ~ Motorway Widening Steering Group area from Oxford to Liverpool and of leading DoT specialists in particu. who handle incorporated to identify local effects part of the M25) (Fig. Manchester.. detailed mathematical traffic models Birmingham Widening studies M42 using geographical information to One of the Government's very early Jj M45 delineate road networks.I comprehensive response to this highway schemes. The current projects are: • M1 Junctions 15 to 19 (35km) widening • M6 Junctions 11 to 16 (53km) projects • M25 Junctions 23 to 28 (40km) • M42 Junctions 1 to 7 (34 km). MSO designed and supervised in-house. 'Roads for Prosperity'. This Introduction new route would provide a direct link In its 1989 White Paper entitled Al(M) from Cardiff to the Second Severn Crossing. for example. particularly as 16 Whether this is seen as an art or a the Department of Transport (Do T) Stoke science.. and environmental challenges... These forecasting lar aspects of scheme evaluation. circumstances of the scheme being Following these two initiatives the developed.. and data on feasibility studies looked at the travel patterns gained from surveys whole 290km length of the M1 motor. Eastern Regional Office. motorways is quite simply the sheer sented a huge range of engineering pressure of traffic demand (Fig. Motorway 1._ MS Oxford These surveys. major firm has been appointed for four development projects such as the major widening studies ( three from expansion of the National Exhibition the MWU and one from the DoT's Centre near Birmingham have been 2. The basis of the 'need' to widen the implementation of which pre. consisting of road- side interviews with drivers. at nearby junctions. preferably within one M62 mic and environmental assessments. Congestion on the westbound carriageway of the M25 at Junction 25 with the A10.. procedures have been consistent Arups' contribution to this 'think-tank' with national prediction methods. now under construction. made the firm well-placed to win a Sheffield Traffic forecasting major share of the work. the Government announced a major M6 Key factors in widening programme of motorway widening..J '--\... Phil Hall .. certain skilled forecasting had set up its own Motorway } procedures have to be followed to Widening Unit (MWU) within 5km of predict future traffic levels. Arups the principal Arup office concerned M54 J11 have developed extensive and with highway and bridge design. The motorway network and current widening programme.... but a experience over the years on major . 10 TtiE ARUP JOURNAL 4/ 1994 . and were also ~ Bri: ::ndon M• the M6 scheme. For example.. Arups' M65 both now and into the future.. traffic modelling for subsequent work. which provided the ground rules for much Swansea l. but also extended their capability in the the models also reflect the specific field of widening. M66 M67 organization.Motorway widening schemes In addition. as well as their expertise in option studies and econo- M6·z Manchester Ml requires the deployment of a wide range of skills.Arup widening schemes section of the M4 which at present passes through north Newport.2). clarify traffic demands. way from London to Leeds. the Cardiff office are examining a new route for the J23 -..1). Arups were awarded this study.

Essex. Detailed discussions about the future traffic modelling tech- niques are under way with the DoT. since increasingly favoured. since faced during construction. but which are accidents.5). for the section from MWU. development of the 'rapid' relation to geotechnical issues and the Arup Environmental.. lines. Above: existing dual three-lane motorway. design of retaining structures.---- --'---. since no land is widening . both the motorist and of the work. alternative widening techniques the need for land means longer lead- typically from £3M-£7M/km. however. Parallel widening. but it has become and it is therefore necessary to issues. This trans.-------. Experience gained on the new the widening is concentrated on the modelling and traffic engineering calculated . areas where a sensitive approach is needed terms of drainage.3) was the outcome. on the work of Arup Acoustics and method capable of quick and large amounts of public expenditure. the third option is skills have been used to understand ability of a widened motorway to and '80s was very relevant. --..---<--. the layout takes longer to build. discussion papers for the DoT to help Junction design resolve the emerging issues._--. For symmetrical widening. In the vicinity of the National Exhibition Centre. THE ARUP JOURNAL 4/ 1994 11 .. options have been extensively studied to be replaced or extended.:=:::::::m:1Siili:::. However normal practice to extrapolate the there are major opportunities to incor- computer programs used beyond porate substantial landscape and their normal parameters. and safety for con- nomic justification.dli~~=:1~-dia. problem which has been addressed is the need to develop traffic models which are increasingly sensitive to Hard shoulder Central peak period travel demands and the reserve ability of the road network to sustain growth. landtake is also greater.!!ia. in order to establish the motorway construction of the '70s other.::. The scope Arups have devoted a major effort to the proposed widening. 'Rapid' widening for environmental enhancement is looking at alternative forms of parallel portation planning advice is crucial in Pressure of existing traffic on limited. most of the existing carriageway and using relatively standardized DoT is that traffic disruption may be intense. The least in the sense that no land have been examined... costing and environmental drainage has to be renewed. need for the scheme and the scale of Methods of widening with existing motorways. safety. Increasing use is likely to be made of complex. existing traffic is developed novel approaches to eco.