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3.1 Hybrid Energy Systems

A hybrid system is essentially a system that employs more than one source to meet the electrical
power demand of the loads. One of these sources is a PV source. The other sources that are
used in conjunction with the PV source are diesel generators, wind generators, micro-turbines,
fuel cells, etc. The hybrid PV systems can be classified depending upon the type of sources it
uses e.g. PV-Wind hybrid system, PV- Diesel hybrid system and PV-Fuel cell hybrid system.
Hybrid energy system has good reliability, more efficiency, less emission, and lower cost. In
the PV-wind hybrid system, the solar and wind power is used for generating power. Solar and
wind energy has many advantages than any other non-conventional energy sources. Both the
energy sources are available in all areas. There is no need to find special location to installthis
system. Fig. 3. 1 shows Solar-Wind hybrid Power system block diagram

Fig. 3. 1 Solar Wind Hybrid Power System Block Diagram

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3.2 Solar Energy

Solar energy is an ever-lasting, renewable energy source. It is clean energy source with
negligible potential damage to the environment. The power from the sun intercepted by earth
is about 1.81011 MW, which is many thousand times larger than our current power
consumption from all sources. It is affordable and has low maintenance cost. The only problem
with solar energy is that it cannot produce energy in bad weather condition. It only need initial
investment and has long life span. Fig. 3.2 (a) shows P v/s V for different irradiance levels and
fig.3.2 (b) shows I v/s V for different irradiance levels.

Fig.3.2 (a) P v/s V for different irradiance levels

Fig.3.2 (b) I v/s V for different irradiance levels

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3.3 Wind Energy

Wind energy is the energy which is extracted from wind. For extraction we use wind mill. It is
a renewable energy source. The wind energy needs less cost for generation of electricity. The
maintenance cost is also less for wind energy system. Wind energy is present almost 24 hours
of the day. It has less emission and the initial cost is also lower. The generation of electricity
from wind depends upon the speed of wind flowing. Figure 3.3 (a) shows a wind power system
and its main components.

Fig 3.3 (a) A Wind Power System and its Main Components

Wind energy system converts the kinetic energy of the wind into other forms of energy such
as electricity. Although the concept of wind energy conversion is relatively simple, but the
turbine design is quite complex. The most commercially available wind turbine uses a
horizontal-axis configuration with two or three blades, a drive train including a gearbox and a
generator and a tower to support the rotor. The amount of power that a wind turbine produces
depend on the height of the tower. The power available in the wind is proportional to the cube
of its speed. Thus, if wind speed doubles, the power available in the wind increases by a factor
of 8 (2 x 2 x 2 = 8). This is shown in fig.3.3 (b). The wind speed increases with the height of
the tower which means enormous increase in the amount of electricity generated by the wind
turbine as shown in fig.3.3 (c).

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Fig.3.3 (b) Relationship between wind speed and wind power.

Fig.3.3 (c) Wind speeds increase with height.

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3.4 Design of Hybrid Energy System

For designing of the hybrid energy system we need to find the data as follows

A. Data required for Solar System:

1. Annual mean daily duration of Sunshine hours

2. Daily Solar Radiation horizontal (kWh/m2/day)

B. Data required for Wind System:

1. Mean Annual Hourly Wind Speed (m/sec)

2. Wind Power that can be generated from the wind turbine.

3.4.1 Components of Hybrid System

The fig 3.4 shows the block diagram of the hybrid power generation system using wind and
solar power. This block diagram includes-

i. Solar panel
Solar panel refers to a panel designed to absorb the sun's rays as a source of
energy for generating electricity or heating.

ii. Wind turbine

A wind turbine is a device that converts the wind's kinetic energy into electrical

iii. Charge controller-

Charge controllers manage interactions and energy flows between a PV
array, battery, and electrical load.
Charge controllers protect batteries from over-charge by terminating or
limiting charging current.
Charge controllers protect batteries from over-discharge by controlling
discharge current.

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iv. Battery bank-
Battery bank is a collection of methods used to store electrical energy on a large
scale within an electrical power grid. Electrical energy is stored during times when
production exceeds consumption, and returned to the grid when production falls
below consumption.

v. Inverter
Inverter changers low voltage direct current (DC) power, which is produced by
the PV or wind turbine or stored in the battery into standard alternating current (AC)
house power.

Fig.3.4 Block diagram of hybrid energy generation system

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3.4.2 Calculations

The total power generated by this system is given as the addition of the power generated by
the solar PV panel and power generated by the wind turbine. Mathematically it can be
represented as,
PT = NW * Pw + NS * PS (3.1)
PT is the total power generated,
PW is the power generated by wind turbines,
PS is the power generated by solar panels,
NW is the no of wind turbine, and
NS is the no of solar panels used.

A. Calculations for wind energy

The power generated by wind energy is given by,

Power = (density of air * swept area * velocity cubed)/2

PW = () (AW) (V) 3 (3.2)

P is power in watts (W),
is the air density in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m),
AW is the swept area by air in square meters (m), and
V is the wind speed in meters per second (m/s).

B. Calculations for solar energy

To determine the size of PV modules, the required energy consumption must be estimated.
Therefore, the power is calculated as

PS = Ins (t) * AS * (3.3)

Ins (t) = isolation at time t (kW/ m2)
AS = area of single PV panel (m2)
= overall efficiency of the PV panels and dc/dc converters.

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Overall efficiency is given by,
= H * PR (3.4)
H = Annual average solar radiation on tilted panels,
PR = Performance ratio coefficient for losses.

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