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Coleman College 2004 Table of Contents
Punctuation and Sentence Markers
Apostrophe Brackets Colon Comma Dashes Ellipses Exclamation mark Hyphen Parentheses Period Question mark Quotation marks Semicolon Slash 3 3-4 4 5-6 6 6-7 7 7-8 8-9 9 9 - 10 10 10 - 11 11
Capitalization and Numbers
Capitalization Numbers 12 - 13 13 14 - 16
Solutions to Common Problems Research Papers
How to Avoid Committing Plagiarism Writing a Research Paper MLA Guidelines Standards and Grading
17 - 26 27 - 28 29 - 33 34
Appendix A – Example of an “A” Paper Appendix B – Example of a “C-“ Paper (Minimum Passing Grade) 36 – 40 41 - 42
Punctuation and Sentence Markers Apostrophe
To form contractions will not have not Caution: won’t haven’t I will she will I’ll she’ll cannot could not can’t couldn’t
The use of contractions is considered too informal for most academic writing. Minimize their use in research papers and essays.
To form singular and plural possessives Singular: Martha’s research paper student’s opinion
To indicate plurals in numbers, dates, and symbols 1960’s Caution: 2’s and 3’s spirit of ’76
Do not use the apostrophe with possessive pronouns: its, yours, his, hers, ours, mine, we, they, and their. Also, do not use with plural nouns not in the possessive case. Friends are more precious than gold.
Its fleece was white as snow.
Brackets are enclosures, but they should not be confused with parentheses. Use brackets carefully. To clarify information in a quotation
“Students are not allowed to copy software from the college network. This [act of piracy] can result in suspension.” To correct information in a quotation If you quote material which is in error, use the Latin word sic within brackets directly after the word or phrase to indicate that the error is not yours. Do not change words in a quotation. “Students are not allowed to kopy [sic] software from the college network.” 3
To use within parentheses for clarification Your earthquake preparedness kit (water, flashlight, and batteries [size AAA]) should be updated every year.
To emphasize the second part of a sentence • With lists Microsoft Office 2000 provides a variety of application software: Word, PowerPoint, Excel, and Access. With quotations Donald Barthelme uses absurdity when he writes: “Some of us had been threatening our friend Colby for a long time, because of the way he had been behaving. And now he’d gone too far, so we decided to hang him” (420).
To punctuate the salutation of a letter Dear Ms. Williams: Using with other punctuation • Colons (and semicolons) are usually placed outside the closing quotation mark. Dear Mr. Smith:
To avoid common mistakes Caution: Do not use a colon to separate a preposition from its object. Prepositions are words that link nouns or pronouns to the rest of the sentence: above, by, for, in, on, out, through, and so on. Wrong Right Caution: Whoopi Goldberg played the leading role in: The Color Purple. Whoopi Goldberg played the leading role in The Color Purple.
Do not capitalize the first word following the colon unless 1) a complete sentence follows or 2) what follows the colon is a proper noun. The different kinds of farm animals are almost endless: horses, cows, chickens, and ducks.
I live at 100 Adams Street. however.” .D. “if you want to earn a high grade. since. yet.” Professor Berry said. California 92111. and consequently. and Excel. before. because. It helps to form study groups. take a few minutes to organize your thoughts. 5 . even though you may like to study alone. for. after mod 6. degrees. Microsoft Office includes Word.Comma To use in a sentence with a conjunction Coordinating conjunctions include and. Before you study. His grade on the final exam. I live in San Diego. or. nor. San Diego. “Make time to study. You will graduate on May 5. Access. The comma is placed inside quotation marks. helped him earn a scholarship. Ph. even though. PowerPoint. 1998. and so. after mod 6. if. However. and addresses Sandy Smith. To use with an introductory subordinate clause or an introductory phrase of more than three or four words. but. Using commas with other punctuation • With quotation marks – Use a comma to introduce or follow a quotation. California. You will graduate in May 1998. when. will be our guest speaker.. To use with titles. I enjoyed the first mod. To use with nonessential phrases Professor Berry. To use with words which interrupt the middle of a sentence and to use with transitional introductions Interrupters and transitional introductions are such words as however. Subordinating clauses are signaled by although. nevertheless. his grade on the final exam helped him earn a scholarship. dates. and I look forward to the next mod. who returned from Europe last week. and while. You will graduate on 5 May 1998. therefore. moreover. will be your ELE 200 instructor.
Either form is acceptable. and I received the highest grade in the class. To follow an introductory list or series in a sentence Word. or indicate a change in the tone of your writing I want to write well – but who doesn’t? The use of computers continues to grow – but you already knew that. PowerPoint. you never forget. SAIC. Excel. Microsoft Office includes Word and Excel. • Do not use a comma to separate two items. To indicate a pause (or the continuation of material) in a sentence Learning to write well is like learning to ride a bike … once you learn. The comma always precedes the conjunction. Ellipses To indicate omissions from direct quotations In Seven Theories of Human Nature. and should be used sparingly. G-Tech… the list of companies that hire Coleman graduates is almost endless. I studied all week for the test. Dashes have a very specific purpose in writing. 6 … . Note: Most word processing software will automatically convert two dashes into one long dash. Dashes -- Do not confuse the dash with the hyphen. • Do not use a comma after a conjunction.To avoid common mistakes • Do not use a comma to separate a subject from its verb or a verb from its object. and Access – these are included in Office 2000. To indicate a break in thought. Sony. Leslie Stevenson remarks: “As one would expect from his view … it is Reason that Plato thinks ought to control both Spirit and Appetite” (31). Students with good study habits receive high grades. Qualcomm.
soft-ware pro-posed high-way To link modifiers Modifiers are words or phrases that give additional information about another word or phrase. Make time to study! • With quotation marks -. In this case. However.Using with other punctuation • • With a period – If ellipses are used at the end of a sentence. life which does not give the preference to any other life. . or reactions Regarding the use of exclamation marks in business and academic writing …don’t! Caution: If you’re writing a novel. the exclamation mark is usually not appropriate. . If a word must be divided. light-year double-edged power-driven 7 T-square . add a period after the ellipses. you may begin and end in ellipses. ! Using with other punctuation • With a period -. remember that it replaces periods and commas in a sentence. Hyphen To divide a word at the end of a line Caution: Avoid dividing words at the end of a line. you may want to use an exclamation mark or two. “. which therefore prefers its own existence . in most business correspondence and in academic writing. “Make time to study!” the instructor shouted. . the period follows the parenthetical documentation. commands. the hyphen is usually placed between syllables. the exclamation mark falls inside the quotation.If you must use an exclamation mark. Exclamation mark To express or emphasize strong statements. With quotation marks – When using a quotation as a complete sentence.” (Gasset 689). . of any previous period.When using quotation marks with a sentence containing an exclamation mark.
the sentence ends with a parenthesis. Effective habits for college success include (1) regular attendance. If. or highlight lists ( ) The bright colors (blue and green) added drama to the room. should follow the closing parenthesis. (3) making time to study.To link prefixes to proper nouns anti-American pre-Columbian To write fractions or numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine two-thirds To avoid common mistakes • Do not hyphenate modifiers that follow a noun. when needed. (2) reading the course materials. and (4) getting enough sleep. the period falls outside the closing parenthesis. Using with other punctuation • With commas – The comma. Please call your sister (555-1212) before you leave the office. the period belongs inside the parentheses. To provide parenthetical documentation Please see the section on Research Papers and MLA. To insert examples. • With a period – When a complete sentence stands alone and is surrounded by parentheses. • Do not hyphenate adverbs that end in ly or with the word very. but we still missed the first home run. The tornado (the third we had this year) destroyed his barn. 8 . We left early for the game (before the five o’clock traffic began). A very cold day A bitterly cold day one hundred and sixty-three Parentheses To separate words or phrases from the main body of a sentence The English class (your favorite subject) begins promptly at noon. details. The artist was well known. however.
