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50 YEARS of REDUCED LOADS for FORENSICS

Luke Haag
Forensic Science Services, Inc.
Carefree, AZ

Background
The various loads described and listed here have been successfully used to produce reduced, to
greatly reduced velocities for a variety of exterior and terminal ballistic experiments as well as
for case work where a reduction in the normal velocity of a gun-ammunition combination was of
value. An example would be the situation where full power loads discharged into a water
recovery tank result in fragmentation or severe deformation of the bullet. Experimental situations
include the development of subsonic loads, penetration studies in soft tissue stimulants, the
determination of threshold velocities necessary to perforate a number of target materials such as
sheet metal, fence boards, sheetrock of various thicknesses, skin stimulants, flat bone and bone
stimulants, and soft tissue stimulants of selected thicknesses or path lengths.
Many years ago this writer became aware that some examiners would typically disassemble
factory ammunition and remove a significant portion of the propellant after which they would re-
assemble the cartridge in an effort to produce a reduced muzzle velocity. This procedure runs the
risk of creating a squib load resulting in the bullet stuck in the bore. This is because the types of
propellants loaded in commercial centerfire rifle cartridges are relatively slow burning
propellants designed to essentially fill the cartridge case which, for the particular bullet weight,
produce consistent muzzle velocities and peak pressures associated with the design
characteristics and limits of the firearm. To satisfy these parameters and result in a proper
ignition and consumption of the propellant charge, there must be a certain burden (bullet weight)
and resistance offered by the specific bullet. Removal of a substantial portion of the existing
propellant significantly changes the overall internal ballistic equation, often in a very detrimental
way. These slow-burning propellants were never intended for reduced loads, and do not function
well as such.
There is a potentially much more serious and even dangerous condition created by reducing the
original charge of certain slow-burning rifle powders such as IMR4831 in large capacity rifle
cartridges. Although the mechanism and exact cause remains unknown, the outcome is the
catastrophic failure (burst) of the rifle. In this situation the propellant appears to detonate rather
than deflagrate. This rare event has been called the Secondary Explosion Effect (S.E.E.), and
when it occurs it always seems to be the consequence of a substantially reduced charge of a
slow-burning propellant in a large capacity rifle cartridge.
The careful selection and charge weight of an alternate propellant with a faster burning rate than
the original propellant, and with a much reduced charge weight, is a much preferable way to
achieve reduced velocities. This method is also apt to produce better reproducibility in velocities
if this is of interest or importance to the user; example-subsonic loads for CF rifles.

Suitable Propellants for Reduced Loads


For common pistol and revolver cartridges: Bullseye, TiteGroup, W231, Trail Boss, Unique,
HP38, Blue Dot, and Power Pistol.
For common centerfire rifle cartridges such as .223Remington, 7.62x39mm, .308Winchester and
similar cartridges: Alliant 2400, IMR4227, H4227, and Reloder 7.
Reminder and warning: these propellants are not suitable for attaining, or attempting to attain
full velocity loads. Any attempt to do so will quickly result in pressures well above, to far in
excess of the maximum average operating pressure for the cartridge/firearm combination.
Examples of reduced loads from this writers files

.380Auto from a 3.75 Beretta M85 Cheetah with Hercules Bullseye Powder, Winchester SP
Primers, Sierra 95gr. FMJ-TC Bullets
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft (CED Chronograph)
1.2-gr.* 242f/s / 281f/s / 315f/s
1.7-gr. 542f/s / 475f/s
2.2-gr. 657f/s / 664f/s
2.5-gr. 758f/s / 779f/s
2.7-gr. 812f/s / 811f/s
*A light lubrication of the bore for the 1.2gr load may be desirable, but not used here.

.38 Spl. from a 4 S&W M15 with Hercules Bullseye Powder, Winchester SP Primers
Speer 158gr. LRN Bullets (deep seated to 1.41 OACL)
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 3M (CED Chronograph)
1.0-gr.* 308f/s / 303f/s
1.3-gr.* 349f/s / 365f/s / 359f/s / 308f/s / 310f/s / 285f/s
341f/s / 316f/s / 322f/s / 365f/s = 332f/s28f/s
1.6-gr. 400f/s / 412f/s
1.9-gr. 466f/s / 499f/s
2.2-gr. 561f/s / 551f/s
2.5-gr. 592f/s
2.8-gr. 662f/s
3.1-gr. 698f/s
3.4-gr. 743f/s
*A light lubrication of the bore for each of these very low powered shots is advisable.

