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Fundamental quantities



1) Physical quantities are either vectors or scalars.

Select the row of the table which correctly identifies vector and scalar quantities.

2) A box of weight 150 N is placed on an inclined plane. The component of the boxs
weight acting along the plane is W.

3) In which of the following is a vector fully described?
A A car travels north.
B A crane moves a load 20 m east.
C A train travels at a rate of 35 m/s
D A lift moves upwards with a kinetic energy of 2.5 kJ.

4) Which of the following is a correct statement?

A Weight is a base quantity.
B Velocity is a base quantity.
C Mass is a derived quantity.
D Force is a derived quantity

5) A rocket of mass m lifts off with an acceleration a due to the engines providing a thrust T.
Which row in the table correctly identifies the quantities m, T and a as scalar or vector?
m T a
A vector scalar vector
B vector scalar scalar
C scalar vector vector
D scalar vector scalar

6) Which of the following is a derived SI unit?

A joule
B metre
C power
D time

7) Which pair of quantities does not contain a vector and a scalar?

A acceleration and time
B force and displacement
C mass and acceleration
D velocity and time

8) Which of the following is a derived SI quantity?

A force
B length
C second
D watt

9) Which statement about scalar and vector quantities is correct?
A Scalars have direction only.
B Scalars have distance only.
C Vectors have magnitude and direction.
D Vectors have magnitude and distance.

10) Which of the following is a unit equivalent to the pascal?

A kg m s1
B kg m s2
C kg m1 s2
D kg m2 s2

11) Which of these quantities is not measured in an SI base unit?

A distance
B force
C mass
D time

12) Which equation shows a scalar quantity as the product of two vector quantities?
A energy = power x time
B force = stiffness x extension
C mass = density x volume
D work = force xdisplacement

13) Which of the following is a vector quantity?

A distance
B force
C speed
D work

14) Which of the following is not a vector quantity?

A displacement
B force
C weight
D work

15) Which of the following is a scalar quantity?

A displacement
B force
C time
D velocity



Velocity v is a vector, with units of meters per second m/s
Velocity indicates the rate of change of the objects position (r); i.e., velocity tells you how
fast the objects position is changing.
The magnitude of the velocity (||||v) indicates the objects speed.
The direction of the velocity (dir v) indicates the objects direction of motion. The velocity at
any point is always tangent to the objects path at that point.
Thus, the velocity tells you how the object is moving. In particular, the velocity tells you which
way and how fast the object is moving.

Acceleration is a vector, with units of meters per second squared (a2sm).
Acceleration indicates the rate of change of the objects velocity (v); i.e., the acceleration tells
you how fast the objects velocity is changing.
The component of the acceleration that is parallel to the velocity ( ||a) indicates the rate of
change of the objects speed. If ||ais parallel to the velocity, then the object is speeding up; if is
anti-parallel to the velocity, then the object is slowing down. ||a
The component of the acceleration that is perpendicular to the velocity ( a) indicates the rate
of change of the objects direction.
Thus, the acceleration does not tell you the objects motion. Instead, the acceleration tells you
how the objects motion is changing.



Displacement-time graph
Zero displacement is defined as the floor.
The gradient of the displacement-time graph is velocity. The gradient
of the graph is negative and becomes increasingly large as the ball falls
and speeds up.
When the ball hits the ground, it bounces back up and the gradient
becomes positive.
The gradient then decreases until the ball is at the top of its path.
The ball then drops downwards once more.
Velocity-time graph
The ball is dropped from rest and so the initial velocity is zero.
Velocity downwards has been given a negative sign and so the velocity
then becomes a bigger negative number as the ball accelerates
The gradient of the graph is acceleration and this is constant
at 9.81 ms-2 as this is acceleration due to gravity.
When the ball bounces it rapidly comes to a stop before bouncing back,
upwards, with a positive velocity.
The ball will then slow down until, at the top of its path, it will
instantaneously have zero velocity before heading back towards the

Force is a vector, with units of Newtons (N). F
From Newtons Second Law, 2sm kgN=
Forces cause acceleration, not velocity. (More precisely, the force at any instant determines the
acceleration at that instant, not the velocity.)
The component of the force that is parallel to the velocity ( ||F) changes the objects speed. If is
parallel to the velocity, then the force speeds the object up; if is anti-parallel to the velocity, then
the force slows the object down. ||F||F
The component of the force that is perpendicular to the velocity (F) changes the objects
Thus, forces do not cause motion; forces cause changes in motion. Forces make objects speed
up, slow down, and/or change direction.