The instructor asked. To abbreviate words Mrs.m. . Question mark To terminate direct questions May I borrow your pencil? To whom did you speak? What will Bill Gates come up with next year? Caution: Do not use question marks with indirect questions. Sept. Last summer. Mr. Using with other punctuation • • With a period – Question marks are used to end a sentence. do not add a period. Period To end a sentence or an indirect question That’s all she wrote. D. a.(Leaving class early disrupts other students.C. For example: ? I asked if I could borrow your pencil. We wonder what Bill Gates will think of next.) A positive attitude is needed during an employment interview (if you want to get the job). etc. With quotation marks – When the question mark is part of the quoted material. “Did you make time to study?” 9 . I visited Washington. Do not use a period directly before or after a question mark. To avoid common mistakes • When a sentence ends with an abbreviation. the question mark falls within the quotation marks. He can’t remember who answered the phone. Indirect questions are really statements that may sound like questions. We wonder what Bill Gates will come up with next year. Vol.
To emphasize specific words or phrases I received an “A” on my term paper. The article. his overall grade for the course was an “A. for example. Using with other punctuation • Remember that periods and commas go inside closing quotation marks. I’m sure I’ll get a good grade.In other cases. Additionally. Your “recipe” for college success should include a regular time each day to study.P.” appeared in Newsweek. naming a few. nevertheless. “ ” To indicate titles of short works These include songs. essays. She said her study habits are “the best”: she has a 4. and consequently. His grade for the first half of this course was less than perfect. “Wise Investments. expressions such as indeed. magazine and newspaper articles. the question mark follows the quotation marks.” 10 . Semicolon To replace conjunctions between two independent clauses I worked all weekend on my research paper. and on the other hand should usually be preceded by a semicolon. colons and semicolons go outside closing quotation marks. To join independent clauses linked with transitions . therefore.A.0 G. moreover. at any rate. chapters of books and poems. Remember that transitional words include however. in fact. However. TV shows. Did Raul Julia star in “The Morning After”? Quotation marks To indicate word-for-word quotes from sources other than your own Please see the section on Research Papers and MLA. however.
Sea Fever). To avoid common mistakes • • Do not use a semicolon to introduce quotations. Contact. adapted from Carl Sagan’s book. Do not use semicolons to introduce lists. Using with other punctuation • Semicolons fall outside quotation marks. Instead. use commas or colons. and Star Trek. 11 . Slash To indicate applicable terms and/or her/his / To mark line divisions of poetry I must go down to the sea again/ to the lonely sea and sky/ And all I ask is a tall ship/ and a star to steer her by … (John Mayfield. in which Holly Hunter starred. the science fiction favorite. Lists normally follow a colon.To avoid confusion in phrases where a comma would normally be used Great films include The Piano.
and schools. 12 . To mark the names of national. or thing. We live in America’s finest city. organizations. Capitalize all other words except articles (a. prepositions under five letters (for. or ethnic groups. To indicate a proper noun and the names of buildings or structures Proper nouns name a particular person. on. place. to. nor. or. and so on). businesses.Capitalization and Numbers Capitalization To mark the beginning of a sentence We live in America’s finest city. the). clubs. Doctor of Philosophy To capitalize a title • • NASA NAFTA Capitalize the first and last words.D. Ph. in. conjunctions under five letters (and. Hover Dam Golden Gate Bridge Qualcomm Stadium To indicate titles that precede names or titles that follow a specific person Vice President Al Gore Professor Berry is the Dean of Academics. religious groups. The Wire Fox Terrier is a wonderful dog. but. political. and sacred books American Sony Corporation Buddha To indicate a period in time Monday Reformation World War II Democrats Girl Scouts of America Judaism African-Americans Coleman College Bible To indicate degrees and acronyms Leonard Barry. yet. Leonard Barry. so). for. I watched “Northern Exposure” last night. an. religious figures.
sums of money and ID numbers.00 six o’clock 13 .000111 three hundred 12 ½ To begin a sentence with a number Numbers that begin a sentence are always written out. 1956 55 mph To indicate the time 6:00 p. • Do not capitalize the seasons of the year. The teacher is a graduate student.m. for measurements. street numbers. page numbers. ½ 100 Adams Avenue 15% $2. statistics and scores June 3.To avoid common mistakes • Do not capitalize minor titles when they stand alone. The next president of our club will nominate the secretary. She is a representative from the Senior Class. • Do not capitalize academic rank unless referring to them as an organized body. percentages. Two To combine words and figures 100 thousand Twenty Two hundred 15 dozen 8 one’s To indicate dates. spring summer fall winter Numbers To use numbers from one to nine and any number expressed in two words nine 632 twenty-one 1.
devise is a verb. A lot/alot Again. every one focuses on the individual elements of a group. an unusual experience. Use all right. Affect/effect (Homonym) Tricky. All right/alright Alright is not a word.” “take.” Except means “exclude. Exposure to the sun had the effect of toughening his skin. Ain’t is not acceptable in academic or professional writing.” All together means “in a group. should have.Solutions to Common Problems A/an A is used when followed by a word with a consonant sound: a computer.” Cold affects the body. Could of/should of/would of Replace with could have.” Effect is usually a noun meaning “result. Farther/further Two distinct meanings! Farther refers to measurable distances and further refers to “more” or “additional. Advice/advise (Homonym) Advice is a noun.” or “receive. Everyone complained that they didn’t work. u): an hour. may expresses possibility or permission. advise is a verb. Every one of the modems was damaged. would have. affect is a verb meaning “to influence” or “involve. My advice to you is never advise your mother-in-law. Two words (a lot). please! Altogether/all together (Homonym) Altogether means “wholly” or “thoroughly. alot is not a word. Normally. an illustration.” If you’ve already taken the exam. i. a book. you’ll make a million! Everyone/every one (Homonym) Everyone is a collective group. Device/devise (Homonym) Device is a noun. e.” 14 . already means “previously. you are all ready to graduate. An is used when it follows a word with a vowel sound (a.” Can/may Can implies an ability to do something. tricky! Both words can be either a noun or a verb. tricky. Devise a device to save time. “set to go”. Accept/except (Homonym) Accept means to “approve. All ready/already (Homonym) All ready means. a software program. o.” Except for the policy on overtime. I accept your offer of employment.