.38 SPL. 2.5-gr.TRAIL BOSS LOADS for TWO S&W REVOLVERS


with 135-gr CAST L-SWC BULLETS
4-in. S&W Rev. 2-in. Charter Arms Rev.
569 / 556 / 594f/s 537 / 500 / 542f/s

9MM LUGER from GLOCK 19 (4-in. bbl.) with Bullseye Powder, Winchester SP Primers,
SIERRA 115gr. FMJ Bullets
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft (CED Chronograph)
1.0-gr*. 278fps
1.5-gr*. 380fps
2.0-gr. 586fps
2.5-gr. 682fps
3.0-gr. 781fps
3.5-gr. 899fps
4.0-gr. 1014fps
4.5-gr. 1098fps
*A light lubrication of the bore for each of these very low powered shots is advisable.
9MM LUGER from GLOCK 19 with Bullseye Pistol Powder, Winchester SP Primers
Winchester 115gr. FMJ-RN (Deep Seated through 1.2-gr.)
POWDER CHARGE CED VEL. @ 10-ft
grains f/s
0.6* 259
0.8* 330
1.0* 345
1.2* 430 / 431
2.2 663
*A light lubrication of the bore for each of these very low powered shots is advisable.

9mmL, Glock 17,115-gr. Speer TMJ (pdt 3995), Bullseye


Federal Small Pistol Primers
Charge Vel. CED Outdoors at 10-ft
3.1-gr 854/875/833/848/842f/s = 850f/s16f/s
3.5-gr 899/930/925/957/943f/s = 931f/s22f/s
4.0-gr 1022/1007/1048/1041/1060f/s = 1036f/s21f/s
5.2-gr 1231/1236/1231/1234/1208f/s = 1228f/s11f/s

9mm LUGER, MARLIN CARBINE 16 BARREL, 115-gr SIERRA FMJ-RN BULLETS,


pdt. 8115, WINCHESTER SMALL MAGNUM PISTOL PRIMERS, ONCE-FIRED,
CLEANED and RESIZED WINCHESTER CASES, OVERALL CARTRIDGE LENGTH =
1.050-inches, BULLSEYE PISTOL POWDER
Barrel should be lubricated for each shot to avoid stuck bullets
Charge CED Vel. @ 10-ft.
gr. f/s
2.0 540 / 556 / 558 / 574 / 635 / 578 = 574f/s33f/s

9mmL, Winchester 147-gr. FMJ-TC Bullets, 9x23mm DESTROYER CARBINE


Bullseye Pistol Powder, IR-CED at 10-ft [Note: Factory published velocity = 990f/s]
Charge Velocity
3.5gr 896/895f/s
4.0gr 996/1037f/s
(Calc. Peak P=23,325psi)
4.5gr. 1092/1056f/s
5.0gr. 1205/1201f/s
(Calc. Peak P=36,710psi)
Calculated 3.96gr. to obtain published (factory) velocity of 990f/s
.30CARBINE -110gr FMJ-RN BULLETS, UNIQUE, WIN-USA DEASSEMBLED and RE-
ASSEMBLED CARTRIDGES, STANDARD M1 CARBINE
CHARGE CED VEL. at 10-ft.
4.4-gr. 1120f/s
4.5-gr. 1113f/s
4.6-gr. 1131f/s
4.8-gr 1161f/s
5.0-gr. 1229 / 1217 / 1194 / 1229 /
1207f/s / 1210 / 1224f/s = 1216f/s13f/s
5.4-gr. 1284f/s 1306f/s

.30CARBINE Hornady 110gr FMJ-RN Bullets,UNIQUE, CCI Small Rifle Primers,


Standard M1 Carbine
CHARGE CED VEL.at 10-ft.
2.5-gr. 620f/s
3.0-gr. 875f/s
3.5-gr. 1029f/s
4.0-gr. 1084f/s

.30CARBINE, Hornady 110gr FMJ-RN, UNIQUE, CCI Small Rifle Primers


Standard M1 Carbine
POWDER CHARGE DOPPLER RADAR MUZZLE VEL.
2.3-gr. 338 / 351 / 475 / 483 / 402f/s = 410f/s 68f/s
2.9-gr. 779 / 756 / 761 / 734f/s = 758f/s 19f/s
3.6-gr. 937 / 944 / 962 / 975f/s = 955f/s 17f/s
5.2-gr. 1308 / 1295 /1276/ 1253 / 1298 /1273f/s = 1286f/s 22f/s

