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Original Title: Lecture 04-Design of T and L Beams Section in Flexure.pdf

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Lecture 04

Flexure

Civil Engineering Department

UET Peshawar

drqaisarali@uetpeshawar.edu.pk

Topics Addressed

Design Cases

References

1

24Mar17

The T or L Beam gets its name when the slab and beam produce

the cross sections having the typical T and L shapes in a monolithic

reinforced concrete construction.

beam sides, the underside of slabs, and the entire concrete is

mostly poured at once, from the bottom of the deepest beam to the

top of the slab.

2

24Mar17

3

24Mar17

b

a a

a b a

a b a

a b a

Compression

Tension

Tension

Compression

4

24Mar17

Positive Bending Moment

In the analysis and design of floor and roof systems, it is common practice

to assume that the monolithically placed slab and supporting beam

interact as a unit in resisting the positive bending moment.

As shown, the slab becomes the compression flange, while the supporting

beam becomes the web or stem.

Compression

Tension

Section a-a

Negative Bending Moment

In the case of negative bending moment, the slab at the top of the stem

(web) will be in tension while the bottom of the stem will be in

compression. This usually occurs at interior support of continuous beam.

Tension

Compression

Section b-b

5

24Mar17

flange width bf shall include the beam web width bw plus an effective

overhanging flange width in accordance with ACI Table 6.3.2.1

bf bf

h

Flange

sw Web or Stem

bw

Calculation of Effective Flange Width (bf) (ACI 6.3.2.1)

T - Beam

1 bw + 16h

2 bw + s w sw sw

3 bw + n/4

Where bw is the width of the beam, h is the slab thickness, sw is the clear distance to the

adjacent beam and n is the clear length of beam.

6

24Mar17

Calculation of Effective Flange Width (bf) (ACI 6.3.2.1)

L - Beam

1 bw + 6h

2 bw + sw/2

3 bw + n/12

Where bw is the width of the beam, h is the slab thickness, sw is the clear distance to the

adjacent beam and n is the clear length of beam.

Design Cases

In designing a T-Beam for positive bending moment, there exists two

conditions:

Condition 1. The depth of the compression block may be less than or equal

to the slab depth i.e. flange thickness (a h)

bending with the width of compression block equal to bf.

bf

a h

d N.A

As

bw

7

24Mar17

Design Cases

Condition 2. The compression block may cover the flange and extend into

the web (a h)

(bf - bw)/2

bf

h

a

d N.A

Ast

bw

Flexural Capacity

When a h

bf

a h

d N.A

As

bw

8

24Mar17

Flexural Capacity

bf c 0.85fc

a/2 C

(Fx = 0) a h a

N.A

0.85fc abf = Asfy d

la = d - a/2

a = Asfy/ 0.85fc bf As

T

(M = 0) bw

s

As Mn = Mu ; Asfy (d a/2) = Mu

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 320 Reinforced Concrete Design 17

Example 01

The roof of a hall has a 5 thick slab with beams having 30 feet c/c and

28.5 feet clear length. The beams are having 9 feet clear spacing and

have been cast monolithically with slab. Overall depth of beam (including

slab thickness) being 24 in and width of beam web being 14 in. Calculate

the steel reinforcement area for the simply supported beam against a total

factored load (including self weight of beam) of 3 k/ft. Use fc = 3 ksi and fy

= 60 ksi.

9

24Mar17

Example Solution:

Span length (lc/c) = 30 ; clear length (ln) = 28.5

wu = 3 k/ft

bw + 16h = 14 + 16 5 = 94

bw + sw = 14 + 9 12 = 122

Therefore, bf = 94

Example Solution:

Check if the beam behaviour is T or rectangular.