altar (table) bare (empty. Consult a dictionary to help clarify the differences. Review the following list of troublesome homonyms before you write your next paper. choice) witch (magical person) who’s (contraction: who is) 15 . sight (see) course (class) complement (make complete) counsel (advice. plank. clear) bored (uninterested) brake (stop) buy (purchase) canvas (fabric) capital (seat in government) cite (point out) coarse (rough) compliment (praise) council (group) dessert (treat) die (cease living) fare (cost) forth (forward) hear (perceive sound) holey (full of holes) lead (to direct. rein (pull apart) rite (ritual). moral guide) reign (rule). their. there. large mammal) board (group. climb on) break (fracture) by (near) canvass (examine) capitol (government building) site (location). it’s. meet standards) patients (people under medical care) piece (part or portion) plane (aircraft. lawyer) desert (abandon. wholly (entirely) led (past tense of to lead) lesson (instruction) meet (encounter) passed (go by. metal) lessen (decrease) meat (flesh) past (what has occurred) patience (tolerance) peace (harmony) plain (simple. tool) principle (standard.Homonyms Homonyms are words of different meanings and spelling that are pronounced alike (its. arid place) dye (change color) fair (just) fourth (after third) here (this place) holy (sacred). etc). write (compose) stationery (writing paper) through (across) thrown (past participle of throw) week (seven days) where (place) whether (if. level ground) principal (head of school) rain (precipitation) right (correct) stationary (not moving) threw (past tense of throw) throne (royal seat) weak (not strong) wear (to have on) weather (climate) which (one of several) whose (possessive) alter (change) bear (carry.
Lose/loose Lose is a verb that means. Set (put down) Sit (take a seat) Present set. Who/whom Who is used as the subject of a verb. You’re increasing your ability to write well. there is usually an adverb. you’re is the contraction for you are. While I think about this. Too often we hurry through our homework. I’ll go to the store. too is an adverb. Your computer has been repaired. It’s [it is] never too late to say you’re sorry. sitting Past set sat Their/there/they’re (Homonym) Their is the possessive form of they. To. and they’re and there’s are both contractions. Its fleece was white as snow. “to misplace” or “be defeated. and two is a number. setting sit.Its/it’s (Homonym) Its is a possessive pronoun and it’s is a contraction. To be. and there’s a quick way to fix it. Their software program has many problems.” Loose means “not tight” or to “let go. She is the hiring manager to whom I mailed my resume. The usage can become confusing when who or whom is separated from the verb. Whichever sounds right is usually correct. Set/sit Both are verbs. There is a problem with their software program. They’re having problems with their software program. 16 . It’s [it is] hot in July. Kind of Avoid in formal writing. Your/you’re (Homonym) Your is a possessive form. and whom is used as the object of a verb or preposition. Its essence is lamb. Two students earned perfect scores on their midterm exam. too. or not to be. Morale is a state of mind.” Moral/morale Moral is a lesson. Substitute the pronoun he or she for who in the sentence. two (Homonym) To is a preposition. They need to get their act together. or him or her for whom. She is the hiring manager who works for Acme Hardware.
If you do not acknowledge your sources at the point where you use them in your written assignment. [Date you accessed the Web page].Research Papers How to Avoid Committing Plagiarism If you don’t read anything else. It is your responsibility to avoid plagiarism. you have plagiarized. it will provide you with the basic knowledge you need to avoid plagiarism. Plagiarism constitutes academic dishonesty and is considered by Coleman College to be a serious offense. you are guilty of plagiarism despite the fact that you use a proper in-text citation. you must clearly acknowledge the source. facts or words that you obtained from outside sources. Plagiarism may result in a zero grade for your assignment. <URL of the Web page> • • • • • Introduction The purpose of this tutorial is to help you avoid plagiarism by properly documenting the outside sources of information you include in your assignments. and/or rearrange the original words. and multiple offenses may result in failure of a course or suspension from school. read this! • • • • • Plagiarism is the presentation of the ideas or words of others as your own.detailed listing of each source of information used in your written assignment It is NOT sufficient to acknowledge a source by placing it ONLY in the Works Cited page. Plagiarism constitutes academic dishonesty and is considered by Coleman College to be a serious offense. Typically. The in-text citation points to an entry in Works Cited o Works Cited -. Rather. The general format of a Works Cited entry for a Web page is [Appropriate information about the source]. you acknowledge a source using a combination of two elements: o In-text citation – a brief acknowledgement. This tutorial is not meant to be an exhaustive work on plagiarism. if you only change a few of the original words. typically indicating an author and page number. Plagiarism is the presentation of the ideas of others as your own. It is your responsibility to avoid plagiarism. and multiple offenses may result in failure of a course or suspension from school. Plagiarism may result in a zero grade for your assignment. If you use the exact words of another and fail to place the words in quotation marks or an indented block paragraph. When paraphrasing. you are not paraphrasing and have plagiarized. At each point in your written assignment where you present ideas. 17 .
it is perfectly reasonable to expect that not every thought. Ideas. facts and words of others You do NOT need to document your own ideas or common knowledge. For example. Common knowledge 3. Sources of information There are three sources of information you might include in your assignments: 1. Common knowledge can generally be regarded as information that everyone knows. you would still not have to document your source. You MUST document the ideas. The reader of your assignment will assume that anything that you do not document is either your own thoughts or is common knowledge. George Washington was the first president of the United States. because that information is regarded as common knowledge. fact. as long as you do so properly. ideas and words that you acquired from outside sources. you often must conduct research to complete your assignments. 18 . Now let’s look at the sources of information you might include in your assignments and which ones you need to document. There is nothing wrong with using facts. The basics of documenting your sources are easy to learn. idea and word you present in your written assignments is yours. facts and words of others. Consequently. Once you learn how to do this. a good rule to follow is: if you have to look something up. Even if you did not know that George Washington was the first president of the United States and had to look up that fact in an encyclopedia. it is much less likely that you will inadvertently submit plagiarized work. Now let’s look at how to document your information sources. then you should cite it.Because you don’t know everything that there is to know. To avoid confusion in determining whether something is common knowledge. Your own ideas 2.