-----r----. Arups have acoustic measures. and that even small changes in tation. are the subject of national debate. -. The technique provides considerable elements of uncertainty also impinge Brentwood. and noise and air quality issues) which in difficult locations. All existing structures need majority of the work on the justification acquisition procedures are needed.-------------------- Redundant carriageway: allows space for landscape treatment and/or noise mitigation works 41anes 41anes 4. Transport tenance operations have also been force. at able. traffic signal-controlled junctions. develop traffic management layouts new lanes are provided on the outside to forecast traffic may require months and the choice between options. to ensure that junction designs for peak hours are compatible with the 41anes 41anes capacity of the rest of the network. Three major in times.::!. additional links need to be provided to meet the 31anes 31anes massive traffic problem experienced on major show days. However. out entirely within the existing fence both worker and driver safety. particularly in flexibility to avoid sensitive features. which help to ensure the safety of of each carriageway. Central Verge Hard shoulder reserve r---. and have prepared struction workers is greatly enhanced.4 shows uncertainty in these forecasts on the construction adjacent to or connecting the construction stages. hensive recommendations to the safe and satisfactory road and junc. one boundary remains and computing exercises. Its key feature is that it will be carried demolition and construction. and this is the consequences of margins of handle traffic more readily. below: symmetrical widening without land take (rapid widening). This report concluded that the South Mimms in Hertfordshire to Nevertheless.:.:~. the 'rapid' technique still tion layouts can be designed. barely disrupted. which uses junctions to 'hop' from Verge Hard shoulder Central one radial route to another. widening schemes is the immense The problem has been particularly disruption which may have to be acute on the M42 widening. with no land acquisition. who use this position can have major benefits in traffic data for several types of technique (Fig. and of schemes has been undertaken The adverse aspect of 'rapid' widening and compared in terms of disruption. and the this serves as an orbital route around reduction of this disruption is a major south and east Birmingham. The major consideration in landtake and impact (Fig. with some traffic movements segregated. It is heavily used by relatively local traffic.g. widening. For asymmetrical of painstaking effort and major Delays during future road main. a widening requires the full range of engineering investigation and design. form of widening has established that Motorway widening schemes require much of the carriageway re-used. capacity and safety. The prediction techniques required influence on the form of widening. the DoT to seek. A more general 3. and have made compre- guiding highway engineers so that London's M25 Orbital Motorway led available outside the present boundary.. Flg. Parallel widening Work on developing the 'parallel' Economic justification Existing bridges will be retained and For the most heavily trafficked routes. much of this work necessitated new called 'parallel' widening. It and where land is more readily avail. The procedures. and vehicle operating sensible and reasonable in terms of costs. will therefore be quick to build. structural environmental assessment (e. The forecast levels of traffic have The economic benefits of widening caused major problems for the high- have been determined using the two way engineer in designing junctions programs COBA and OUADRO to which are adequate in terms of evaluate savings in drivers' time.

Existing location on the M6. Proposed wildlife protective fencing/motorway boundary Proposed planting Proposed grass Retained lanes and wild flowers --- " Northbound Southbound carriageway carriageway 12 THE ARUP JOURNAL 4/1994 . The aim is the ecologist. Varies 9 to 14m Proposed tree. bridges. a variety of landscape forms treatments and detailing. groundcover planting varies Hard 1. been achieved between the landscape required.6): it provides the opportunity to create a false cutting to screen trattic and enhance features within a Special Landscape Area. widening alternatives and the best way tures. needs detailed assessment and overall engineering design. Landscape While a widened motorway remains a narrow strip. to urban and subur. Tom Armour scape can nevertheless extend over scape architects advised the rather than needing add-on mitigation a wide area. Splitting the carriageway provides the opportunity to reduce the impact for motorists and visual impact from the surrounding landscape. and inform effects. shrub. the traffic noise specialist. noise ban fringe areas . environ. Each type of landscape mental design is an integral part of the architect. and the engineer. Landscape treatment of widened median: these were introduced lo reduce the apparent extent of road surface. benefits and disbenefits of aesthetic implications of motorway struc- agricultural land. its effects on the land- consideration of its cultural. and amenity value. Existing woodland I Woodland planting on proposed 4m false cutting Northbound Southbound carriageway carriageway View from Special Landscape Area --- enhanced 8.from the project team of the potential an important role in advising on the rolling countryside. Proposed scheme for widening on the M6 (see Fig.5m 1700mm 800 shoulder Retained lanes Drainage channel or land drain 6. through open. etc. As with all barriers. Arup Environmental also have are likely to be encountered . Arups' own land- for the scheme to be designed in the context of the environmental setting. retaining walls. · impacts. Over the length of the engineers and client on appropriate measures in response to adverse scheme. Considerable liaison has a variety of design approaches are environmental considerations.and consequently forward in landscape terms. and right: 7. 9. historical.