Newtons Three Laws

Newtons First Law: An object at rest tends to stay at rest and an object in motion tends to stay in
motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced
external force. Inertia is a property of matter that resists changes in motion. If a mass is not
moving, it will stay that way until an unbalanced external force starts to move it; if a mass is in
motion, it will stay in motion with the same speed and direction until an unbalanced external
force changes its motion characteristics (friction could slow it down, or a force could accelerate
its motion). For example, let us consider a hockey puck on the ice (assume the ice is perfectly
level and frictionless). If the puck is placed down on the ice, it will stay motionless until someone
hits it with a stick or skate because of its inertia. Also due to inertia, when slapped, the puck will
tend to move in a straight line with constant speed until an external force (such as another player,
or the goalie, or the net) changes its motion. As a second example of Newtons First Law,
consider a car accelerating from a stoplight. As the car accelerates from zero motion, your body
tends to push back into the seat due to its inertia (trying to remain at rest). Also, as the car is
braked from a high speed back to stopping, your body is flung forward due to its inertia in
motion. Hopefully you have your seatbelt on, or else Newtons First Law could have bad
Newtons Second Law: The acceleration a of an object as produced by a net force F is directly
proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force, and
inversely proportional to the mass m of the object: F = ma. A resultant external force F acting on
a body will accelerate that body in the direction of F, with acceleration a = F/m. Acceleration is
the second time rate of change of position, also the first time rate of change of velocity;
acceleration is to velocity what velocity is to position. Newtons original statement of the Second
Law was that the resultant external force F is equal to the time rate of change of momentum (mv,
mass times velocity)
Newtons Third Law: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. This law is
familiar in everyday situations; a force cannot be applied to an object unless something resists the
reaction of that force. In order to walk across the floor, you must push back on the floor with your
foot; then, according to Newtons Third Law, the floor pushes forward on your foot, which
propels you forward. This, of course, requires friction to work. If a free-floating astronaut were to
throw a baseball, there is nothing to resist the throwing force, so as the baseball accelerates in the
direction of throwing, the astronaut would accelerate backwards, with a force equal and opposite
to the throwing force. The astronaut would accelerate at a much smaller level (by Newtons
Second Law) since her mass is much greater than the baseballs mass. The recoil of a gun during
firing is another example of Newtons Third Law. As a final example, if a person attempts to
jump to a dock from a small sailboat, they may end up landing in water if they do not understand
Newtons Third Law: similar to the astronaut example, the jumping force of the human on the
boat will tend to push the boat backwards; the equal and opposite force of the boat on the human
will propel that person toward the dock, but since the boat moves backwards, the person may end
up wet. The same problem exists for large sailboats, except with larger boat inertia, it is less


1) A moving object has uniform, non-zero acceleration.

Which velocity-time graph correctly shows this?

2) A stone dropped into a well takes 1.5 seconds to reach the water.
Ignoring the effects of air resistance, what distance did the stone fall through?
B 11 m
C 14 m
D 22 m

3) A swimmer jumps from a diving platform into a swimming pool. The swimmer is
slowed to a stop by friction with the water.
The total work done by the water on the swimmer does not depend on
A the mass of the swimmer.
B the speed of the swimmer on entering the water.
C the depth of the swimming pool.
D the height of the diving platform.

4) A marble is dropped from the roof of a building and takes 3.2 s to reach the ground.
The approximate height of the building is
A 16 m
B 31 m
C 50 m
D 100 m

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5) A ball is thrown vertically upwards with a velocity of +3.0 m/s2
At the maximum height, the acceleration of the ball is
A 0 m/s2
B 3.0 m/s2
C + 9.8 m/s2
D 9.8 m/s2

6) A girl of mass 30 kg and a boy of mass 45 kg sit on a frictionless floor holding the two
ends of a rope. The boy pulls on the rope. The girl moves towards the boy with an inital
acceleration of 3 m s.The boy
A moves towards the girl with an initial acceleration greater than 3 m/s2
B moves towards the girl with an initial acceleration less than 3 m/s2.
C moves towards the girl with an initial acceleration of 3 m/s2
D remains stationary

7) A pendulum consists of an 18 N weight attached to a piece of string. The weight is

released from the position shown in the diagram. The speed in m s1 at the bottom of the
swing is given by

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8) The table shows velocity-time and acceleration-time graphs for an object in motion.
Which row of the table contains a pair of graphs that could be consistent for the motion
of the object?

9) Which row of the table shows the correct directions of the velocity and acceleration of
the tennis ball while it is moving vertically upwards?

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10) The two forces are

11) A student is asked to solve the following problem:

An object is thrown upwards with a speed of 25 m s1. How high will it be when the
speed is 12 m s1?
Which equation will allow the problem to be solved in a single calculation?
A s = ut + at2
B s = (u + v)t/2
C v = u + at
D v2 = u2 + 2as

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12) An object is thrown horizontally from the roof of a building.
Which pair of displacementtime graphs correctly shows the vertical and horizontal
components of
displacement for the object until it lands? Assume that there is no air resistance.

13) Displacement can be found from the

A area under a distance-time graph.
B area under a velocity-time graph.
C gradient of a distance-time graph.
D gradient of a velocity-time graph.

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14) A lift carries people from one floor up to the floor above. Which graph shows how
the acceleration of the lift varies with time for the complete journey? Assume that the
upward direction is positive.