Or According to Smith.Documenting your information sources Documenting your information sources is easy. which can be downloaded from the Writing Assignments and Standards section of the Syllabus of any DE course. plagiarism is a serious academic offense (Smith 32). Two major documentation systems are the guidelines provided by the MLA (Modern Language Association) and those guidelines provided by the APA (American Psychological Association). using MLA citation style: In-text citation in the body of the written assignment. you must clearly acknowledge the source. Typically. consult The College Writer’s Guide. 19 . Here’s an example of an in-text citation and corresponding Works Cited entry. The type of documentation system you choose to use determines the format of the in-text citation and Works Cited. at every point in your written assignment that you present the ideas. the in-text citation indicates an author and a page number. It will present the basics of citation using MLA.. For further detail. The Works Cited page contains a detailed description of each source of information used in your written assignment. Basically all you have to do is this: At each point in your written assignment where you present ideas. of the source of that information. According to one authority. facts or words of others. In-text citations also serve as a pointer to an entry on the Works Cited page that gives a more detailed description of the source. facts or words that you obtained from outside sources.. Note: It is not the purpose of this tutorial to teach MLA or APA citation methods in depth. Typically. this is done using a combination of two elements: • In-text citation • Works cited In-text citations are brief acknowledgements. plagiarism is a serious academic offense (32).
How to Avoid Plagiarism. you must clearly acknowledge the source. At each point in your written assignment where you present ideas. which contains a complete description of the source.(32)”. you use the exact words of another. 3. If you do not acknowledge your sources at the point where you use them in your written assignment. Next we’ll look at how to present the words and ideas of others in your written assignment. (Smith 32) or “According to Smith.. you have plagiarized. The in-text citation. 2. you must indicate that you are using the exact words of your source. When you present the exact words of another (quote).Corresponding entry on the Works Cited page. There are three ways you can present the ideas and words of others: 1. acknowledges that the idea presented (plagiarism is a serious academic offense) was obtained from page 32 of an outside source identified as Smith. because doing it incorrectly may result in plagiarism. It is NOT sufficient to acknowledge a source by placing it ONLY in the Works Cited page. by John Smith. How to present the words and ideas of others Now that you know the general method of documenting your sources—the combination of intext citations and Works Cited—let’s take a look at how to present the words of others in your written assignment. It is important to know how to do this. We can now see that (Smith 32) points to the 32nd page of How to Avoid Plagiarism. John. 2003. You do this in two ways: • • Enclose short (less than about 40 words) quotations in quotation marks in the body of the paragraph Present longer quotations as an indented block paragraph (no quotation marks are necessary) 20 . Quick Review 1. This citation points us to the Works Cited page of the written assignment. Paraphrasing 3. Summarizing Quoting the words of others When you quote. facts or words that you obtained from outside sources. in addition to giving an in-text citation to identify the source. La Mesa: Academic Example Press. Smith.... Quoting 2.
and the indented block paragraph that the idea is presented in the exact words of the source.. then how can anyone honestly determine whether you understand the subject matter? The short answer is – they can’t. that leaves only 3 pages of original content for you to write.” (Smith 34). But if you simply use someone else’s words to completely explain an idea you are supposed to write about. It may often seem that the easiest way to produce a 10-page term paper for your History class is to use as many lengthy quotes from other sources as possible. but you are also using his or her exact words. “Plagiarism continues to be the most frequently committed academic offense in most major universities. you are guilty of plagiarism despite the fact that you use a proper in-text citation. Example of properly presenting the exact words of another in quotation marks: According to one authority. or to support your thesis statement. yes? Nope. To stem the ever-increasing tide of offenses. that is an acceptable use of quoted text. and the quotes indicate that the idea is presented in the exact words of the source. essay. (Smith 34) acknowledges that the idea presented (Plagiarism constitutes. review or report is an educational exercise that is intended to both help you learn the material under discussion and to provide you with a means of demonstrating your newly acquired understanding of that material to others. Avoid excessive use of quoted text Writing a term paper. 21 . (Smith 34) acknowledges that the idea presented (Plagiarism constitutes. And your instructor won’t bother trying.) comes from page 34 of the work identified by Smith. If you find 7 pages worth of quotes from other sources. Slick move. If you quote someone else to elaborate on an idea you are writing about.. Example of blocking a longer quote: According to one authority. Plagiarism continues to be the most frequently committed academic offense in most major universities. many schools have provided their students with tutorials on how to avoid plagiarism. (Smith 34). or just to provide a little comic relief.) comes from page 34 of the work identified by Smith.The quotation marks or indented block paragraph indicate to the reader that not only are you using another person’s ideas... If you use the exact words of another and fail to place the words in quotation marks or an indented block paragraph.
This is an acceptable combination of direct quotes with paraphrased material. or even a passing grade. Avoid filling more than 30% of any term paper. • Another method is to briefly note. Then put it aside. in your own words. you are not paraphrasing and have plagiarized. If you only change a few of the original words.. If you exceed this recommended ratio. report. • If the borrowed material contains distinctive phrases that you cannot (or do not wish to) paraphrase.) Then put the original material aside and. The key to summarizing is to present an accurate overview of the summarized material. avoid filling more than 30% of any term paper. Enclose short (less than about 40 words) quotations in quotation marks in the body of the paragraph 2. on your work will drop substantially. etc. write the thoughts in your own words. (These do not have to be complete sentences. we give an overview of the borrowed material. you must accurately restate the original information in your own words. Accurate paraphrasing is not easy. with direct quotes from outside sources Paraphrasing and summarizing the words of others Paraphrasing Paraphrasing means to present the words of another in your own words. the likelihood of receiving a good grade. Summarizing When we summarize. report. check it against the original material for accuracy. 22 . A summary may reduce a few paragraphs of material to a single sentence or it might reduce the entire contents of a book to a paragraph. • After writing the paraphrase. Present longer quotations as an indented block paragraph (no quotation marks are necessary) 3. the ideas expressed in the original material. in your own words. Quick Review 1. essay. Without looking at the original material. Here are a few tips: • Read and grasp the meaning of the original material. consider placing those phrases in quotes inside of your paraphrase. and/or rearrange the original words. When paraphrasing. etc.. with direct quotes from outside sources.In general. essay. rewrite your brief idea notes into complete sentences.
a serious academic offense that may result in severe punishment. Second edition. (McVay 65) 23 . or reference. p. Acceptable paraphrase: Rephrasing the words of others is still plagiarism if you do not acknowledge the original source with an appropriate reference. you are still guilty of plagiarism. Most universities regard plagiarism as a serious academic offense and punish it by assigning failing grades or expulsion. It is even possible that those guilty of plagiarism may encounter social isolation. Plagiarism is a severe violation of academic rules and. you are guilty of plagiarism. Plagiarism is a serious violation of academic standards and. and may subject you to banishment by your peers. (McVay 65) This paraphrase expresses the original material in different words and sentence structures. and may subject you to ostracism by your peers. Marguerita. in most universities. Unacceptable paraphrase: Even if you do not reproduce another source exactly. 65. 2000. is punishable with a failing grade. but rather rephrase the source without attributing it to the original author by including a footnote. but rather rewrite the source without attributing it to the original writer by including a reference. (McVay 65) This paraphrase simply uses the original sentence structures and changes some words. possible expulsion from the institution. Acceptable summary: If you rephrase the writings of others but do not acknowledge the original source. Boston: Pearson Custom Publishing. most universities punish it with failing grades. suspension from the school. it is plagiarism. Even if you do not copy another source word-for-word. citation.Examples of paraphrasing and summarizing Original material from McVay. Consequently. How to be a Successful Distance Learner. you are guilty of plagiarism.