and the amount of environ. Bridges crossing existing junctions. The firm's project management skills cuttings. tor example. and is vital in building and maintaining client and public confidence. The limited nature of the early develop an engineering solution. so 10. On all existing works. Restraints on the routing of particular attention to the need to work has often to be undertaken detailed knowledge of a wide range more recent motorways have resulted develop practical ways of dealing under the severe constraints of of disciplines so that informed debate in them passing through areas of with the problems that arise. tronic skills. It is the sheer scale of intervals along the centre line. and probing of views can occur. are treatments. subsequent to construction. the solution section of the M1. thin strips of new construction ing schemes. and presentation of the motorway widening bridge proposals to the Royal Fine Art Commission has been undertaken. Experience gained on the recently completed M40 was the basis for the design approach. and developed an interest in. and elec- sparse geotechnical information. transport planning. construction point almost entirely in favour of steel composite construction. geotechnical. Arups' geotechnical engi. ~~~-=-====---·---------- Management and Geotechnical issues multi-disciplinary activities Highway design is hugely interactive. therefore have to be concentrated in designed on an empirical basis. and the range of skills these projects.+11. This multi-disciplined. Overbridges will have spans in excess of 40m. all team members across all the Arup disciplines have become aware of. data presents its own challenges situation is unlike. a by. where route alignment engineering designs. not only the project 12. widening is having to proposed designs have to meet adjacent to existing embankments and throughout Arups that have had to be take place where earthwork failures increasingly stringent codes of structures. which had originally been major determinant of geotechnical and highly restricted working space. as a need for much more variations can overcome the more which is eventually adopted is always regularly spaced at about 1OOm detailed information now exists due severe constraints. with a highly satisfactory response from the RFAC. Equal attention is being paid to underbridges. Structures Richard Cooke Widened motorways. and it has been necessary deployed. railways or rivers present difficult problems which have been carefully considered in the design. integrated team ~xistlng embankment planting approach is a key feature of Arups' approach to projects. Although they are not always visible to the motor- way user they often have a greater impact on the local surroundings. since the investigatory managers. network was built with only the most sites. The widening pro. manager who needs this ability. and the aesthetics of these need very careful consideration. Particular problems also arise in site the hands of the highways project now subject to a more rigorous neers are therefore having to pay investigation. with potentially un- balanced span arrangements. boreholes were schemes. In addition. to develop solutions to overcome the almost unique. THE ARUP JOURNAL 4/19M 13 . particularly the 'parallel' schemes. speed of erection and ease of Model of new overbridge designed by Arups for the M6. Existing rock cutting at Trentham in Staffordshire. Computer modelling techniques were used initially to investigate the appearance of these structures. the activities of other specialists. on the original (1959) in relation to proposed widening pass proposal. since working adjacent to a live motorway. require long- span bridges. which make this work have occurred both during and practice. on the M6 molorway. with to the requirement to extend the posals also deal with the addition of the effort required in motorway widen- maybe one at each structure. Rock mental protection legislation is a problems of differential settlement. It is however. As with most other For example. a compromise. and subsequently physical models have been built. the long. environmental. who have sufficiently analysis. John Gabryliszyn depending on a range of engineer- Some of the existing motorway poorer ground and contaminated there is no alternative other than to ing. The structural.

