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Tunnels play a vital role in our way of life as it ease the method of transportation. Lining is
the necessary permanent ground support system to the periphery of a tunnel or shaft
excavation, and/or the material installed in the same position with an inner surface suitable
for the specific end-use of the underground excavation. Lining in tunnels is technically an
important component and generally constitutes 30 to 40 percent of the total cost of the
tunnel. Therefore lining, operation requires considerable study and careful planning. In this
study, analysis and design of lining of canal tunnel has been done for cut and cover method
of construction. The structural design of lining is affected by many factors, namely, shape of
tunnel, nature of foundation, physical properties of fill materials, overburden pressure,
ground water position, etc.

In hilly region like Jharkhand, surface level is undulated and it is very difficult to construct
canal without elevated section or underground section. Level should be maintained in canal
to flow water and if elevated ground surface or hill is encountered in the way of canal then
it is highly essential to construct underground tunnel. There is scarcity of underground
water in Jharkhand and hence dam and canal is the only solution to supply water.

This work comprises of studying different forces and moments acting on the different
sections of the tunnel lining. The transfer of pressure from a yielding mass of soil onto
adjoining stationary parts is commonly called arching effect, and soil is said to arch over the
yielding part of support. In cut and cover tunnel, due to arching effect, the overburden
pressure of fill material will reduce to about 50%. In this way, phenomenon of arching helps
in reducing the dimension of sections of tunnel lining. Critical section of the tunnel lining
susceptible to failure has been analysed. Critical loading condition and critical unit weight
of the backfill material has been analysed. The thickness of the section and area of main
reinforcement has been designed for various cases.

The results showed that for design of canal tunnel lining, saturated overburden fill is the
most critical case. The most critical loading condition is due to overburden, backfill,
self-weight of structure and empty condition of tunnel. Buoyant force, uplift pressure and
seepage force do not play vital role in most critical loading condition. Out of the various
loads acting on the tunnel lining, uniform vertical load is the most influencing load.
Thickness of the section and reinforcement required for the tunnel lining increases as the
overburden above the crest, density of backfill and radius of the tunnel lining increases.