com/office/editions/prodinfo/compare. [Date you accessed the Web page]. the article name is enclosed in quotes. consistent with MLA style. The general format of a Works Cited entry for a Web page is [Appropriate information about the source]. Dec. 23. first name) • Book name (underlined) • Book publication or update date • Article name (quoted) • Article publication or update date • Database name • Online publication name (underlined) • Publication date • Web page name or heading Note: The URL must point to the exact Web page from which you use information. <URL of the Web page> Appropriate information about the source may include • Author name (last name. 3. Here is an example of the Works Cited entry for a page on the Microsoft Website that contains an article that compares Office 2003 editions: “Office 2003 Editions: Compare them to Previous Versions. 2003. In the above example. Here is how you might use the above reference in the body of a written assignment. mspx>. 24 . 2003. we will present a general form of documentation.Documenting Web sources Because many of your research sources will be found on the Web. you would use a brief abbreviation of the article title: According to Microsoft. Because there are many different types of Websites and information available on the Internet. Because there is no author. let’s take a look at the basics of documenting Web sources using MLA methods.” Updated Dec. <http://www.microsoft. Office 2003 is the only Office edition that documents workspaces (Office 2003 Editions). not the general Web site address.
A Summary on How to Avoid Committing Plagiarism Plagiarism is the presentation of the ideas or words of others as your own. Corresponding entry on the Works Cited page. John. When you quote. La Mesa: Academic Example Press. 2003.. you have plagiarized. • • You do NOT need to document your own ideas or common knowledge. • • • It is NOT sufficient to acknowledge a source by placing it ONLY in the Works Cited page. It is your responsibility to avoid plagiarism.. Plagiarism constitutes academic dishonesty and is considered by Coleman College to be a serious offense.detailed description of each source of information used in your written assignment For example: In-text citation in the body of the written assignment. If you do not acknowledge your sources at the point where you use them in your written assignment. At each point in your written assignment where you present ideas. At each point in your written assignment where you present ideas. and multiple offenses may result in failure of a course or suspension from school. typically indicating an author and page number. you must clearly acknowledge the source. you use the exact words of another. • Enclose short (less than about 40 words) quotations in quotation marks in the body of the paragraph • Present longer quotations as an indented block paragraph (no quotation marks are necessary) 25 . facts and words of others.. Plagiarism may result in a zero grade for your assignment. facts or words that you obtained from outside sources. facts or words that you obtained from outside sources. Typically. plagiarism is a serious academic offense (Smith 32). you acknowledge a source using a combination of two elements: • In-text citation – brief acknowledgement. You MUST document the ideas. Smith. How to Avoid Plagiarism. The in-text citation points to an entry in works cited • Works cited -. you must clearly acknowledge the source.. According to one authority.
you must accurately restate the original information in your own words. When we summarize. <URL of the Web page> Appropriate information about the source may include • Author name (last name. 23.com/office/editions/prodinfo/compare..” Updated Dec. with direct quotes from outside sources If you use the exact words of another and fail to place the words in quotation marks or an indented block paragraph.• Avoid filling more than 30% of any term paper. 26 . The key to summarizing is to present an accurate overview of the summarized material. you are not paraphrasing and have plagiarized. The general format of a Works Cited entry for a Web page is [Appropriate information about the source]. [Date you accessed the Web page].msp x>. Paraphrasing means to present the words of another in your own words. <http://www. etc. 3. first name) • Book name (underlined) • Article name (quoted) • Article date • Database name • Online publication name (underlined) • Publication date • Website name • Web page name or heading For example: “Office 2003 Editions: Compare them to Previous Versions. 2003. you are guilty of plagiarism despite the fact that you use a proper in-text citation. When paraphrasing. 2003. essay. and/or rearrange the original words. Dec. If you only change a few of the original words. we give an overview of the borrowed material. report.microsoft.
but you lost your pen. and then number them in order of your preference. you can write! Granted. there are guidelines on how we use words when we write. but your dog ran away and you’re too upset to concentrate…. you are ready to create an outline. writing is an unpleasant task. You have the interest. punctuation. Step 2: Research Research means reading. Some of these guidelines are covered in the first half of this manual. You like to write. We think we can’t write so we avoid it. The outline 27 . Read everything you can find that’s related to your topic.Writing a Research Paper Why Write? You have a writing assignment due in a few weeks. do a little preliminary research to make sure there is enough information available to make the topic interesting. speak to your instructor immediately. You found your pen. If you can read. How to Write Step 1: Select your topic If your instructor has not assigned a particular topic. Finally. Once your research is complete. if you find yourself struggling with your next writing assignment. You’ve decided on a topic. Think about it…writing involves using the same words you use to read. but don’t know where to begin. it can be difficult to weed through the thousands of options available. Review them (again) before you begin your next writing assignment. writing is easier than using DOS commands or creating a PowerPoint presentation.” so you will need to adjust the amount of your research to accommodate this requirement. The section on MLA that follows will help you organize your writing in an appropriate format. but can’t decide on a topic. Step 3: Outline Many novice writers avoid this step because they think that creating an outline is a waste of time. For some of us. But the truth is. There are also writing manuals available from the Resource Center if you need in-depth clarification on grammar. before you lock yourself into your first choice. or syntax. Many instructors assign a “page minimum. but you don’t like to write. However. it takes longer to complete a writing assignment without an outline. Don’t wait until the day before your paper is due to ask for help. making notes of relevant information as you go. The truth is. Make your selection easier by listing several subjects that interest you. A good rule of thumb is two sources of outside information for each required page.
the writer. and syntax). beginning in the middle of your paper can also save time. Concentrate on detail. and then proofread again. etc. don’t worry about the details (grammar. Step 5: Proofread. The introduction and conclusion are much easier to write after you’ve completed the “meat” of the paper. This time.creates momentum – it keeps you. First. Look for misused homonyms. read your paper – out loud! Reading your paper aloud is the best (and quickest) way to find errors in syntax and grammar. Make any necessary changes from your first reading. When you finish writing the first draft. Write the body of your paper first. proofread again! Have you used appropriate margins? Is your paper as neat as it could be? Did you remember to include your name. Sound silly? Actually. the page numbers. Proofreading as you write only slows down the writing process. spelling. proofread.? Did you cite all sources of research in the body of your paper? Did you meet the minimum page requirements? If required. punctuation problems. proofread When writing the first draft of your paper.” Do yourself a favor…use an outline! Step 4: Write It is often easier to write the middle of your research paper than to begin at the beginning. proofread. did you follow the MLA format? Remember to proofread. punctuation. then go back and add the introduction and conclusion. proofread! 28 . focused and helps prevent “writer’s block. and errors in spelling. Your ears will detect errors that your eyes cannot see. check your work for spelling and punctuation. sit down and fine-tune your writing. Once these changes are made.
