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MakingTablesandChartsforQualitativeandQuantitativeDatainExcel

QUALITATIVEDATA

HowtomaketableswithqualitativedatainExcel:

OK,imaginewehavethisdataset:

Animals Legs Weight


dog 4 20
cat 4 10
dog 4 25
dog 3 15
cat 4 8
cat 4 6
ant 6 0.00003
cat 4 2
ant 6 0.00003

Wewanttofindoutthenumberofanimalsineachcategory(dog,catorant)thatappearinourdataset.
ThefirstthingweneedtodoisSORTthedataset.YoucanfindthisfeatureunderData>Sort.In2007,
itwilllooklikethis:


In2003,itisthesame,buttherearemenusinsteadoftabs.

1. SorttheData.OK,makesurethatALLofthedataisselectedbypressingthetopleftcorneror
byusingCtrlA.Wehavetoselectallofthedata,orwewilljustsortonesinglecolumn,which
willthrowallofdataoff.

PresstheSortbutton.Youwillseeaboxpopupthatlookslikethis:

Now,ifyouhaveheaders,thatis,ifyouhavenamesforyourcolumnswithinyourdataset,youMUST
check the My data has headers box. Click the pulldown for Sort by and select Animals. We are
goingtosortthewholedatasetbytheAnimalsvariableinascendingalphabeticalorder(AtoZ)sowe
willleavetheOrderpulldownasitis.

If you wanted to sort another way, perhaps from Z to A, we would merely select that in the Order
pulldown.

ClickOK.Youdatashouldbesortednow.Minelookslikethis:


2. Now,countthedata.Rememberthatwehave9subjects,inthiscaseanimals,NOT10,since
thefirstrowisfortheheader.Wehave107=3dogs,73=4cats,and31=2ants.Alwaysstart
fromthebottom,itmakeslifeeasier.Thisdatasetissosmall,wecouldhavejusteyeballedit,
butdatasetsareRARELYthistiny.
3. Makeatable.ImadeoneinExcelbyjustenteringmycountsbyhandonanothersheet.Youcan
add a sheet in Excel by hitting the tab thing at the bottom:



IfyouhitSheet2itwillcreateanewoneforyou.Youshouldalsonameyoursheetstokeep
yourself sane. I did it here. I do not feel any saner, however.


Always keep your raw data on a separate sheet so you dont mess it up by accident. But I
digress..Myhandmadetablelookslikethis:



MakingaRelativeFrequencyDistribution:Youcaneasilymakearelativefrequencydistribution.
Justdivideeachcountbythetotalnumber.Excelmakescomputationseasy:

a. First,makeyourtotal,inthiscase9,intoaFIXEDvalue.Clickintheboxwiththe9.
Then, up above the sheet, look where (in this case) it says B5. This is the cell
number. Click the cell number. It will turn black and shift to the left. Like this:



Now,typeinaname.Inthiscase,Icalledittotal.Thenhitenter:

Now, that cell has a name that


makesitspecial.

b. Next,wemakeacolumnforrelativefrequencies:



IncellC2,Iwilltype=,thenIwillselectcellB2,type/andthenselectcellB5or
total:

Next,IhitenterandIwillseethis:

Great!NowallIhavetodoisdoitforalltheothers.Excelmakesthissupereasy.
HoverovertheblackcornerofcellC2untilyouseeacross,likethis:

Now,click,holddownthemousebuttonanddragitallthewaydownuntilallthe
boxesarefilled:



Woohoo! That was easy. Now, we have a frequency distribution. We can always
changethenumberofdecimalplacesinexcelbyrightclickingthetopofthecolumn
and selecting Format Cells. Under Number, we can specify the number of
decimalplacesorwecanevenjustsaypercentageandgetpercents.Ilikedecimals
betterbutthatsjustme.Ithinktheyareeasiertoreadandlessmisleading:


or,foryoupercentpeople:



Exceltreatsthemboththesame,itjustchangesthewaytheylook.