.40S&W from GLOCK 23, 3.75-in. Barrel with Bullseye Powder and Winchester SP
Primers, Factory Remington 180gr. FMJ-TC-FP Bullets
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 3M (CED Chronograph)
grains f/s
1.4gr. 346 / 276 / 313f/s = 312f/s Avg.
1.5gr. 368f/s
1.7gr. 414f/s
2.0gr. 476f/s

HORNADY 180gr. JHP-TC Deep Seated to 1.04-in. OAL


1.4gr. 259 / 291 / 301 / 340 / 282f/s = 295f/s30f/s

SPEER 165gr. GOLD DOTJHP


2.5gr. 538f/s
3.0gr. 657f/s
3.5gr. 736f/s
4.0gr. 785f/s
4.5gr. 901f/s
5.0gr. 952f/s
.40S&W from GLOCK 23 with Bullseye Powder and Factory Primers
3.75-inch Polygonal Barrel Infinition Doppler Radar Tests of 7-5-12.
Federal 165gr. FMJ-TC-FP, Deep Seated to 1.04-in. OACL for 1.4-gr load.

POWDER CHARGE MUZZ. VEL. from Doppler Radar


grains f/s
1.4-gr 310f/s
2.5-gr 541fps
4.0-gr 779fps
Factory cart. 1192 / 1155 / 1168fps

.40S&W from GLOCK 23 with Bullseye Powder and Factory Primers, 3.75-inch Barrel,
Winchester 180gr. FMJ-TC-FP, Deep Seated to 1.04-in. OACL for 1.4-gr load

POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 3M (CED Chronograph)


grains f/s
1.4-gr 305 / 337 / 304 / 346 / 276 / 288 / 332 / 313f/s = 313f/s24f/s
MUZZ. VEL. from Infinition Doppler Radar
1.5-gr 329f/s
2.0-gr 519 / 478f/s
2.5-gr 508f/s
3.0-gr 683f/s
3.5-gr 759f/s
4.0-gr 837f/s

.45 Auto from a SIG/Sauer P220 with Hercules Bullseye Powder, Sierra 230-gr FMJ-
RN Bullets (pdt. 8815), virgin Winchester cases with Winchester Large Pistol Primers,
Bore lightly lubricated with Tetra-Gun prior to each shot.
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 3M (CED Chronograph)
grains f/s
1.5-gr 246 / 337 / 158 / 235 / 265f/s = 248f/s64f/s
2.0-gr 389 / 365 / 375f/s = 376f/s12f/s
2.5-gr 401f/s
2.8-gr 503f/s
3.0-gr 521f/s
3.5-gr 582f/s
4.0-gr 620f/s
4.5-gr 715f/s
5.0-gr 795f/s
5.5-gr 856f/s
.45 Auto from a SIG/Sauer P220 with Hercules Bullseye Powder, Winchester LP
Primers, 4.25-inch 6-Left Barrel, Speer 230gr. FMJ-RN, Deep Seated to 1.18-in. OACL

POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 3M (CED Chronograph)


grains f/s
1.5-gr 239 / 244 / 208 / 258 / 286 / 219f/s = 242f/s28f/s
Note: The fired bullets produced round holes in a panel of sheetrock located at 50-yds

.45 Auto from a Glock 21, 4.5-inch polygonal barrel, Hercules Bullseye Powder,
Speer 230gr. FMJ-RN Bullets
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 3M (CED Chronograph)
grains f/s
1.5-gr 314f/s
1.8gr 376f/s
2.0gr 422f/s
2.1gr 439f/s
2.2gr 478f/s
2.5gr 488f/s
*Bore lightly oiled before each shot with an oily patch.
Dry Bore
2.0gr 252f/s
2.5gr 388f/s
3.0gr 460f/s
3.5gr 559 / 473f/s

.222REM from a Remington M700 B/A rifle, 24-inch Barrel, Hercules Bullseye Powder,
Sierra 55gr. JSP and FMJ-BT Bullets, Small Rifle Primers
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft
3.0-gr JSP 1097f/s FMJ 1150f/s
JSP 1150f/s FMJ 1109f/s
5.0-gr JSP 1687f/s FMJ 1668f/s
JSP 1676f/s FMJ 1684f/s
7.0-gr JSP 2091f/s FMJ 2112f/s
JSP 2089f/s FMJ 2087f/s