15) A ball is dropped to ground and caught which graph is correct

16) The gradient of a displacement-time graph gives

A acceleration
B displacement
C force
D velocity

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1) State what is meant by centre of gravity.

The position through which all the weight can be assumed to act
Or the point at which all the weight is centred upon
Or the point that can be used to represent the whole weight

2) With reference to Newtons laws, explain why the athlete must push down on the
Force greater than the weight Or force not equal to weight
Or there is a resultant/unbalanced force

3) Opposite poles of a magnet attract one another. Using this principle, a student tried to
design a toy car that could be self-propelled using a magnetic force. His design is
shown below.

Magnet A is attached to the body of the toy car and magnet B is suspended from the
drivers hand by a rigid rod. Magnet A is identical to magnet B.
The student stated that as long as the opposite poles of the magnets are facing one
another, the attractive force created should cause the toy car to start moving forward.
Explain why in practice this could never work

Explanation in terms of N3 (stated or implied)

e.g due to N3, magnet A exerts a force on magnet B
Or magnet A exerts a force on magnet B and magnet B exerts an
equal and opposite force on magnet A
Or the magnets exert equal and opposite forces on each other
The idea that the magnets are connected to the same body/each other
There will be no resultant force
Or the two (applied) forces will cancel out
Or forces balance/equilibrium

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4) Explain the advantages of using the digital video camera compared with a rule and
stopwatch to obtain the data.

Reduces uncertainties Or measurements more precise/accurate

No reaction time
Can be paused/playback/rewound
Can take a reading every frame Or more readings (in a given time)
Allows values to be checked
You can zoom in

5) Many hand held devices such as smartphones and tablet computers contain
accelerometers. These allow changes in orientation of the device to be tracked.
A student models a simple accelerometer by attaching a small mass on a string to the
roof of a car.

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6) State Newtons first two laws of motion and explain how Newtons second law
includes the first law.
No acceleration /
constant velocity (constant speed not sufficient)/
(at rest or) uniform motion in straight line
unless unbalanced/net/resultant force
[Converse: If F = 0 / forces in equilibrium (body in equilibrium,
equal forces not sufficient) , there is no acceleration
(remains at rest not sufficient)
acceleration proportional to force / F = ma
Qualify by stating resultant/net force / F = ma

7) Newtons third law identifies pairs of forces.

(i) State two ways in which the forces in a pair are identical.
2 of magnitude, type of force, line of action, time of action

(ii) State two ways in which the forces in a pair differ.

Opposite direction, act on different bodies

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Projectile Motion ! An object may move in both the x and y directions simultaneously ! The form
of two-dimensional motion we will deal with is called projectile motion
Assumptions of Projectile Motion ! The free-fall acceleration is constant over the range of motion
! It is directed downward ! It is reasonable as long as the range is small compared to the radius of
the Earth ! The effect of air friction is negligible ! With these assumptions, an object in projectile
motion will follow a parabolic path ! This path is called the trajectory

1) A plane is travelling horizontally at a constant speed. It releases a package of supplies
when in the position shown.

2) A ball launcher fires a ball horizontally off the edge of a lab bench. The paths of the ball
after two launches are shown below.
Which of the following quantities is different for the two launches?

A gravitational acceleration
B time of flight
C launch angle
D initial velocity

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3) A projectile is launched at an angle of 45 to the horizontal.
Ignoring air resistance, which pair of graphs correctly shows how the vertical and
horizontal components of velocity vary with time for the projectile until it lands?

4) An apple is at rest on the ground.

The diagram shows three forces of equal magnitude.
W = weight of apple
P = push of apple on ground
R = normal contact force of ground on apple
Which row in the table shows Newtons first and third laws being applied correctly.

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5) Which of the following statements is true for the two forces in a Newtons third law pair?
A They have different magnitudes and act in different directions.
B They act in different directions on the same body.
C They have the same magnitude and are different types of force.
D They are the same type of force and act on different bodies.

1) A basketball is thrown towards a basket. The position of the ball at equal time intervals is
shown in the photograph.
Vertical and horizontal lines have been added to the photograph to help identify the balls
horizontal and vertical position.

Suggest a reason for each of the following observations:

(a) the vertical lines are evenly spaced
The horizontal speed/velocity/ is constant
Or the ball will move the same distance horizontally between every image
Or there is no horizontal acceleration/deceleration
Or there is no horizontal (resultant) force acting on the ball
Or air resistance is negligible

(b) the horizontal lines become closer together.