Loomi~g need to be 'intelligent highways'. it was felt necessary to develop a series of environmental design and mitigation objectives specifically for each motorway widening project. Transparent barrier in Holland: this reduces noise but also allows views out for the motorist. automatic incident detection signals mounted in the central reserve (MIDAS). and at all other noise- sensitive locations (e. 14 THE ARUP JOURNAL 4/1994 . mitigation measures is becoming apparent. Another Dutch solution: spread popular belief that widening this ·salt' hedge-like construction would increase noise levels.g. Such a noise 15. Driver communication systems lain Bell The traditional system of matrix (NMCS2). and have visited France and Holland to see how other countries are tackling this common problem. nor do the basic research sources deal with roads with the high levels of traffic flow now forecast. reduces the visual impact However. 13. In relation to noise. and often lags behind information. The emphasis will be network. Traffic noise and mitigation measures Colin English Although there are standardized techniques for predicting traffic noise. The on the horizon is the possibility of range of information to be provided will tolling all motorways. However. Acoustic barriers of 8-10m height are having to be considered . High steel barrier in Paris. they are not instantly adapt- able to multi-lane carriageways. and right: 14. and these present significant visual and architectural challenges. and variable message conceals a largely hidden electronic signing (VMS). which will add need to embrace a new version of the to the electronic networks within national communications network the road system. Arup Acoustics have been closely involved with a wide range of road schemes.+16. good design can do much to ameliorate their impact. but the information conveyed on real-time continuously updated is quite limited. a key objective has been to actually reduce the high levels forecast at the roadside to acceptable levels at residential properties. and in-house expertise what is actually happening at that puts Arup Communications in an moment on the motorway. developing. hospitals. with matrix signals for lane control and a variable message sign. The next advantageous position in this field of generation of widened motorways will transport informatics. and adapting traffic noise prediction techniques to the special case of motorway widening. schools. the sheer scale of the of a large barrier. reduction runs counter to the wide. 17. etc. While most of the techniques for environmental assessment and design are described in the DoT Design Manuals. Arup Acoustics and Arup Environmental have looked at the best European practice. Typical gantry over a dual four-lane motorway. and they are at the fore- front of extrapolating.).

M42) While widened motorways have a designs are chosen. Ove Arup & Partners: John Bevan. Rob Paris (air quality). Since a road scheme can involve road scheme when contact with the demolition of homes. represent the Arup ideals. Ecologists advice on balancing ponds. field. for Mervyn Raisbeck. Terry Rawnsley. Detailed ecological advice is essential landscape architects. Close liaison has been necessary Gibson. tional and graphic skills of the highest concentrates the pressure to produce order. John to ensure that sympathetic engineering sites. 7-9. where drainage engineers. and Arup Acoustics) Landscape architects: Landscape Design Associates (sub-consultants for the M1 widening only) Illustrations: 1 Department of Transport 2 Denis Kirtley 5. Tony new severance or pollution risk is ed a wide range of specialist skills trol. and cross- process for road scheme is the examination at a Public Inquiry is the involvement of the public. range of specialist staff. it is continues through consultations with absolutely necessary to ensure that statutory and other interest groups. Simon Witney (environmental planning). quality issues and pollution con. 17. 13-16 Benz Kotzen Gently sloping ground and flat shelves for emergent Normal water planting 25 year flood level 1 :10 19. and (M25) ecological sites or protected species designated into the scheme. stages. but it is a Errors of judgement and faulty logic fascinating aspect to highway work. Inquiry. to interact with a wide technical skills of the highest order. 4. and eventually This is the challenge that the firm is to have one's professional judgement facing with utmost determination to seriously criticised by informed laymen design a product which will. TliE ARUP JOURNAL 4/1 994 15 . treatments. and the widening programme. design need to maintain close liaison. Alan Hughes. This starts from farming land. Environmental. Andy Walker (highways). species and habitats. monitoring of construction. lain Bell (communica- tions). Few other professional judgements are being professions face that degree of chal- continually challenged and probed. Colin Stewart. only the most thorough and pro- embraces exhibitions at various fessional work has been undertaken. only the highest quality work. in its own and interest groups. caused is an advantage. Tony Snedker (geolechnics). 19 Trevor Slydel/Peter Speleers/Jon Carver 12. Cross-section through typical balancing pond. Paul Tomlinson. also that mitiga. Richard widening can also provide the of motorway widening . impact on industry. as of many widening of existing motorways. Colin English. Allen Paul. Phil Hall. Aidan Eaglestone. Motorway which have been applied at all stages in respect to ecologcal issues. Public involvement A particular feature of the planning are rapidly exposed. and Communications groups. Gabryliszyn. Tom Armour. too numerous to list. 18 Ove Arup & Partners 18. Andy Bascombe (ecology studies). and ecologists Dave Thompson. lenge to their judgements. Balancing ponds have been designed lo fit into the existing landscape. Phil Hall (economics).seNices example in the design of balancing Cooke. via inteNiews. adverse environmental effects. and data collection. opportunity to create new habitats. Highways Agency Eastern Regional Office similar risk of affecting sensitive tion and enhancement measures are habitat management plans. 11 Peter Mackinven 6TomArmour 3. There are ultimate test of professional belief and many stages throughout the life of a skills. Transportation. Tony Jones. likely to be an increasingly politicized is the ability to work in a challenging activity calling for managerial and environment. the fact that no from Arup Environmental have provid. is other major civil engineering schemes. Peter Speleers (graphics) (plus many other staff members. water Consulting engineers: to that of a new road. lasting probably several months. 10. acquisition of public is needed. guidance on listed forecasting). All of these require presenta. Colin Wilson (bridges). Credits Ecological issues Clients: Andrew Bascombe Highways Agency Motorway Widening Unit (M1 . Mike Larvin. Clive Swift (noise studies). Tony Evans. Bridges. in the Highways. Peter Webster (traffic appraisal. Benz Kotzen (landscape). M6. but over and above this. ranging from field survey and route ponds. Summary The attraction of the motorway The roads programme. and culminates at Public Appearing at a major Public Inquiry.