.222REM from a Remington M700 B/A rifle, 24-inch Barrel, Alliant Reloder-7 Powder,
Sierra 55gr. FMJ-BT Bullets, Small Rifle Primers
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft .
5.0-gr 891 / 799 / 624f/s
6.5-gr 1209f/s
7.3-gr 1256f/s
8.2-gr 1371f/s
8.4-gr 1392 / 1428f/s
.223REM from an AR-15 rifle, Winchester 321 Powder, Sierra 55gr. JSP and FMJ-BT
Bullets, Rem. Small Rifle Primers
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft
3.0-gr JSP 994f/s FMJ 908f/s

.223REM from an AR-15, 1in 7 Twist, H-Bar rifle, 20-inch Barrel, Reloder-15 Powder,
55gr. FMJ-BT Bullets, Rem. Small Rifle Primers
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft
18.0-gr+Kapok 2018f/s / 2120f/s

.223REM from an AR-15, 1in 7 Twist H-Bar rifle, 20-inch Barrel, Reloder-15 Powder,
55gr. Hornady M193 FMJ-BT Bullets, Rem. Small Rifle Primers
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft
12.0 gr + Kapok 1481 / 1388f/s
14.0 gr + Kapok 1647f/s
16.0 gr 1829f/s

.223REM from an AR-15, 1in 12 Twist, H4895 Powder, 55gr. LC 83 FMJ-BT Bullets,
Military Cases and Primers
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 5-ft
18.0-gr 2038f/s / 2225f/s

.223REM from an AR-15, 1in 7 Twist, H-Bar rifle, 20-inch Barrel, Reloder-7 Powder,
Sierra 55gr. FMJ-BT Bullets, Rem. Small Rifle Primers
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft
5.0-gr 727f/s / 758f/s
8.4-gr 1340f/s / 1376f/s / 1418f/s
10.0-gr 1615f/s / 1629f/s 1608f/s / 1534f/s
12.0-gr 1919f/s / 1938f/s
13.0-gr 1957f/s / 2073f/s
14.0-gr 2208f/s
16.0-gr 2482f/s / 2348f/s / 2491f/s / 2455f/s / 2499f/s / 2468f/s
18.0-gr 2740f/s
20.0-gr 2978f/s
Factory LC M885 3130f/s Federal XM193 3375 / 3386 / 3379 / 3370f/s

.223REM from an AR-15, 1in 7 Twist, H-Bar rifle, 20-inch Barrel, Reloder-7 Powder,
Sierra 50gr. JSP (pdt. 1340) Bullets, Rem. Small Rifle Primers
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft
10.0-gr 1602f/s
13.0-gr 2012f/s
16.0-gr 2359f/s
19.0-gr 2745f/s
Factory load 3196f/s
.223REM from an AR-15, 1in 8 Twist, 24-inch Barrel, Alliant 2400 Powder, Hornady 55-
gr FMJ-BT and Sierra 77-gr JHP-BT Bullets, Rem. Small Rifle Primers
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft
5.0-gr Hornady 55-gr FMJ-BT 1178 / 1191 / 1126 / 1188 / 1223f/s
5.0-gr Sierra 77-gr JHP-BT 878f/s / 875f/s
6.0-gr Sierra 77-gr JHP-BT 1098 / 1226 / 1225 / 1188 / 1225 / 1165f/s
8.0-gr Hornady 55-gr FMJ-BT 1834f/s / 1841f/s
8.0-gr Sierra 77-gr JHP-BT 1642f/s / 1620f/s

223REM from an AR-15, 1in 7 Twist, H-Bar rifle, 20-inch Barrel, IMR4227 Powder,
Speer 55gr. FMJ-BT Bullets, Rem. Small Rifle Primers
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft
4.5-gr 953 / 1066f/s
5.0-gr 1078 / 1180f/s
5.5-gr 1088 / 1098f/s

223REM from an AR-15, 1in 7 Twist, H-Bar rifle, 20-inch Barrel, Alliant 2400 Powder,
Speer 55gr. FMJ-BT Bullets, Rem. Small Rifle Primers
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft
4.5-gr 1048 / 1139 / 1044f/s
5.0-gr 1122 / 1174 / 1160f/s