There is a vertical deceleration of the ball
Or there is a negative/downwards acceleration
Or the vertical speed/velocity of the ball is decreasing
Or the idea that there is an unbalanced force acting downwards on the ball
Or the ball is accelerating vertically at 9.81 m s2

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2) A skateboarder throws a ball vertically upwards, while travelling at a constant horizontal
speed. The skateboarder catches the ball moments later whilst still moving horizontally.
Explain why the ball can be caught even though it was thrown vertically upwards and the
skateboarder is moving horizontally. Ignore the effect of air resistance

Vertical velocity/motion is independent of the horizontal velocity/motion

The ball (always) has the same horizontal velocity as the skateboarder
(only) force acting on the ball is weight/vertically (downwards)
Or the (only) acceleration acting on the ball is vertically (downwards)
Or there are no horizontal forces/acceleration
The idea that the ball and skateboarder are in the same horizontal
position (relative to each other)
e.g. the ball and the skateboarder have the same horizontal
displacement/distance/position at the same time
e.g. the ball will stay directly above the skateboarder

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When a force acts on an object and the object actually moves in the direction of force,
then the
work is said to be done by the force.
Work done by the force is equal to the product of the force and the displacement of
the object
in the direction of force.
If under a constant force F the object displaced through a distance s, then work done
by the
W = F * s = F s cos
where a is the smaller angle between F and s.
Work is a scalar quantity, Its S1 unit is joule and CGS unit is erg.
1 joule = 107 erg
Its dimensional formula is [ML2T-2].
Work done by a force is zero, if
(a) body is not displaced actually, i.e., s = 0
(b) body is displaced perpendicular to the direction of force, i.e.,
= 90
Work done by a force is positive if angle between F and s is acute angle.
Work done by a force is negative if angle between F and s is obtuse angle.
Work done by a constant force depends only on the initial and final Positions and not
on the
actual path followed between initial and final positions.
Work done in different conditions
(i) Work done by a variable force is given by
W = F * ds

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It is equal to the area under the force-displacement graph along with proper sign.
Work done = Area ABCDA
(ii) Work done in displacing any body under the action of a number of forces is equal
to the
work done by the resultant force.
(iii) In equilibrium (static or dynamic), the resultant force is zero therefore resultant
work done
is zero.
(iv) If work done by a force during a rough trip of a system is zero, then the force is
conservative, otherwise it is called non-conservative force.
Gravitational force, electrostatic force, magnetic force, etc are conservative forces.
the central forces are conservative forces.
Frictional force, viscous force, etc are non-conservative forces.
(v) Work done by the force of gravity on a particle of mass m is given by W = mgh
where g is acceleration due to gravity and h is height through particle one displaced.
(vi) Work done in compressing or stretching a spring is given by
W = 1 / 2 kx2
where k is spring constant and x is displacement from mean position.
(vii) When on end of a spring is attached to a fixed vertical support and a block
attached to the
free end moves on a horizontal
table from x = x1 to x = x2 then W = 1 / 2 k (x2x2 x2x1)
(viii) Work done by the couple for an angular displacement is given by W = i *
where i is the torque of the couple.
The time rate of work done by a body is called its power

Power = Rate of doing work = Work done / Time taken

If under a constant force F a body is displaced through a distance s in time t, the
But s / t = v ; uniform velocity with which body is displaced.
P = F * v = F v cos
where is the smaller angle between F and v.
power is a scalar quantity. Its S1 unit is watt and its dimensional formula is [ML2T-3].
Its other units are kilowatt and horse power,
1 kilowatt = 1000 watt
1 horse power = 746 watt

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Energy of a body is its capacity of doing work.
It is a scalar quantity.
Its S1 unit is joule and CGS unit is erg. Its dimensional formula is [ML3T-3].
There are several types of energies, such as mechanical energy (kinetic energy and
energy), chemical energy, light energy, heat energy, sound energy, nuclear energy,
energy etc.
Mechanical Energy
The sum of kinetic and potential energies at any point remains constant throughout the
It does not depend upon time. This is known as law of conservation of mechanical
Mechanical energy is of two types:
1. Kinetic Energy
The energy possessed by any object by virtue of its motion is called its kinetic energy.
Kinetic energy of an object is given by
k = 1 / 2 mv2 = p2 / 2m
where m = mass of the object, U = velocity of the object and p = mv =
momentum of the

2. Potential Energy
The energy possessed by any object by virtue of its position or configuration is called
potential energy.
There are three important types of potential energies:
(i) Gravitational Potential Energy If a body of mass m is raised through a height h
gravity, then its gravitational potential energy = mgh,
(ii) Elastic Potential Energy If a spring of spring constant k is stretched through a
distance x.
then elastic potential energy of the spring = 1 . 2 kx2
The variation of potential energy with distance is shown in figure.
Potential energy is defined only for conservative forces. It does not exist for non-
Potential energy depends upon frame of reference.

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(iii) Electric Potential Energy The electric potential energy of two point charges ql
and ql.
separated by a distance r in vacuum is given by
U = 1 / 40 * q1q2 / r
Here 1 / 40 = 9.0 * 1010 N-m2 / C2 constant.


1) A ball is dropped and bounces three times before being caught. The following graph
shows how the gravitational potential energy Egrav of the ball varies with time t.

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2) A motor takes 10 minutes to lift a mass of 40 000 kg through a height of 5 m.
The minimum power of the motor in watts can be found using

3) A ball is thrown vertically upwards. It reaches a maximum height, moves downwards

and is caught by the thrower at a time t.
Which of the following is the kinetic energy-time graph for the ball?

