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ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING LAB

SHORT REPORT

SUBJECT CODE BFC3121


CODE & EXPERIMENT MA3- BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND
TITLE
COURSE CODE 3-BFF
EXPERIMENT DATE 9TH MARCH 2011
NAME OF STUDENT JOYCE TEO SUET HUI (AF080293)
NO. OF GROUP GROUP 8
NAME OF GROUP 1.NIRMALA AP NAWASIWAYAM (AF080305)
2.SIEW KIN WAH (AF080310)
MEMBERS
3.LIONG LOONG HING (AF080309)
4. NURSYAHIDAH BINTI SAEDON (AF080191)
5.
NAME OF LECTURER/ MISS NOOR AKHMAZILLAH BT MOHD FAUZI
TUTOR/TRAINER PUAN FIDAH BT HAMDAN
MISS FAZLIANI BT MOHD KUSIN
DATE OF SUBMISSION 16TH MARCH 2011
MARK DISCIPLINE/PARTICIPITATION /15%
RESULT /25%
DATA ANALYSIS /30%
DISCUSSION /30%
TOTAL /100%
EXAMINERS COMMENT APPROVAL RECEIVE

KOD ETIKA PELAJAR


(KEP)
JAB. KEJ. SUMBER AIR & ALAM SEKITAR
FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM & ALAM SEKITAR
UTHM

Saya dengan ini mengaku bahawa saya telah menyediakan laporan ini dengan daya usaha saya
sendiri. Saya juga mengaku tidak menerima atau memberi sebarang bantuan dalam menyediakan
laporan ini dan membuat ikrar ini dengan kepercayaan bahawa apa-apa yang tersebut di
dalamnya adalah benar.

___________________________
Tandatangan Pelajar

Nama : JOYCE TEO SUET HUI

No. Matrik : AF080293

Tarikh : 16TH MARCH 2011

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Microorganisms such as bacteria are responsible for decomposing organic waste. When organic
matter such as dead plants, leaves, grass clippings, manure, sewage, or even food waste is present in a
water supply, the bacteria will begin the process of breaking down this waste. When this happens, much
of the available dissolved oxygen is consumed by aerobic bacteria, robbing other aquatic organisms of the
oxygen they need to live. Biochemical oxygen demand or BOD is a procedure to determine the amount of
oxygen consumed by the microorganisms in the waste water chemically. It is commonly used as the
indicator to show the cleanliness of the waste water.

2.0 OBJECTIVE

To measure the amount of dissolved oxygen in the waste water for a specified period of time and
temperature.
4.0 APPARATUS AND MATERIAL

a. Beaker
b. 2 Bottles
c. Waste water
d. Measuring cylinder
e. Deionised water
f. Pipettes
g. pH Meter
h. Magnetic stirrer
i. DO meter
j. BOD incubator

5.0 PROCEDURES

1. 100ml of waste water is collected from a specified source using a beaker.


2. The waste water is then tested by using pH meter. It is tested to be neutral. The readings for both
pH and temperature are recorded in the Bench Sheet.
3. The sample is then divided by using measuring cylinder. (Group 8 = 5ml; Group 9 = 10ml.)
4. The sample is poured into the first bottle and deionized water is added until 300ml.
5. The second bottle is prepared by pouring the 300ml of deionized water into the bottle.
6. A magnetic stirrer is then added into these two bottles respectively. The sample in bottle is stirred
whilst the DO meter is put into the bottle to get the DO reading. Same procedure for the second
bottle.
7. The readings of DO for both bottles are recorded in the Bench Sheet as initial DO.
8. The bottles are kept in the BOD incubator and remain around 20 oc.
9. The final DO is recorded after 5 days of the experiment for both bottles.

6.0 RESULTS AND CALCULATION

Sample:
pH : 6.61
Source : Drainage in front of Golf court

BOD Data table.


Date / Time Started: 08 / 2 / 2011
Sample of 5ml of wastewater
INITIAL DO FINAL DO
BLANK 10.55 mg/l 10.4 mg/l
SAMPLE 10.56 mg/l 8.76 mg/l

5 ml
Dilution factor, P = 300 ml

Sample of 10ml of wastewater


INITIAL DO FINAL DO
BLANK 10.39 mg/l 10.2 mg/l
SAMPLE 10.26 mg/l 6.73 mg/l

10 ml
Dilution factor, P = 300 ml

7.0 DATA ANALYSIS

7.1 Calculate the BOD

BOD, mg/L= D1 D2
P
10.568.76
Sample of 5ml wastewater : BOD5, mg/L = (5300)
= 108 mg/L
10.266.73
Sample of 10ml wastewater : BOD5, mg/L = (10300)
= 105.9 mg/L

7.2 Show all the calculation and state if any of the data needs to thrown out.

BOD = DO initial DO final


1) DO5 Blank of 5ml wastewater = 10.55 10.40
= 0.15 the value is less than 0.2 mg/L
The value of BOD is 8.8 mg/L
Data no needs to thrown out

2) DO5 Blank of 10ml wastewater = 10.39 10.2


= 0.19 the value is less than 0.2 mg/L
The value of BOD is 5.76 mg/L
Data no needs to thrown out

7.3 The dilution water blank cannot deplete more than 0.2 mg/L. Was this criteria met?

The BOD blank did not show a DO depletion of more than 0.2 mg/L after the five day incubation
period. A drop of more than 0.2 mg/L indicates some type of contamination or calibration error.
So the criterion is met.

7.4 Does you sample shows a toxic effect?


The sample is not showing any toxic effect, it is because the waste water, took from a drainage in
front of the Golf court is not from a toxic source. And the pH value of the sample is nearly neutral
and after our group use 5 mL of wastewater, the value of BOD obtained is slightly higher than
Group 9 which the sample size is 10 mL. It means that the sample doesnt show any toxic effect.

The value of BOD at each group:

Group 8 : wastewater = 5 mL , BOD = 108 mg/L


Group 9 : wastewater = 10 mL , BOD = 105.9 mg/L

7.5 Could you rely on your BOD results? Why?

Yes, because the average BOD result is compared with the effluent standard (DOE, Malaysia).

By referring to Sewage/ Effluent Standard (DOE, Malaysia) could you sample be discharge
to river untreated? If not, suggest the associated treatment for BOD removal.

According to the Sewage/Effluent Standard (DOE, Malaysia), the sample cannot be discharge to
the river untreated because the value obtained with 5 ml of wastewater is higher than 50 mg/1.

Discussion

The BOD5 for both of 5ml and 10ml are more than 100 ml/g, which is not in the range of Standard
A and Standard B. Standard A (20mg/l) is the indicator for drinking water while Standard B (50 mg/l) is the
indicator for inland water quality. Hence, we can say that the water sample is quite polluted because the
location of the sample is the UTHM golf field. The golf field area is polluted because usually people use it
to do several types of activities. One of the example is convocation event that will be held every year. A lot
of food stalls and other business spot will be set up there. This make the drain water become polluted as
the users dont handle the waste properly. The organic material come from the food will consume the
oxygen in the water due to the microbes activities. The consequence is the water polluted and the BOD 5
reading is high.

9.0 CONCLUSION

The water source at UTHM golf field has been polluted due to the incorrect handling of human
activities as the BOD5 reading is out of the Standard A and B. The recommendation to solve the problem
is to apply water treatment to the water source and to prevent incorrect handling of human activities at the
golf field.