.223REM from an AR-15, 1in 7 Twist, H-Bar rifle, 20-inch Barrel, Reloder-7 Powder,
Sierra 77gr. JHP-BT Bullets, Rem. Small Rifle Primers
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft
8.0-gr 1268f/s
10.0-gr 1498 / 1537 / 1385f/s

.22-250REM from a Savage M12 B/A Rifle, 1in 9 Twist, 26-inch Barrel, Reloder-7
Powder, Bullets and Powder Charges as Shown Below, Rem. Large Rifle Primers
Table 1
Fixed, Low Velocity (ca. 2500f/s) Loads
40-gr. Sierra JHP 17.0-gr 2451/2526/2423=2466f/s avg.
55-gr. Speer FMJ-BT 17.6-gr 2454/2404/2459=2438f/s avg.
62-gr. Speer FMJ-BT 17.8-gr 2378/2395/2408=2393f/s avg.
77-gr. Sierra JHP-BT 19.2-gr. 2383/2375/2348=2368f/s avg.
Note: all of these bullets produced round holes in a 25-yard target.
Table 2
Re-adjusted Fixed, Low Velocity (ca. 2400f/s) Loads
40-gr. Sierra JHP 16.5-gr 2440 / 2158f/s
55-gr. Speer FMJ-BT 17.4-gr 2259 / 2289f/s
62-gr. Speer FMJ-BT 17.9-gr 2331 / 2324f/s
77-gr. Sierra JHP-BT 19.5-gr. 2321 / 2324f/s
These 77-gr bullets struck 4-in. below the full power loads @ 100-yds.
*Fired at BASF 70 degree temp. CED at 10-ft.
All bullets produced round holes in the 100-yd target.
7.62x39mm with H4227 and 125-gr, .311 Speer JSP bullets, Winchester Small
Rifle Primers, SKS Carbine
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft (CED Chronograph)
18.8-gr 1915f/s
19.4-gr 1965f/s
20.0-gr 2096f/s
21.0-gr 2138f/s
22.0-gr 2210f/s
23.0-gr 2338f/s

7.62x39mm with Alliant 2400 and Reloder-7 Powder, 123-gr, .311 Russian FMJ-
BT bullets, Wolf Steel Cases with Factory Primers, SKS Carbine
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft (CED Chronograph)
6.0-gr. 2400 1st Shot - Bullet lodged in bore / 686f/s
8.0-gr Reloder 7 475f/s
9.0-gr Reloder 7 593f/s
10.0-gr Reloder 7 752f/s* anomolus result?
11.0-gr Reloder 7 766f/s
12.0-gr Reloder 7 822f/s

7.62x39mm with Reloder-7 Powder, 124-gr, .311 Ukrainian Cu-Plated, Steel-


Jacketed FMJ-CB bullets, Steel Cases with Factory Primers, SKS Carbine
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft (CED Chronograph)
11.0-gr 782f/s
12.0-gr 970f/s
13.0-gr 1034f/s

7.62x39mm with Reloder-7 Powder, 123-gr, .311 Hotshot FMJ-CB Lead Core
Bullets, Steel Cases with Factory Primers, Saiga AK Clone, 18 Barrel
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft (CED Chronograph)
13.0-gr 1077 / 1007f/s
13.5-gr 1126f/s
14.0-gr 1132 / 1107f/s

.308WIN Subsonic Loads with Reloder-7 Powder, Winchester Large Rifle


Primers, Savage M112 B/A Rifle, 1 in 12 Twist, 26-in. Barrel, Sierra 220-gr JHP-
BT Bullets (pdt 2240)
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft (CED Chronograph)
11.0-gr 837f/s
12.0-gr 853f/s
13.0-gr 960f/s 945f/s 1055f/s
14.0-gr* 1057/1106/1145/1126/1108=110833f/s
15.0-gr 1123f/s 1145f/s 1130f/s
*Best subsonic load. Doppler radar shows the bullets to be spin-stabilized.
.308WIN Subsonic Loads with Reloder-7 Powder, Winchester Large Rifle
Primers, Savage M112 B/A Rifle, 1 in 12 Twist, 26-in. Barrel, Sierra 240-gr JHP-
BT Bullets (pdt Match 2245T)
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft (CED Chronograph)
14.0-gr 961f/s 1059f/s
15.0-gr 1063 / 1068 / 1057 / 1097 / 1112 / 1076 = 1079f/s21f/s
Note: Infinition Doppler tracks show these bullets to be unstable.