4) A pump is positioned at the bottom of a well and it pumps 15 kg of water 25 m to the

surface each minute.
The power of the pump is
A 6.3 W
B 61 W
C 3700 W
D 22 000 W

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5) An object of weight 7 N is raised from a height of 2 m to a height of 8 m.
The change in gravitational potential energy is
A 42 J
B 56 J
C 412 J
D 549 J

6) Which of the following is not a unit of energy?

A N s1
B kW h


1) One side of a mountain slopes at 35 to the horizontal and the other side at 25.
A geologist needs to climb to the top to collect rock samples.
By discussing the work done and forces involved, explain which would be the easier side
to use to climb to the top.
vertical height of mountain = 365 m
mass of geologist = 85 kg
Applied force:
The 25 slope requires a smaller forceOr
Use of trig to calculate the component of weight along either slope

(350 (N) for 25 slope or 480 (N) for 35 slope)

Distance travelled:
The distance travelled is greater for the 25 slope
(accept converse)
Use of trig to calculate the distance along either slope
(860 870 (m) for 25 slope or 630 640(m) for 35 slope)
Work done:
The 25 side uses smaller force over greater distance
(accept converse)
Or The work done (against gravity) is the same

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Density, is defined as the mass per unit volume. It is measured in


Density: Mass per unit volume


A fluid will exert a force upward on a body if it is partly or wholly submerged within it.
This is because the deeper into a fluid you go, the greater the weight of it and so the greater
the pressure. This difference in pressure between the top and the bottom of the object
produces an upward force on it. This is called Upthrust.

According to Archimedes' Principle, the upthrust on an object in a fluid is equal to

the weight of the fluid displaced. So the volume of the object multiplied by the density of
the fluid.

Upthrust = Weight of Fluid Displaced


In a fluid, each 'layer' experts a force of friction of each other 'layer'. This frictional force is
also present when solid object moves through a liquid. This force is termed Viscous Drag.
Viscous Drag is greater in Turbulent Flow than Laminar Flow.

The size of the Viscous Drag in a fluid depends on the (coefficient of)Viscosity of that fluid.
Viscosity is given the letter and is measured inKgm-2s or Pa s. The greater the Viscosity,
the greater the Viscous Drag.

In most liquids, Viscosity decreases as temperature increases, whereas in

most gases, Viscosity increases as temperature increases. It is therefore important to
always measure the temperature of a fluid when measuring Viscosity.

It is possible to calculate the drag force exerted on a spherical object in a fluid using Stoke's

F = 6rv

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Stoke's Law assumes Laminar Flow, and so low velocities.

In this equation, v represents Terminal Velocity. This means that theforces acting on the
object are balanced. This means that is it possible to form an equation be equating Weight
with Upthrust and Viscous Drag (or, in the case of Upward Motion, Upthrust with Weight
and Viscous Drag).


Under some circumstances the flow will not be as changeable as this. He following terms describe the
states which are used to classify fluid flow: uniform flow: If the flow velocity is the same magnitude and
direction at every point in the fluid it is said to be uniform. non-uniform: If at a given instant, the
velocity is not the same at every point the flow is non-uniform. (In practice, by this definition, every fluid
that flows near a solid boundary will be non-uniform - as the fluid at the boundary must take the speed of
the boundary, usually zero. However if the size and shape of the of the cross-section of the stream of fluid
is constant the flow is considered uniform.) steady: A steady flow is one in which the conditions
(velocity, pressure and cross-section) may differ from point to point but DO NOT change with time.
unsteady: If at any point in the fluid, the conditions change with time, the flow is described as unsteady.
(In practise there is always slight variations in velocity and pressure, but if the average values are
constant, the flow is considered steady. Combining the above we can classify any flow in to one of four
type: 1. Steady uniform flow. Conditions do not change with position in the stream or with time. An
example is the flow of water in a pipe of constant diameter at constant velocity. CIVE 1400: Fluid
Mechanics Fluid Dynamics: The Momentum and Bernoulli Equations 45 2. Steady non-uniform flow.
Conditions change from point to point in the stream but do not change with time. An example is flow in a
tapering pipe with constant velocity at the inlet - velocity will change as you move along the length of the
pipe toward the exit. 3. Unsteady uniform flow. At a given instant in time the conditions at every point are
the same, but will change with time. An example is a pipe of constant diameter connected to a pump
pumping at a constant rate which is then switched off. 4. Unsteady non-uniform flow. Every condition of
the flow may change from point to point and with time at every point. For example waves in a channel

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1) A glue dispenser produces small droplets of glue. The glue dispenser contains a small
The graph shows how the speed of a droplet leaving the dispenser varies with the
temperature of the glue.

A higher temperature of glue is preferred because

A the viscosity will be greater and the glue will flow at a greater speed.
B the viscosity will be greater and the glue will flow at a lower speed.
C the viscosity will be lower and the glue will flow at a greater speed.
D the viscosity will be lower and the glue will flow at a lower speed.