the first bore- special geological sampling by a seismic geophysical survey to survey took place in the area of hole was continued to 300m depth to drilling. However. concentrating Key on the geological structure and the 150m Electrical Rock types hydrogeological and geotechnical resistivity Increasing grain size r~ aspects. together with limited sampling examine the deep rock structure. Wireline drilling to 300m depth. months. Apart to depths of about 1km . most seismic reflector within the purposes. which took six eitherthe drift or sandstones. and Sellafield in Cumbria. It had stones were correlated (Fig. Bees Sandstone. new pressurized water reactors (PWR) at Chapelcross. signs stone and the underlying St Bees glacial drift over a thick succession in drift thickness over the site and of a change in the sandstone Sandstone. St. techniques of boring and core interpretation of the results of these investigation work at the neighbour- The 10-week Stage B comprised drilling. S~~the~o~ 1 2oom 1-~~~-~L=o~w=•~~~~~-~F=~~~:~:~~i-~~~~~--~~~~-~~~~~~ Sandstone ~ C 4 ~ ---::---:-----::b=~R~o~ck~h~ea~d plain was of environmental interest (it contained a natterjack toad colony). is partly units on the floodplain of the River Ehen.1km of site. After Using these. from October 1991 . Small dynamite were observed that would permit the deep boreholes and the sand- stones of Permo-Triassic age charges were set off. below. most suitable rockhead to gain a ensure it had penetrated the upper- and in situ testing for geotechnical Stage A investigation more detailed picture of the structure.the base of the rocks. well-rounded. and below: typical St. examining the feasibility of building windblown Calder Sandstone. above: Coarse-grained. the fieldwork was to include two surveys. After initial boreholes a seismic Simultaneously with the geophysical Permo-Trias. Sample correlation of four boreholes across c. surrounding area. but this subsequently con. Operations were checked periodically by an ecologist.3) 16 THE ARUP JOURNAL 4/1994 . BNFL obtained planning permission for the investi- gation. a further reflection ing NIREX repository. north of the ·<!'=~ ~ Identified sedimentary existing Sellafield complex. a geotechnical study at the latter site. 100m Site investigation Following a desk study. their refracted stratigraphical correlation. drilling the first borehole interface between the Calder Sand- comprise a variable thickness of gain a rapid picture of the variation proceeded. Bees Sandstone Initially the investigation was to be in one stage for a specific PWR station site selected by BNFL. This was penetrated by of relatively featureless red sand. Scotland. This reflector was the The Sellafield ground conditions refraction survey was performed to survey. this (c. The was whether a stratigraphical followed by a reflection survey to deep boreholes to measure electrical. At 150m depth. above. primarily concentrated on from conventional investigation of the Permo-Triassic rock. the investigation was tendered and 250m awarded to Norwest Holst who started on site in January 1992. plus information from establishing the geological structure. and partly on higher Undifferentiated wind blown sandstone ground to the east. Low High Site constraints The investigation area. One of the prime waves being recorded on strings of been planned to lower wireline was modified by widening the concerns at the start of the study geophones. 3. by the coast. Part of Arups' involvement has been to carry out. - ~a~~opera~M. These were to be achieved through a major site investigation.200M years). assessment study. investigation was carried out in two correlation could be obtained in look at the deep geological structure acoustic and radioactive properties stages: Stage A. The refraction was geophysical sondes down all the scope of location for the station. Sellafield geotechnical study Colin Curtis Andrew Law David Pascall Objectives British Nuclear Fuels pie (BNFL) are 2. an ecological method statement for Calder operating there was prepared as a Sandstone condition of the planning permission. The main objectives included: • input into an Environmental Statement • support to Site Licence and Planning Consent applications and subsequent Public Inquiry • supply of data for the site safety case preparation • input to the seismic hazard 1.