.308WIN with Alliant 2400 Powder, Winchester Large Rifle Primers, Savage
M112 B/A Rifle, 1 in 12 Twist, 26-in. Barrel, Bullets as Shown Below.
Nosler 168-gr Ballistic Tip-BT
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft (CED Chronograph)
12.0-gr 1351f/s 1318f/s
13.0-gr 1384f/s

Hornady 178-gr A-Max-BT


12.0-gr 1278f/s 1309f/s
13.5-gr 1423f/s 1428f/s

Sierra 150-gr FMJ-BT (pdt. 2115)


9.3-gr 1046 / 1044 / 1035 / 1072 / 1078f/s = 1055f/s19f/s
Note: 0.5-inch group at 35-yds, round holes, 2.6 below full power strikes.

Sierra 150-gr Match JHP-BT (pdt. 2190)


9.3-gr 1098 / 1047 / 1066 / 1099 / 1086f/s = 1079f/s19f/s
Note: 0.75-inch group at 35-yds, round holes, 2.6 below full power strikes.

Sierra 150-gr Match RN-SP (pdt. 2135)


9.3-gr 1083 / 1114 / 1073 / 1041 / 1155f/s = 1093f/s43f/s
Note: 0.75-inch group at 35-yds, round holes, 2.5 below full power strikes.

Speer 150-gr Sptizer-SP (pdt. 2023)


9.3-gr 1137 / 1075 / 1135 / 1102 / 1097f/s = 1109f/s26f/s
Note: 0.75-inch group at 35-yds, round holes, 2.25 below full power strikes.

Speer 150-gr Sptizer-SP (pdt. 2023)


9.3-gr - - - / 960 / 1001 / 1055f/s = 1109f/s26f/s
Note: One squib round; round holes,35-yd group size not measured.

Nosler 150-gr Spitzer-SP (pdt. 16329)


9.3-gr 1147 / 1133 / 1114 / 1113 / 1118f/s =1125f/s 15f/s
Note: Round holes, 35-yd group size not measured.

Hornady 150-gr Spire Point-SP (pdt. 3031)


9.3-gr 1055 / 1124 / 1045 / 1048 / 1089f/s = 1072f/s 34f/s
Note: Round holes, 35-yd group size not measured.
.308WIN with Alliant 2400 Powder, Savage M112 B/A Rifle, 1 in 12 Twist, 26-in. Barrel,
Bullets as Shown Below.
Sierra 165JHP-BT, 175JHP-BT and 180-gr Sptizer-BT bullets were loaded in virgin
Remington cases, with Remington Large Rifle primers and 9.3-gr charges of 2400.
CED chronograph at 10-ft.

165JHP-BT (pdt 2140) 858f/s round hole in downrange witness panel

175JHP-BT (pdt 2275) 960f/s round hole in downrange witness panel

180JSP-BT (pdt 2160) 933f/s round hole in downrange witness panel

9.6-gr Alliant 2400


Speer 150-gr Spitzer-SP (pdt. 2023)
1165 / 1165 / 1127 / 1163 / 1150 f/s = 1154f/s 16f/s (N=5)

Sierra 180JSP-BT (pdt 2160)


826 / 965 / 1000 / 991 / 1000f/s = 956f/s 74f/s (N=5)
Comment-Advice: These small powder charges in relatively large capacity cartridge
cases should be kept at the back of the cartridge case (tip muzzle up, then slowly lower
to fire).
A small wad of Kapok can also be used to keep the powder charge in contact with the
flash hole. This is particularly useful if the rifle is to be pointed downward for such
matters as bullet recovery from a water tank. If Kapok is used, a slight increase, e.g., a
half grain to 1 grain, in the powder charge may be necessary to overcome the slight
quenching effect of the Kapok.
A strong bullet pull (thoroughly resized case neck) is also important to produce
resistance as the propellant begins to burn.

.30-06 with Reloder 12 Powder, Sporterized 03 Springfield Rifle, 1 in 10 Twist, 22-in.


Barrel, Sierra 125-gr JSP Bullet.
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft (CED Chronograph)
18.0-gr 997f/s
20.0-gr 1067f/s
22.0-gr 1118f/s
24.0-gr 1265f/s
26.0-gr 1289f/s
34.0-gr 2054f/s
36.0-gr 2128f/s

.30-06 with Reloder 7 Powder, Sporterized 03 Springfield Rifle, 1 in 10 Twist, 22-in.