title. In this case. Use the same font size and style throughout your paper (including the header and “Works Cited” page). or representing someone else’s work as your own. To avoid committing plagiarism. DON’T present words or concepts published by someone else as your own words or concepts…that is theft of the worst kind! 29 . and sides) for one inch. Use a 12-point font in both the header and the body of your paper. but you do need to follow a few general guidelines. Do not bold the header. parenthetical documentation must follow both direct quotations and paraphrased information within the body of your text – see the section of this guide titled “How to Avoid Committing Plagiarism” for an overview on this topic. set off the quotation by indenting each line of the quotation one inch from both the left and right margins. Use the <Tab> key. Garamond. Make sure you review the material that follows so that you make the most of your writing experience. Parenthetical documentation is nothing more than telling the reader of your paper from where (or from whom) you borrowed your information. Courier New. is grounds for academic dismissal. Margins: Header: Font: Set your margins (top. which is normally defaulted for this setting. or “Works Cited” page. and using parenthetical documentation will keep you out of trouble! Using the words of another without giving them credit is called plagiarism and can result is very stiff penalties (including suspension). Indent: Plagiarism: Parenthetical Documentation and “Work Cited” Parenthetical documentation and the supporting “Works Cited” page aren’t difficult. The only exception to this rule is when you include direct quotations of at least three full lines. bottom.MLA Guidelines The Modern Language Association (MLA) requires a specific style and format for essays and research papers. Review appendices A and B for examples of both good and “not so good” term papers. The first line of each paragraph is indented ½ inch. beginning on the first page. Align your header with the right margin. When you quote or paraphrase information in your paper. The header must be set at ½ inch and includes your last name and the page number. Tahoma. Plagiarism. Appropriate font types include: Book Antigua. you must indicate from where (or from whom) you borrowed the information. and Times New Roman.
but sometimes the author’s name is not given. Example B When you use a quotation of at least three full lines. Watch this variation in punctuation when you write your research paper! If you paraphrase research material. however. in your paper. you need to include a reference for your reader.” Titles are surrounded by quotation marks. Jack Nilles. remember to indent the entire quotation one inch from both the left and right margins. How do you include parenthetical documentation when the author is anonymous? Whenever you document sources of information within your text. and do not use quotation marks. If. simply put. include the author’s last name and the page number. Author’s name (including corporate authors). (McIlwain 382) Note: In the examples above. Example: (Grafton 2) When the author is not listed. where the direct quotation is at least three full lines. However. 2. follow step 2. let’s say you want to use a direct quote from the author. In the example above. the punctuation precedes the parenthetical documentation. your quotation is at least three full lines. Indent both the left and right margins ten spaces. the period follows the parenthetical documentation. Note: Do not include the author’s first name or any type of punctuation before the page number. In quotations of less than three full lines. you must still cite your sources. The direct quotation is set off by quotation marks and the parenthetical documentation follows. “Title of article. In these instances.As an example of how to use parenthetical documentation. Remember that using material from others (either directly or indirectly) without giving them credit in the body of your paper is plagiarism. the period precedes the parenthetical documentation. Following the quote or paraphrased materials. the period is placed in different areas following the quotation. is “moving the work to the workers instead of moving the workers to work” (Nilles xix). The page number (xix) follows the author’s name. In these instances. the reader (in this case. Example: (“How to Study” 19) 30 . refer to the following list: 1. you do not enclose the materials within quotation marks. your instructor) will understand that Nilles is the author you are quoting. However. the quotation marks are eliminated. Example A Telecommuting.
If both the author and title are missing. Again. Book titles and Web page names are underlined. list names in the same order as they appear in the book. The subsequent authors’ names are listed by their first names followed by their last names. Review the “Works Cited” page from the sample research papers. This page follows the research paper. Works Cited Every research paper must include a “Works Cited” page. followed by their first name. follow step 3: 3. List all sources alphabetically. 6. Hanging indentations mean that the first line is left justified. and includes supporting documentation for each and every source you use in your paper. 4. Windows for Beginners. Books Include all available materials in the order given below. include only the page number within the parentheses: Telecommuting. 7. San Francisco: Remedy 31 . 3. Smith. Name of book (underlined). and use hanging indentations for each of the sources you cite. Volume number (where noted). according to Jack Nilles. Edition information (where noted). John. Year published. 2. The first author is listed by her/his last name. Example: (Windows 95 Made Easy 225) If you use the author’s name (or “title” or book) within your document instead of within the parenthetical documentation. 1. make sure this page is double spaced. Title of book. periodical or Web page name. Name of publisher. For books with two or three authors. Make sure that the book name is underlined. City of publication (followed immediately by a colon). 5. Author’s last name. See appendices A and B for examples. and the following line(s) of the specific citation are indented ½ inch. and Sue Brown. followed by the first name. is “moving the work to the workers instead of moving the workers to work” (xix). How you list your sources depends on the particular medium. The MLA has strict rules on how you arrange your “Works Cited” page. Review the following list to make sure you cite your sources correctly.
additional information is required. and Newspapers Citing work from journals. followed by the first name. Author’s last name. board. For books with four or more authors: The Latin abbreviation. American Computer Association. 3. “The World of the Web. 2nd ed. et al. A Guide to Networks. When the author is a committee. Title of article (enclosed in quotations). “Cisco Systems Spin South. Los Angeles: Prentice Hall. Donald. 1. 2. and include the other materials as listed above. Matthew. How you cite page numbers from a daily newspaper depends on how the newspaper is numbered. Anonymous author: Begin with the book name. etc.Press. Magazines.” PC News Jan. Grisham. New York: Cisco Systems. publisher. and newspapers is much like citing work from a book. list accordingly. 1998. Again. Fix-it-Yourself Computer Manual. 5. list the pages numerically. 1997. How to Grow Beautiful Roses Year Round. C.” San Diego Union-Tribune 9 Mar. Johnson. Follow the same rules used with books for articles published under more than one author’s name.). commission. use the corporate name as the author’s name. Vol. Name of journal. 1999. 1995. Florida: ACA.. et al (and others) may be used to replace all but the first author. If not. 1998. B. Edition information (month or volume number for monthly periodicals or date [dd/mm/yy] for daily or weekly publications). 1999: 42-48. With these sources. Journals. include all available materials in the order given below. 4. 2. If the paper is divided into sections (A. however. or newspaper (underlined). etc. sec B:17 32 . Page number(s) of the specific article cited. magazines. magazine.