below Stage B investigation both ground and seabed. risks and uncertainties. The onshore section of the tunnel The selected technique meetings with the Seismic Hazard The immersed tube option was not ment for one PWR station is would involve major dewatering and Assessment Team. This could be dealt with sonde logs. their length.1 Ove Arup & Partners Martyn Stroud. not to mention the intake city of 2. niques would be appropriate. Stage 8. Some would be tion was incorporated in a hydro. This was proposed to comprise • Thrustbore double tube under dealt with by men entering the face tion of photomicrographs from thin intake and outfall tunnels. tunnel entry and exit design. dredged.7km. and usual occurrence. the tunnels would therefore chosen. Glacial sands. bored through rock. BNFL's possible new PWR site is rock outcropped out to sea.1). tunnelling . such as hydraulics (Fig. It can be adapted to SOm depth interval. Computer modelling environmental impacts of using this Conclusions located the possible outfall and technique. It provided a chance to use were dictated by the system be some BOm below the Highest account of uncertainties due to in situ testing techniques. with a flow velo. respectively.Skm and 1. MHWS +5. Arups' desk chosen because of uncertainties 66m3!sec . making the overall compared to those of the bored expensive to construct. but to take drilling. Trial pitting and static cone penetration tests were used to system sandstone. as sands and gravels with boulders overlaying However. It can cut through larger meters were installed in selected was carried out to examine whether materials. Because of its potential Tunnelling techniques location close to the Irish Sea. Stratigraphical risks and uncertainties during deal with sandstone intrusion. and the cutting head. Their vertical alignments the quality of rock. tunnelling. it included some 21km of site to the intake and outfall shafts Based on available information about The soft tunnelling option was seismic survey and 1BOOm of core offshore. Colin Curtis Geophysics sub-consultant: Calder Sandstone Quad Consulting Ltd. Geotechnical contractor: Horizontal Scale 1 :500 Vertical Scale 1 :5000 Norwest Holst Soils Engineering Illustrations: 1 Andrew Law. seawater encountered inland during site inves- tigation were sedimentary deposits. Available boulders the anticipated rate of wireline sonde logging. in an study and final interpretative reports from weather conditions. ahead of the tunnel face to increase stability and reduce water inflow. as well indicated that it was fractured with estimated by 25%. The other risk for them to assimilate the study and resulting costs. Rock-bored of £2. and by seawater. of the shafts would take longer. measured from the proposed be vulnerable to weather conditions. but if boreh. the access shaft for established at 6m.Bkm offshore were judged to be considerable be very deep and consequently August 1994. information on the rock quality progress was deliberately under- ly used in site investigations. With a total cost 3. connected the railway and River Ehen: 100m under compressed air at compara- sections of rock core. and the evidence from the site Soft ground bored suites of downhole and crosshole Martyn Stroud investigation and visual inspection of To ensure that they would be in geophysics gave velocity control for reasonably competent ground. Mouchel. costs.Sm/sec. and the hydraulics of a excavation support work. for their sands. and a potential fault zone Three were evaluated. which can either be encountered. . Jon Shillibeer. This informa. but geological model. although mitigatable. British Geological struction. Construction covering nearly three years. The geology maps. Fig. the seismic processing and provided Hakop Mirzabaigian the site area was that large boulders could be encountered during study for such shallow tunnels dynamic moduli values. and deal with boulders up to a. • Cut and cover double tube (onshore): 1000m broken by the cutting head. Two going. is not a lengths of the two tunnels 3km and tunnelling technique. Astronomical Tide (HAT). Tunnelling machinery tified by the seismic survey were exists that is capable of dealing with investigated by drillholes during Sellafield. Up to three piezo. the need for grouting. and rock was considered to be difficult NIREX have been convened fractured rock. ones if they remain stationary. incorporates crushing equipment to movement had ceased during the immersed. 2. Deep drilling permitted Sellafield The general ground conditions by grouting and/or freezing the rock the geological structure to be ascer- tained independently of the geo. this would increase con- struction programme and consequent interpretation. Because of the on this work the tunnel diameter was involved with the immersed option findings into their regional structural depth. 1. Tunnel alignment. to the pumphouse and the surge • Double immersed tube: 1900m tively high pressures to break up Interaction with other parties chamber at the power station site. not common. particular attention to construction tunnels would be provided by: become dislodged and rotate with al and tidal influences. The water require. A comprehensive feasibility study bored through overlying sedimentary diameter. to keep construction of the boreholes examine the drift materials. British Geological SuNey. THE ARUP JOURNAL 4/1994 17 . 3. would The study was completed in intake at 2. The rock tunnel option. had inherent taking into account tunnel diameters. though dredging through and Gibbs.0m AOD Credits MLWS -4 . The techniques were water for cooling towers.2m AOD Client: Intake shafts British Nuclear Fuels pie Geotechnical consultants: ~--. and cooling system from pumphouse to operation that would also involve were reviewed by members of environmental impact during con- intake and outfall structures were dealing with large boulders.2M. with In this option the intake and outfall the surrounding ground they could water pressures to examine season.Sm in Triassic period. geophysical aligned them with around two Introduction data from offshore indicated that the diameters' minimum cover. though feasible. as concentrate on establishing the deep geological structure.------i11 t=====~----===============. The main conclusion was that the geological structure of the site would Access shafts be suitable for a nuclear power station development. environmental issues. an~lyzed to give an optimum design. and outfall shafts themselves. The Atkins. In addition. Andrew Law.oles at different depths to immersed or bored tunnelling tech. • Single immersed tube 700m manually the obstruction. During the study there were five and extending from the station facility into the Irish Sea.using lithological and geo-physical Geotechnical considerations soft lenses..1 also situated north of their existing site at shows the typical geology of the site. costs. Included in the The cooling system stronger boulders might have to be laboratory testing was the produc. silts and clays likely to be was successfully cored over about intention would be to supply cooling environmental impact. and correlations indicated that any provided direct or as a make-up construction. Moffat Associates. the the water pressure in the gravels. Immersed tunnel they are not sufficiently well fixed in facilitate monitoring of the ground. offshore section was proposed to be Survey. Chiselling was necessary cost increases. throughout The main geological features iden. Based and expensive. was the weather conditions. A study of this scope. physical survey and delineated features not identified on the seismic cooling both glacial and marine. Gravels and Tills David Pascall. Two meetings with uncertainties due to zones of multi or single inlets and outfalls.