Barrel, Sierra 150-gr FMJ-BT Bullet (pdt 2115).
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft (CED Chronograph)
12.0-gr 1084f/s
15.0-gr 1212f/s
21.5-gr 1587f/s
.30-06 with Alliant 2400 Powder+Kapok, Sporterized 03 Springfield Rifle, 1 in 10
Twist, 22-in. Barrel, Sierra 220-gr JSP-RN Bullet.
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft (CED Chronograph)
11.0-gr* 459f/s*
12.0-gr 789f/s
13.0-gr 1000f/s
14.0-gr 1131f/s
*Marginal load with a risk of a squib.

7.62x54R with Reloder 12 Powder, Norma Cases, Winchester Large Rifle Primers,
SVD (Dragunov) Semi-Automatic Rifle, 24-in. Barrel, Bullets as Shown Below.

SIERRA 150-gr. JSP .308" Dia. BULLET


POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft (CED Chronograph)
40.0-gr 2111 / 2099 / 2106 / 2098 / 2124f/s

SIERRA 150-gr. JSP .311" Dia. BULLET


POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft (CED Chronograph)
40.0-gr 2088 / 2072 / 2134 / 2119 / 2115f/s

SIERRA 180-gr. JSP .311" Dia. BULLET


POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft (CED Chronograph)
40.0-gr 2186 / 2190f/s
42.0-gr 2333 / 2300f/s
Note: Russian factory 71 1988mfg. gave 2989, 2962, 2916 and 2982f/s
E. German silver tip gave 2872, 2795, 2801 and 2731f/s.

.45-70 with Herco Powder, Replica Officers Model Trapdoor Springfield, 26-in. Barrel,
Lee 405-gr RN-HB Cast Bullet, 1:40 Sn:Pb, Remington Large Rifle Primers.
POWDER CHARGE VEL. @ 10-ft (CED Chronograph)
6.0-gr 704 / 690 / 708 / 695f/s = 699f/s8f/s
8.0-gr 837 / 830 / 845 / 842f/s = 838f/s7f/s
10.0-gr 996 / 980 / 972 / 980f/s = 982f/s10f/s
10.8-gr 978 / 1025f/s = 1001f/s33f/s
11.0-gr 1043 / 1049 / 1034f/s = 1042f/s8f/s
12.5-gr 1116 / 1107 / 1108f/s = 1110f/s5f/s
13.0-gr 1137 / 1130 / 1126 / 1141f/s = 1134f/s7f/s
15.0-gr 1251 / 1235 / 1233 / 1243f/s = 1240f/s8f/s

SUMMARY CONCLUDING REMARKS


This sampling from this writers tests and results over many years should provide the
reader with some useful data and starting points for reduced loads in a variety of
cartridges and bullet combinations. No misadventures (burst or damaged firearms) were
ever experienced in any of these or other similar tests. Anyone concerned about
reduced loads and the possibility of the S.E.E. effect is advised to employ the use of a
suitable remove firing device such as a Ransom Rest or Zero-One device.
Some suggestions of the removal of bullets stuck in the bore of firearms
First, what not to do. Removing the bullet from a like factory cartridge, placing some
form of wadding in the case mouth to retain the original smokeless powder charge,
chambering this cartridge and firing it will not expel the bullet. This is for the reason
stated earlier; modern propellants require an initial resistance and burden in front of the
powder charge to ignite and burn properly. Firing a second bullet from a reduced load,
even a bullet with a greatly reduced velocity, may send both bullets out the muzzle, but
it will also damage and possibly even split the barrel at the engagement location.
Two methods that work:
A brass rod just under bore diameter and of sufficient length can be used as a driver.
Some oil introduced down the bore beforehand can also help the lodged bullet to move
with gentle to moderate striking of the brass driver with a small hammer. No damage to
the bore will occur with the proper application of this method. Any oil used in this
method should be removed from the bore before any further test firings.
A second method which works very well, but is also quite messy, involves the use of
black gun powder. A primed cartridge is loaded approximately half full or more with
black powder which is held in place with a small wad of cotton or kapok. This cartridge
(no bullet), is chambered and fired. This will dislodge the bullet with much smoke and
unpleasant sulfurous odor. It will also leave messy residues in the gun which must be
removed with warm, soapy water, but it will not damage the bore of the gun. This is
because of the inefficiency and low pressures generated by black powder and the fact
that no immediate forward burden or resistance is required for black powder to
deflagrate.

Luke Haag
FSSI
September 2016