2) In an experiment a small metal ball is dropped into a cylinder of oil. The time taken for
the ball to fall to the bottom of the cylinder is recorded.
The experiment is repeated. Which changes to the ball would result in the greatest
decrease in the time it takes to reach the bottom of the cylinder?
A smaller mass and smaller diameter
B smaller mass and greater diameter
C greater mass and smaller diameter
D greater mass and greater diameter

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3) Test tube D is heated and the ball is dropped into it in the same way.
Compared with the previous experiment, the position of the ball in test tube D, after the
same short time, is

A higher up because the viscosity of the oil is greater.

B higher up because the viscosity of the oil is lower.
C lower down because the viscosity of the oil is greater.
D lower down because the viscosity of the oil is lower.

4) When beer is being brewed it can contain bubbles of gas rising through it as well as solid
particles, such as grain particles, falling through it.
Which row of the table correctly shows the forces on a rising gas bubble and a falling
solid particle?
F = viscous drag, U = upthrust, W = weight

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5) A ball bearing is released in a measuring cylinder filled with oil. To increase the time
taken for the ball bearing to reach the bottom, which one of the following would have to
A the temperature of the oil
B the viscosity of the oil
C the gravitational field strength
D the density of the ball bearing

6) table tennis ball is released beneath the surface of water and moves upwards.
The relationship between the forces acting on the ball when it reaches terminal velocity
A weight = upthrust
B weight + drag = upthrust
C weight = upthrust + drag
D weight = drag

7) A ball bearing is dropped through a liquid and its terminal velocity measured.
The experiment is repeated at a different temperature.
Which row could correctly describe this second experiment?

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1) A small steel ball is released at the surface of some oil of known viscosity and begins to
sink. The diagrams show the forces acting on the ball shortly after its release and when it
has reached terminal velocity.

(a) Identify forces X, Y and Z.

X is Upthrust Or weight of oil/fluid displaced
Y is Drag Or friction Or fluid resistance Or viscous/resistive force
Z is Weight Or gravitational pull/force

2) Figure shows two swimmers

Velocity is decreasing Or the swimmers are decelerating

Rate of change of velocity decreases Or deceleration/acceleration
decreases Or Drag force decreases as speed decreases
Glide 2 has a greater drag/resistance/friction
Explanation of why the drag force of 2 is greater than 1
e.g. cross sectional area is greater Or more turbulent flow Or less streamlined

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3) Lava is molten rock, which sometimes erupts from beneath the Earths surface. As the
lava cools volcanoes form. The shape of the volcano is determined by the flow rate of
the lava. The graph below shows how the viscosities of two types of lava vary with

Both types of lava are at the same temperature as they reach the Earths surface. The
shield volcano is formed from basalt lava and the cone volcano is formed from rhyolite
lava. Use the information in the graph to explain the shape of each volcano.

As the lava cools, its viscosity increases

Rhyolites viscosity is greater than basalts
Rhyolite flows more slowly than basalt
high viscosity gives low flow rate
Basalt flows a long way before solidifying /cooling (so shield shape)
rhyolite flows a short distance before solidifying /cooling (so cone shape

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4) Aerial view of the Burj Khalifa building

5) As the iceberg nears its destination, the climate would become warmer.
State the effect this would have on the following physical quantities.

Physical Quantity Relative effect

Sea temperature Increases
Viscosity Decreases
Density of sea water Decreases
Position in the water of the iceberg Lower/sinks

6) Explain what is meant by laminar flow and turbulent flow

Laminar flow no abrupt change in direction or speed of flow or
air flows in layers/flowlines/streamlines or no mixing of layers or layers
remain parallel or velocity at a (particular) point remains constant
Turbulent flow mixing of layers or contains eddies/vortices or
abrupt/random changes in speed or direction

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Hooke's Law

The extension e of an elastic string/spring is proportional to the extending force F.

where k is the constant of proportionality, called the spring constant.

By definition the spring constant is that force which will produce unit extension(unit
Nm-1) in a spring.

Stress is a measure of the internal force an object is experiencing per unit cross sectional area.
Hence, the formula for calculating stress is the same as the formula for calculating pressure: but

where is stress (in Newtons per square metre or, equivalently, Pascals). F is force (in Newtons,
commonly abbreviated N), and A is the cross sectional area of the sample. Compressive stress
make object short and tensile makes longer
Tensile Strength
The (ultimate) tensile strength is the level of stress at which a material will fracture. Tensile
strength is also known as fracture stress. If a material fractures by 'crack propagation' (i.e., it
shatters), the material is brittle.
Yield Stress
On a stress strain graph beyond the yield point (or elastic limit) the material will no longer return
to its original length. This means it has become permanently deformed. Therefore the yield stress
is the level of stress at which a material will deform permanently. This is also known as yield

Stresses lead to strain (or deformation). Putting pressure on an object causes it to stretch. Strain
is a measure of how much an object is being stretched. The formula for strain is:

where is the original length of a bar being stretched, and l is its length after it has been
stretched. l is the extension of the bar, the difference between these two lengths.