Pamphlets. The “title” of the article precedes the publication information. Title of article (again. 28. Retrieval date (the date you retrieved the material).) followed by a colon. “Digital Dragsters. there are a few exceptions. This is the retrieval date – the date you retrieved the information. Underline! Publication date (listed on the Web page). Publisher’s name (Web page name). is the date of publication (not always included by the Webmaster). two dates are possible. Path address (URL) enclosed in chevrons.pacbell. 7. Washington: IRS. etc. 2. This date must always be included. 33 . The first date. Les.” Internal Revenue Service. use the following guidelines (unless your instructor provides other requirements). and Government Agencies These mediums are treated like books. make sure to enclose in quotation marks). BBS. The second date follows the last entry of your citation. 3. 2000. “101 Ways to Reduce Your Taxes. On-line Materials There are numerous publications on how to cite on-line sources. 14. When there is an author (or corporate author). etc. Internet: <http://www. Internal Revenue Service. The basic rules for citing on-line sources are the same as for citing books.” PC Magazine Online. While MLA tries to catch up with the ever-changing on-line sources.com/products/business/isdn> Feb. 1998. However. Freed. Medium (Internet. Make sure you review the research papers that follow (Appendices A and B) so that you understand the appropriate style and format required of MLA. 1. Feb. 1991. begin with the author’s name. Brochures. 4. magazines. With on-line sources. Telnet. 6. which follows the Web page name. 5. Author’s name (follow the same rules listed for books).
The writer demonstrates several errors that conflict with “The Writer’s Guide” standards.” make sure you carefully review and follow this Writer’s Guide. you will need to work for it! An “A” is not earned for presenting minimum work. The content indicates that the writer understands the concepts of the material at a better than average level. The content requirements are met in full at a level that indicates the writer is able to apply the material in an accurate manner. The content indicates that the writer is able to synthesize and integrate the concepts of the material at a significant level. nor does it represent “average” or “satisfactory” ability. research.) An "F" paper is one that is plagiarized or lacks evidence of appropriate effort and/or an understanding of the basic concepts covered in the assignment. Proofread your work carefully before submission and make sure you have cited the words and concepts of others correctly so that issues of plagiarism do not arise. The writer has misused few (if any) of the elements outlined in “The College Writer’s Guide. and well organized. or readability. and/or the page or word minimums are not met. really!). The writing is understandable. The concepts and theories outlined for the assignment are appropriately used and personal examples (where indicated) demonstrate the ability to use the information in an accurate and practical manner. Your instructor is brighter than you think and is able to recognize and confirm plagiarized material (yes. A “B” paper demonstrates better than average academic effort and achievement. (See example of a “C-” paper in the Appendix. The research requirements and the minimum page and/or word minimums fully meet the minimum requirements. 34 . grammar and syntax. original. if any. Format standards are not followed and/or page (or word) minimums are not met. but you’re still motivated to earn an “A.) A "B" paper. The format standards are not followed. Evidence of the writer’s understanding of the basic content theories/principles is lacking. A "C-" paper does not meet the minimum standards in content. The writing is clear and organized. and/or the document is riddled with numerous errors in spelling. A “C-” paper indicates less than average achievement. An “A” paper demonstrates superior academic effort and achievement. An "A" paper. The appropriate format (MLA or as the instructor required) is accurately used.Standards and Grading If you want an “A” on your term paper. (See example of an “A” paper in the Appendix. spelling and grammar errors. and personal examples (where indicated) demonstrate an ability to use the information in an accurate and practical manner.” The concepts and theories outlined for the assignment are used by name as appropriate. A "C" paper. The research and the minimum page and/or word minimums meet the minimum requirements. The appropriate format (MLA or as the instructor required) is accurately used. A “C” paper indicates satisfactory and/or average achievement. The research requirements and the minimum page and/or word minimums exceed the minimum requirements. If writing is not your thing. An “F” indicates unacceptable college-level effort. The writer has misused only a small number of the rules in “The College Writer’s Guide” and there are few. Formatting is generally followed (MLA or as the instructor required). The writing is clear. Spelling is accurate and grammar errors are at a minimum. concise.
Appendices A – Example “A” Term Paper B – Example “C-“ Term Paper (Minimum Passing Grade) 35 .
the user must locate the areas and both sides containing that information then “pull” what he or she requires from the pages presented. Most users find the results of such a search overwhelming with options. Enter Push technology. it is a “pull” environment. The flow of pertinent. No more. offers some useful solutions in this area. The Internet offers a staggering volume of information. 1997 Push Technology: Streamlining Data Flow in the Office In the busy worldwide marketplace. For the most part. This 1-inch margins top. up-to-date information is crucial for Indent the first line of all many businesses to maintain their competitive edge. Using a search engine can help narrow the field by providing a starting point for users to locate information of interest as well as related topics. or Webcasting as it is paragraphs ½ inch your entire document. bottom type of navigational process can be “long and unrewarding” (Kenlon 1). most businesses and people find themselves standing on the brink of information overload.Appendix A . Use the same 12-point font through your paper! 36 . We all experience the excitement of entering our keywords into a search engine. Push technology. Reality sets in soon enough as we face the arduous task of manually filtering through the 1500 and some odd “hits” displayed to us.An “A” Paper ½ inch margin from top of paper to header Parsons 1 Cathy Parsons Instructor: Katherine McIlwain Double-space all materials throughout MAN 110 August 27. meaning that in order to obtain desired information. no less! sometimes called. Our anticipation builds as we expect an instant and gratifyingly focused response.
Depending on the service provider. opportunity to abuse Internet time. Informationsame size and type of font in your header as required in the body of your paper Parsons 2 to them. companies can set up channels on their own Intranets. as well as notifications from Human Resources whenever a change to the employee handbook is deemed necessary. Web pages and animations. Intranets function as a proprietary Web site. human resource information and standardized forms. a situation which many companies are concerned with these days. thereby ensuring important company news and announcements get to employees. a sales support worker might be sent basic sales data and notices of employee handbook changes “only after they are implemented” (Andrews 50). may receive detailed sales reports in applets that can be manipulated. A CEO. thus they can be “modified to automatically upgrade desktop software” (“Hurwitz…” 1). The “hottest market for this technology right now is not Web sites but corporate Intranets” (Cortese 102). Likewise. Using this type of technology also reduces the your “Works Cited” page. By utilizing Push. it may simply include hyperlinks that.Whether it appears in the form of scrolling ticker tapes or as part of a screen saver depends on the customer’s preference in choosing the service provider. policies and procedures. Very often. automatically launches the computer’s browser. This allows employees to concentrate their focus on the performance of assigned tasks. Or. The same is true for updated forms. when activated. in larger companies. the information may include complete articles. Follow the such information is only located and other vital information. Once in place. the Use the is automatically sent or “pushed” customer no longer needs to request desired data. guidelines of parenthetical documentation within the body of your text to avoid issues of plagiarism AND make sure you include all reference materials with after a lengthy and frustrating manual search. departmentalized memos. Push products move files from the servers to the clients. This should become an invaluable tool for MIS managers charged with distributing software 37 . for example. providing employees with important information about their company such as policies and procedures.