BarCharts

BarChartsinExcelareexceedinglyeasy.Justselectthedatayouwanttomakeabarchartforandclick
theInsertTab:

Now,barchartsinExcelarealsocalledColumncharts.Thenameisdifferent,butitswhatwewant.
Clickitanditwillaskyouwhatstyleyouwant.Pick2Dandmagically,yourbarchartwillappear:

Frequency
6
4
2 Frequency
0
ant cat dog

Frequencyisnotverydescriptive,sowecanchangeittosomethingelsebyclickingonitandtypingin
anewname:

FrequencyofAnimalsin
myBackyard
6
4
2 Frequency
0
ant cat dog

Wecanalsomakearelativefrequencyhistogram,butwehavetoswitcharoundthecolumnsfirst.Just
select the relative frequency column, right click and select Cut, then right click on the Frequency
columnandselectInsertColumn.Youshouldseesomethingthatlookslikethis:

Next,makeyourbarchartasaboveandyouwillgetsomethingthatlookslikethis:

RelativeFrequencyofAnimals
inmyBackyard
50.000%
40.000%
30.000%
20.000% RelativeFrequency
10.000%
0.000%
ant cat dog

Piechartsareeasytoo,butIdontlikethemsoIwillnotencourageyou.Theprocessisthesameasfor
therelativefrequencybarchart,exceptyouselectPieinsteadofcolumn.OK,Ibrokedown.Hereitis:

AnimalsinmyBackyard
22.222
33.333 %
ant
%
cat
dog
44.444
%

Again, I dont like these types of charts. I feel that they can be misleading, especially when you have
manycategories.

QUANTITATIVEDATA

InExcel,theprocessfordiscreteandcontinuousdataisthesamesoIwillonlyprovideinstructionfor
thecontinuouscase.Inourdataset,wehaveweightsofanimalsforeachtypeofanimal.

Now,beforewegetstarted,weMUSTmakesurethattheDataAnalysisToolpakisturnedon.Todo
thisin2007,wemustgototheDatatab.Ifyouseethisthere,thenyouaremadeintheshade.:

Ifnot,hereswhatyoudo:Gototheroundthinginthetopleftcorner.Youwillseethiswhenyouclick
it:

ClickExcelOptionsandthenclicktheAddInsbutton.Youwillseethis:


ClickGoandyouwillseethis:

MakesurethatAnalysisToolPakandAnalysisToolPakVBAarechecked.Hitok,andyoushouldsee
theDataAnalysistoolpakundertheDatatab.

MakingaHistogram

OK,finally,weshalllearntomakeahistogram.

1. MakeClasses:ThefirstthingweneedtotoismakeclassesorBins.Theweightdatawehave
hasamaxof25.Letsmakeourclasses10poundswide.Weneedtomakeacolumnwiththe
bins.Minelookslikethis:

ThenumbersintheWeightscolumnrepresentthelowerlimitofeachofmyclasses(orbins).

2. RunDataAnalysisHistogram:Clickbacktoyourrawdata.ClickDataAnalysis.Youwillseea
popupthatlookslikethis:

Dontworryifyoudontknowwhatallofthisstuffis.Youwillbytheendoftheterm.Mostofit,atleast.

MakesurethatHistogramisselectedandhitOK.Youwillseeaboxthatlookslikethis:

OK,firstyouneedtospecifyyourInputRange.Thisisthedatayouwillbemakingahistogramof.Click
thelittlesquareandselectyourdata,alongwithyourheader.

Clickthelittleboxagain.Youwillseesomethingthatlookslikethis:

Now,clicktheboxnexttoBinRangeandselectthebinsyoumade:

Clicktheboxandyouwillseethis:

Now,checkLabelsandChartOutput.

HitOKandyouwillseethis:

Allyouhave todonowischange the histogramsnametosomethingmoredescriptiveandfatten the


bars.Tofattenthebars,rightclickinsideoneofthebarsandselectFormatDataSeries.Makethebar
gapwidth0andyouaredone:

IfyouchecktheCumulativePercentageBox,youwillgettheOgiveplotImentioned.Iforgottofatten
mybarshere.DONTFORGETTOFATTENTHEBARS!!!:

And the Pareto chart box will order the bars for you. Here, it will have no effect since our bars are
alreadyordered.

Doinghistogramsfordiscretedataisthesame,exceptthatourbinsrepresentthevaluesofourvariable.
HereIdiditfornumberoflegs:

Wow. We made a histogram AND a frequency distribution all at once. We can easily make a relative
frequencytableusingthefrequencytablehere,justasintheabovesectionforqualitativedata.