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Young's Modulus
Young's Modulus is a measure of the stiffness of a material. It states how much a material will
stretch (i.e., how much strain it will undergo) as a result of a given amount of stress. The formula
for calculating it is:

The values for stress and strain must be taken at as low a stress level as possible, provided a
difference in the length of the sample can be measured. Strain is unitless so Young's Modulus
has the same units as stress, i.e. N/m or Pa.

Stress-Strain Graphs[edit]

Stressstrain curve for low-carbon steel.

Stress () can be graphed against strain (). The toughness of a material (i.e., how much it resists
stress, in J m-3) is equal to the area under the curve, between the y-axis and the fracture point.
Graphs such as the one on the right show how stress affects a material. This image shows the
stress-strain graph for low-carbon steel. It has three main features:
Elastic Region
In this region (between the origin and point 2), the ratio of stress to strain (Young's modulus) is
constant, meaning that the material is obeying Hooke's law, which states that a material is elastic
(it will return to its original shape) if force is directly proportional to extension of the material

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Plastic Region
In this region (between points 2 and 3), the rate at which extension is increasing is going up, and
the material has passed the elastic limit. It will no longer return to its original shape. After point
1, the amount of stress decreases due to necking at one point in the specimen. If the stress was
recorded where the necking occurs we would observe an upward curve and an increase in stress
due to this reduction in area(stress = Force / area, thus stress increases during necking). The
material will now 'give' and extend more under less force.
Fracture Point
At point 3, the material has been fractured.
Other Typical Graphs
In a brittle material, such as glass or ceramics, the stress-strain graph will have an extremely
short elastic region, and then will fracture. There is no plastic region on the stress-strain graph of
a brittle material.


1) The following arrangements all contain identical springs, shown unextended.

A mass m is added to the bottom of each arrangement. Which arrangement will
produce the greatest total extension?

2) A force is applied to a length of wire. Which of the following statements is not

correct for small deformations of the wire?
A As the force applied increases, the extension increases.
B The force applied is directly proportional to the extension.
C The force applied is directly proportional to the original length.
D The stress is directly proportional to the strain.

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3) Aluminium can be used to produce thin sheets of food wrapping because it is
A brittle.
B ductile.
C hard.
D malleable

4) A material that is able to undergo plastic deformation under compression is said to be

A brittle.
B ductile.
C hard.
D malleable.

5) A thin wire of uniform cross-sectional area is stretched by an increasing force.

The corresponding stress-strain graph is shown.

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6) A force is applied across the ends of a spring and the following force-extension graph
is drawn.
Three points, P, Q and R, are marked on the graph. At point Q the applied force is

7) A force of 15 N is applied to a wire of cross-sectional area 3.0 106 m2. The wire
extends by 1% of the original length.
The Young modulus of the wire, in N m2, can be found from

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8) The main component of a newton meter is a calibrated spring.
The newton meter is to be used over a greater range of forces. Which of the following
should be increased to allow this?
A ductility of the spring wire
B precision of the scale
C stiffness of the spring
D ultimate tensile strength of the spring

9) Some masses are added to a piece of copper wire as shown. Measurements are taken
of the length of the wire as the force on the wire is increased.

10) Two springs, X and Y, are stretched by the same force F. The spring constant of X is
double the spring constant of Y.

If the energy stored in Y is E, the energy stored in X is given by

A E /4
B E /2

11) An increasing force is applied to a spring and the corresponding extension is

The spring constant k of the spring is
A the applied force per unit extension.
B the applied force per unit length.
C the gradient of the extension (y-axis) against force (x-axis) graph.
D the area under the extension (y-axis) against force (x-axis) graph.

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12) Which spring obey hooke law

13) Which row identify each material

14) Which of the following descriptions of a material implies that it undergoes significant
plastic deformation?
A brittle
B hard
C malleable
D stiff

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15) Explain the difference between compressive strain and tensile strain
Strain means ratio of change in length with original length
Compressive means decrease in length, size, area or push
Tensile means increase in length, size, area or pull

16) A material which can be drawn into a wire is described as being

A brittle.
B ductile.
C hard.
D soft.

17) A physics book gives this definition:

A material which shows a large plastic deformation under compression.
This is the definition for
A ductile
B hard
C malleable
D stiff

18) The graph shows how tensile stress varies with tensile strain for a wire.

19) A material which resists plastic deformation by scratching is described as

A brittle
B hard
C malleable
D stiff

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20) A substance which can undergo a large plastic deformation without cracking can be
described as
A brittle
B hard
C malleable
D stiff

21) The graph shows stressstrain curves for samples of four different materials

a) Which material has the greatest strength?


b) Which material is the greatest strength?


22) All ductile materials are also

A brittle
B hard
C malleable
D stiff

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1) Explain what is meant by the terms

Elastic deformation:(When the applied force/load is removed) the material/wire
will return to
its original shape/length/size

Plastic deformation:
(When the applied force/load is removed) the material/wire will be permanently
deformed Or the material/wire will not return to its original shape/length/size

2) Copper is a ductile material. This makes copper suitable for the production of wires.