Inc. Pointcast sends information from partner companies such as CNN and the New York Times to its customers and displays this information. For example. Of particular note in this area: McAfee and Associates. uses BackWeb to automatically send updates of their antivirus programs. including the Webcaster’s own software. Another problem area relates specifically to businesses: the corporate firewall. These files can be manipulated to automatically update desktop software applications. like deleting ads and files from customers’ PCs after a certain time has elapsed. There is an area of concern regarding Push technology which consumers should consider. They may also perform maintenance type functions. each product has its own uses and choices need to be predicated upon what ultimate goal the user has in mind. While this arrangement sends off a wild round of warning bells for many different and obvious reasons. Webcasting permits modifications to the files sent to customers. While timesaving to the consumer. along with ads. As mentioned earlier. a prudent corporate network administrator will probably love this feature. without the customers’ knowledge. this also carries the potential to deliver buggy products and initiate them. These programs are then silently installed on the recipient’s system (Wildstrom 108). Wayfarer is designed specifically for use by companies that want to push corporate information over their Intranets. on a screen saver.updates throughout their company (Andrews 57). Webcasting products also come with a wide variety of options. Berkeley Systems also uses this format along with its well known After Dark screen saver program to act as a middleman between information providers like Sports Illustrated and Berkeley’s own clientele. A firewall is a special computer system designed to protect corporations from outside intrusion (Wildstrom 38 . Backweb also markets Parsons 3 software tools allowing corporations to set up their own channels while also allowing valuable Internet information to be delivered to the company.
better yet. and those that are seeking to capitalize on their hoped-for success. very much aware of these concerns. take appropriate steps to minimize the potential for such occurrences. By feeding only that information necessary and pertinent for individual employees or departments. While it is important to be aware of potential problems with any new technology. “The solution promoted by Push companies. limiting their ability to deliver their services. Whether a business is small and managing information accessed via the internet is the primary concern. 39 . Push can “reduce the burden of acquiring data where time-critical information must receive immediate attention” (“Hurwitz …” 1). or a business is large and those concerns are expanded to include the intranet. have more time to apply that information. and Parsons 4 providers offering these services. Push technology is still in its infancy. When implemented properly. is better management” (Andrews 49). Consumers are quick to switch service providers when they feel it is warranted. Some Push delivery services have problems with firewalls. They also understand perspective clients today are much more loyal to themselves than any other entity. Push technology appears to have solutions to fit many of the problems facing the business world. it is equally important to consider the entire picture. Webcasting has the propensity to solve the data flow dilemma for many offices. Managers and employees will have the information they need to stay on top of their respective fields and. productivity levels should increase.106). to more adequately meet their needs.
“A Way Out of the Web Maze. Internet: <http://www.’” Business Week 24 Feb. and personal examples (where indicated) demonstrate an ability to use the information in an accurate and practical manner.htm> 14 Aug.html> 21 Aug. 1997: 94-104. “The Lowdown on PUSH.com/NetSpeak. grammar and syntax (pay particular attention to this Writer’s Guide!) 40 . The writer has misused few (if any) of the elements outlined in “The College Writer’s Guide. Whit. The research requirements and the minimum page and/or word minimums exceed the minimum requirements (in this case. An “A” paper demonstrates superior academic effort and achievement. original. In other words: • Substantial content demonstrates a high level of subject knowledge through documented research • Minimum standards are exceeded in depth and breadth of coverage • Exemplary format demonstrates attention to detail.” Taming the Net: Net Speak. “Hurwitz Group Questions Real Business Value of Push Technology: Is Push Technology a Solution in Search of a Problem?” Top Tech Stories. Internet: <http://techmall.” Business Week 24 Feb. Why is this an “A” paper? The content indicates that the writer is able to synthesize and integrate the concepts of the material at a significant level. 1997. Wildstrom. The authors listed in the “Works Cited” page are arranged alphabetically and the writer uses appropriate MLA standards including hanging indentations. The appropriate format (MLA or as the instructor required) is accurately used. Jeni.com/techdocs/TS970723-3. “Planning For PUSH. concise. Stephen H. care and editing • Error free in spelling.tamingthenet.This page is not included in the minimum page requirement count! Parsons 5 Works Cited Andrews. there was a 3-page minimum with 3 minimum outside resources referenced in the paper). 1997: 106108. Amy. “’PUSH Buttons Worth Pressing. The writing is clear.” The concepts and theories outlined for the assignment are used by name as appropriate. Kenlon. and well organized. 1997. Cortese.” Internet World May 1997: 44-52.
The formatting doesn’t resemble anything close to MLA. huh? John also filled his paper with “fluff”…you know…using words that don’t really say anything. DO make sure to document all research as “Works Cited” so that your 41 . John didn’t bother to follow MLA standards. And.A “C-” Paper John Doe Where is first-page formatting? John is in dep trouble with his paper. Poor John Doe! Where are the indented paragraphs? John also forgot to proofread his document and it is full of errors. There was little evidence that John bothered to use the material or concepts of the course to document his work and he didn’t meet the outside research requirements. YOU have help! Read and follow “The College Writer’s Guide” carefully. however. He didn’t use any concepts or theories presented in the course (which was a requirement of this writing assignment). as required by his instructor. avoiding the mistakes that John Doe demonstrates. His writing just ran on and on without any substance. He figured his teacher wouldn’t notice! His teacher did notice.Appendix B . Bummer. and further reduced his overall grade because it didn’t meet the minimum standards. spelling and grammar. If YOU would like to avoid a “C. He was a little short on content so he adjusted the margins and increased the font size to 14 to make the paper look better. both in syntax. John didn’t bother to use spellcheck before submitting his work either! In adition to the main problems mentioned above. He also repeats himself on several occasions and his work is poorly organized.or below” for your term paper grade.
Minimum page (or word) requirements are not met • Poor formatting and attention to detail • Numerous errors in spelling. grammar and syntax (see the Writer’s Guide for help!) • Paper lacks clarity. theories. Where is the research and Works Cited page? John didn’t meet the minimum page requirements and he didn’t support his work with the required research. organization and. This won’t be a problem as long as he realizes that his paper will earn very few points. Doe. A “C-” paper indicates less than satisfactory achievement. That’s okay. Format standards are not followed and/or page (or word) minimums are not met. not your instructor!). 42 . if any. he didn’t plagiarize any materials because that would have resulted in academic suspension! A C. research. Remember that asking for help in a timely fashion will probably win you the favor of your instructor. huh? After all. sufficient expression of content. most of all. or readability. and principles is lacking. The writer demonstrates several errors that conflict with “The Writer’s Guide” standards. John Doe has better things to do with his time than write papers. Fortunately for Mr. though. but waiting until the last minute to ask for help will result in disaster (for YOU. make sure you use good time management skills when preparing for this assignment.instructor doesn’t question you about plagiarism! Not worth it folks…just not worth it! Your teacher is happy to help you with your paper – however.paper does not meet the minimum standards in content. Evidence of the writer’s understanding of basic content.
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