and the techniques • Abandon non-salvageable proposed by Arups were discussed elements of TBM. Robert Hyde. suitably equipped to drive through both superficial deposits and rock. Mike Willen (f) . The advantage of this is that temporary casings keyed into rock. & 3· Nigel Whale • Completed intake tunnel. Tunnel boring machine. Douglas Parl<es. The shafts would be constructed and capped off to render them watertight before the . order for the TBM is estimated at 45 months. sealing plates. Conclusions This study was very important to the (d)IJ. Further work would only be undertaken if BNFL formally decided to proceed with any development. Face support is maintained by pressuriz- ing the bentonite to give the correct support pressure for ground and water load. 2: Hakop Mirzabaig. • Pressure grout annulus Programme and cost and cut off casings. whilst the cost estimate for its elements is as follows: • Access shaft £3100 OOO • Tunnels £46 790 OOO • Intake shaft £2 200 OOO . at Sellafield. operations.3. Intake and outfall shafts 3. during suitable weather windows. were complete. the spoil is extracted and the fluid returned to a reservoir for re-use in the tunnel.. overall feasibility of building the PWR • Remove jack-up barge. Illustrations: 1. the cooling system.2).an 18 THE ARUP JOURNAL A/ 1994 . Tunnel/shaft connections • Install precast concrete could be made once both operations tube onto concrete plugs. Bentonite tunnel boring machines (TBMs) were proposed (Fig. (a) tunnel reached their location. diffuser caps. The construction period for the whole • Install precast concrete system from the date of placing the tubes onto concrete plugs.. The • Excavate shafts by construction sequence is shown in auger and chisel using Fig. • Install top section of Hakop Mlrzabaigian. the riser and diffuser for each being built inland. the shafts could be constructed early on. Ohver Bevan. to ensure the buildability of and drain off water. They would be designed to use a thixotropic bentonite fluid both to support the excavation face and remove the spoil cutting. (a • f) Intake shaft construction. who have extensive experience in • Break through into shafts this field. Intake would be by four 3m diameter shafts. The fluid containing the spoil cuttings is pumped from the face to the surface. Utric Gerry. (c) • Place lower section • Outfall shaft £3 100 OOO of diffuser caps with • Design and temporary sealing plates. •le) British Nuclear Fuels pie • Flood tunnel when connection is complete Tunnelling consultants: and remove temporary Ove Arup & Partners Ian Askew.. Credits Client.. but the TBM's design restricts pressurization to the cutter head and so allows work in the tunnel in free air. (b)IJ.. and independent of tunnelling • Place concrete plugs. Paul Holder. Martyn Stroud.. Roger Milburn. John Senior. engineering costs £925 OOO • Bore tunnel and install 'knock-out' panels. in detail with international contractors • Construct end of tunnel. 2.