3) Explain how the magnitude and angle of the applied force must change in order to
make the suitcase accelerate horizontally.

Horizontal component of force must increase

Vertical component of force must stay the same
(Magnitude of applied) force must increase
Angle (to the horizontal) decreases

4) State what is meant by high tensile strength.

Can withstand large stress/ force / tension
Or requires a large stress/force to fracture

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5) Spiders use silk to build webs to catch insects. Use the graph to explain how the
properties of spider silk make it more suitable than silkworm silk for building webs to
catch insects.

Max 4 (any two properties and corresponding explanations)

Higher elastic limit
so will return to its original length/shape if greater forces are applied
(if a fly flies into it for the same thickness of silk)
Higher ultimate /breaking stress
so stronger Or higher strength Or so the thread could be thinner ( so
less visible to the fly) Or for same (cross-sectional)area can withstand
larger force
Larger area under the graph
so tougher Or can absorb more energy (and will not break if a fly
stretches the web)
Larger gradient Or steeper Or greater Young modulus Or smaller
strain/extension for the same stress/force
so stiffer

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6) The graph shows the stress-strain curves for three materials A, B, and C up to the
point of fracture.

a) Identify which of the materials A, B or C is

a brittle material .......................................................................

a ductile material .....................................................................
the strongest material ............................................................
the least stiff material ...........................................................

Brittle = A
Ductile = B and /or C
Strongest = A
Least stiff = C
b) The three materials are copper, glass and steel.
Identify which graph refers to each material.

A = Glass
B =Steel
C = Copper

c) Explain why steel is a suitable material for making paper clips.

Property Behaviour
High UTS Or strong Or not Will not break when opened/ Will not break when
brittle force/stress applied
High Young Modulus stiff Grips paper (firmly)
Ductile Can be drawn into wires
Malleable Can be bent into shape
Elastic Will close after being opened

d) State the name for the point marked X on graph B and explains its significance.

X = yield point
Point at which material shows a large (increase in) strain for a small/no increase in
(Accept the point at which plastic deformation/behaviour/property begins)

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7) Sandstone is able to fault (break), fold (bend) and carry seismic (earthquake) waves.
Faults can occur if the temperature of the sandstone is low enough for it to become
brittle. This causes it to break under pressure.
(a) State and explain the properties of the sandstone that allow it to fold.

(Large) plastic deformation
Or the material does not return to its original shape (when the
compressive force is removed)
Or the material is permanently deformed (when the compressive force is removed)
(Treat references to tough as neutral in both marking points)

(b) State and explain the properties of the sandstone that allow it to carry seismic
Elastic behaviour Or does not deform plastically (for low stresses)
Returns to original shape/position (when the force/stress is removed)
Or no permanent deformation

8) A student reads the following statement in a text book:

Unlike many metals, lead is malleable but not ductile.
Explain the statement.
Most metals are both malleable and ductile
Malleable materials Or lead: will undergoes plastic/permanent deformation/behaviour
of significant extent Or under small stress Or reference to a lot of Or reference
to large(amount of)
under compressive force Or under compressive stress Or under compression Or
when compressed Or can be hammered into shape Or rolled into sheets
Lead cant be drawn into wires Or Lead will not deform plastically under tension
Or lead will not deform plastically under a tensile force/stress
(MP5 may be implied with MP4 e.g. under compression but not under tension)

9) Explain why the wire used when measuring the Young Modulus of copper in a school
laboratory is long and thin.
Small extension hard to measure accurately (or converse)
Small extension gives large percentage uncertainty (or converse)
Max 4 from
(thin wire has) small area
stress = force/area
so get a larger stress (for a given force) / dont need such a large force /
need too much force needed if not thin
greater extension - linked to thinner wire
strain = extension/original length / extension _ original length greater extension - linked
to longer length

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10) Define tough and brittle

tough able to absorb energy without failure (accept breaking/cracking etc) /

able to absorb a lot of energy in the plastic region /
withstand impact forces/shocks
brittle tends to shatter when subject to impact /
fails with little or no plastic deformation/behaviour/just beyond elastic limit

11) Explain the difference between elastic deformation and plastic deformation.

Elastic returns to original shape when deforming force/stress

removed /no permanent deformation
Plastic doesnt return to original shape when deforming
force/stress removed / permanent deformation
Suitable material or object named which undergoes elastic and
plastic deformation, e.g. spring/wire/strawberry laces do not
accept rubber / elastic band but accept balloon
Illustration comparing both types of deformation under different force / stress / strain /
amount of deformation for material / object (independent of material mark)

12) Define
limit of proportionality stress proportional to strain / obeys Hookes
law / Force proportional to extension up to this point
tensile strength greatest stress before fracturing
yield point point at which plastic deformation begins / point at
which material shows a larger increase in strain for a smaller increase
in stress

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