Trial # 01

Let a = h = 5

Trial # 02

10

24Mar17

Example Solution:

As = Mu/fy(d a/2) = 4050/{0.90 60 (21.5 0.98/2)} = 3.56 in2

Trial # 03

Example Solution:

Check for maximum and minimum reinforcement allowed by ACI:

Asmin = 3 ( f / fy) bwd (200/fy) bwd

(200/fy) bwd = (200/60000) x 14 21.5 = 1.0 in2

Asmin = 1 x2 =2.0 in2 (Statically determinate beam)

Asmax = 0.27 (fc / fy) bwd = 0.27 x (3/60) x 14 21.5 = 4.06 in2

11

24Mar17

Example Solution:

Check design capacity your self.

Example Solution:

24

5 #8

14

12

24Mar17

fc = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi, beam width = 15,

12 clear length

B1 B1

12 clear length

147.02 K 147.02 K

Flexural Capacity

When a > h

(bf-bw)/2 (bf-bw)/2

bf bf bf

h

a

d d d N.A

= +

Ast Asf As

bw bw

bw

Mn Mn1 Mn2

Mn = Mn1 + Mn2

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 320 Reinforced Concrete Design 26

13

24Mar17

(bf-bw)/2

Flexural Capacity bf

h/2

Mn1 Calculation h C1

N.A

From stress diagram d l1 = d - h/2

T1 = C1 Asf

T1

C1 = 0.85 fc (bf - bw)h bw

T1 = Asf fy Mn1

bf

Mn2 Calculation a/2

h a C2

From stress diagram N.A

d N.A l2 = d - a/2

T2 = C2

As T2

C2 = 0.85 fc abw

bw

T2 = As fy Mn2

As fy = 0.85fc abw

a = As fy / (0.85 fc bw)

Mn2 = T2 x l2 = As fy (d a/2)

14

24Mar17

Mn2 Calculation

bf

h a/2

We know that Mn = Mu a C2

l2 = d - a/2

T2

Therefore Mn2 = Mu Mn1

bw

And as, Mn2 = T2 x l2 = As fy (d a/2) Mn2

Ductility Requirements

T = C1 + C2 [ Fx = 0 ]

Astfy = 0.85fcabw + 0.85fc(bf bw)h

Astfy = 0.85fcabw + Asffy

For ductility s = t = 0.005 (ACI table 21.2.2)

For a = 1c = 10.375d, Ast will become Astmax, Therefore,

Astmax fy= 0.85fc10.375dbw + Asffy

Astmax fy= 0.85fc10.375dbw + Asf

Astmax = 0.31875 1(fc/fy)dbw + Asf

for fc 4000 psi, 1 = 0.85, Astmax = 0.27 (fc / fy) bwd + Asf

OR Astmax = Asmax (singly) + Asf

So, for T-beam to behave in a ductile manner Ast, provided Astmax

15

24Mar17

Example 03

Design a simply supported T beam to resist a factored positive moment

equal to 6500 in-kip. The beam is 12 wide and is having 20 effective

depth including a slab thickness of 3 inches. The centre to centre and

clear lengths of the beam are 25.5 and 24 respectively. The clear spacing

between the adjacent beams is 3 ft.

Example Solution:

Span length (lc/c) = 25.5 ; clear length (ln) = 24

d = 20; bw = 12; h = 3

bw + 16h = 12 + 16 3 = 60

bw + sw = 12 + 3 12 = 48

bw + ln/4 = 12 + 24 12/4 = 84

Therefore, bf = 48

16

24Mar17

Example Solution:

Check if the beam behaviour is T or rectangular.

Let a = h = 3

Example Solution:

Design:

17

24Mar17

Example Solution:

Design:

Mn2 = Mu Mn1 = 6500 4585.41 = 1914.45 in-kip

Example Solution:

Ductility requirements, (Ast = As + Asf) Astmax

18

24Mar17

Example Solution:

Ensure that Ast > Asmin

Example Solution:

Check design capacity your self.

19

24Mar17

Example Solution:

20

3+3+3 #8

12

References

Dolan.

20

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