masonry cladding was required for the new north west of Glasgow. Variations in ground condition make the in situ foundations the only element that inevitably alters from site to site. Royal Fine Art Commission for Scotland was for use on other sites • Suitable finishes made. after which a presentation to the • A design with adaptability choice. Credits Client Mass concrete infill Waterproof layer Scottish Office Industry Department Roads Directorate Road surfacin Designer & engineer· New compacted fill Ove Arup & Partners Robin Anderson. Long section The clear span of the arch 1s 11m. foundations support the precast arch units. whilst wall only unclad exposed concrete element. lnsitu ning of September. with supply difficulties: a bailey bridge carried Granite two forms only being used . This composite bridge. Stone Ove Arup & Partners' Newcastle office. To meet A82 over the Allt-Ru1gh (red burn). Finishes could either be integrally These were sought by using stainless steel for eight criteria had been laid down in the competi. with two-lane Rigorous analysis confirmed the robustness of unit and integral granite cladding traffic having to be maintained until the begin- the design for a long and useful life. Finishes to the wing walls were Precast arch units new were built in one operation. The wing walls were kept parallel to the road to minimize visual intrusion on the gorge. with single-lane traffic transferred to it whilst the existing bridge was demolished and the second phase of the new bridge con- structed. and environmental issues all pointed units of variable height could be cast from the • Very high levels of durability to maximum off-site preparation. ite-clad structure. Precast concrete spandrel wall Work commenced in August 1993. The design/build fixed cost contract was The same precast 'formwork' can be used Corrienie pink granite is well known for its dura- awarded to Laing Scotland in June 1993 with because different spans are possible from bility. patterning.3m roadway The concept used precast reinforced concrete elements to achieve greater quality control. All this gives a flexible 'kit of parts' for 7-20m spans. The p re- integrally cast and arrived factory-finished cast approach proved itself with fabrication. Introduction strip footings for the wing walls similarly follow • Appropriate appearance In 1992 the Scottish Ottice Industry Department the ground profile. ready for erection . The soffit of the arch is the The remote Highland location. with the slopes of Am Bodach rising behind existing topsoil and plants could be removed . cladding to its concrete structure. Jim Burridge . In s1tu reinforced concrete Granite stone cladding delivery and erection taking some six weeks. replacing manent 'formwork ' thus created infilled with client concern over durability and concrete an existing 1930s reinforced concrete. The winner. Arches of variable skew could also be a smoother finish . The first stage estab. as well as aesthetic considerations. mass concrete to provide severally a com. Existing flora and fauna were surveyed before commencing work.6m and 1 6 pavements. A modern equivalent to the original was lished design principles. and the lane traffic on 24 December 1993. and allows alternative finishes and parapet forms . and arch elements erected. 6 . location. A split-faced appearance was chosen for a programmed start on site the same August. Cross-section. with variable angles of skew up to 30°. same form . 3: Sean McDermotVTrevor Slydel THE ARUP JOURNAL 411994 19 . the simplicity of the design the pink granite cladding finally chosen. One new section was to be built alongside. Scotlish Natural Heritage Gillespies National Trust for Scotland Burn Crouch Hogg Waterman concrete foundation Rock /1/ustrat. restraint to the spandrel walls. buildability found west of Aberdeen and used to provide were chosen to be developed . grade C50 concrete with tion. stored and re-used in landscaping and restoration at the end of the project. • Integration into the landscape Study of the area led towards orientating the arch to emphasize the gorge-like nature of the stream at this location. depending on budget and aggregates of proven durability.ons: 1 Jim Burridge 2. • Minimal disturbance of the site during construction This was achieved by locating the new wider bridge in almost the same position as the existing. whilst the feature elements have The design arch. to identify how 1 The bridge 1n its Highland setting. 3 . between 0 . weather. all considered in some detail before the final advisers. arch units to create a structure able to take Construction the maximum highway loading requirements. granite facing. was allowing very short construction time in poten. addressed by Arups' design as follows : surface provided . gran. In the event the two-stage Wall • Innovation in design and construction construction approach was revised due to Path Road surface The design aimed for maximum repetition. • Arched form and by factory precasting the main concrete 2. greater or lesser sections of the same radius the main walls. and parapet profiling were selected in May 1993 by the client and his tially difficult weather conditions. Existing ftll Laing Scotland Precast reinforced Environmental consultant. The site lies nearly 150km posite arch . and a base to the road. David Jameson Steve Pearce Contractor & design/build client. textures. the spandrel guised very well the originally pink granite stage competition for a new bridge to take the walls were placed on the arch and the per. With the precast wing walls The weatherin g of the existing b ri d ge d is- Roads Directorate launched a national two. as well as maintain a focus upon the arch . to foundation Rock and the new Allt-Ruigh was opened to two- accomodating various ground levels. In for the arches Mass concrete infill cladding single-lane traffic while the existing brid ge and the other for the wing and spandrel wall was demolished. cast with the wall units or an exposed concrete the reinforcement. constraints. access achieved by a similar approach. as were other principal elements. protection. and five submissions approach made for efficiency. and both phases of the elements. by and robustness. concrete arch Institute of Terrestrial Ecology Existing masonry abutment cut down Gorge rockface / Existing masonry abutment cut down lnsitu reinforced Cilen/'s advisers.