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K-mean clustering algorithm is used for
clustering the data points which are similar to each other.
K-means algorithm is popular due to its simplicity and
convergence tendency. The general distance metrics used
in this algorithm are Euclidean distance, Manhattan
distance etc. which are best suited for numeric data like
geometric coordinates. These distance metrics does not
give full proof result for categorical data. We will be using
a new distance metric for calculating the similarity
between the categorical data points. The new distance
metric uses dynamic attribute weight and frequency
probability to differentiate the data points. This ensures
the use of categorical properties of the attributes while
clustering. The k-mean algorithm needs the information
about number of clusters present in the data set in advance
before proceeding for cluster analysis. We will be using a
different technique for finding out the number of clusters
which is based on the data density distribution. In k-means
algorithm, the initial cluster seeds are selected in a random
fashion which may lead to more iteration required for
convergent solution. In proposed method, seeds are
selected by considering the density distribution which
ensures the even distribution of initial seeds. This will
reduce the overall iterations required for convergent
solution.

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You are on page 1of 6

Clustering Using Relative Weight and New Distance

Metric

Premsagar Dandge1 Prof. A.K. Gupta2

Department Computer Engineering, Professor, Computer Engineering,

JayawantraoSawant College of Engineering, JayawantraoSawant College of Engineering,

Hadapsar Pune-28, SavitribaiPhule Pune University, Hadapsar Pune-28,

Pune, India. SavitribaiPhule Pune University, Pune, India.

Abstract:- K-mean clustering algorithm is used for broadly. Also there are algorithms which are derived from

clustering the data points which are similar to each other. mixed techniques. In the partition-based clustering type of

K-means algorithm is popular due to its simplicity and algorithms K-means algorithm is the most famous. K-means

convergence tendency. The general distance metrics used algorithm includes K-means, k-modes and K-Prototypes

in this algorithm are Euclidean distance, Manhattan basically, of which, K-means algorithm is used for numerical

distance etc. which are best suited for numeric data like data. K-means has easy operations and generic clustering. It

geometric coordinates. These distance metrics does not can beapplied on the cluster analysis of several data types such

give full proof result for categorical data. We will be using as text and images. But this algorithm goes into processing of

a new distance metric for calculating the similarity multiple iterations which are not dependent on the quantity or

between the categorical data points. The new distance nature of the data. There is a fluctuation in the results due to

metric uses dynamic attribute weight and frequency random initial selection of the seeds. Seeds are the initial data

probability to differentiate the data points. This ensures points which are assumed as local centroids of the cluster. Due

the use of categorical properties of the attributes while to the fact that the clustering is often applied to the data of the

clustering. The k-mean algorithm needs the information cluster quality which end-users cant predefine and this

about number of clusters present in the data set in advance fluctuation is difficult to be accepted in the application. Hence

before proceeding for cluster analysis. We will be using a there is a huge scope to improve the quality and stability of

different technique for finding out the number of clusters clustering results.

which is based on the data density distribution. In k-means

algorithm, the initial cluster seeds are selected in a random The K-means algorithm defines a mathematical function to

fashion which may lead to more iteration required for compute Euclidean distance or any other distance metric to

convergent solution. In proposed method, seeds are find out the difference between two numeric objects. But for

selected by considering the density distribution which categorical data it is not possible to find the difference

ensures the even distribution of initial seeds. This will between data points using the Euclidean or any other numeric

reduce the overall iterations required for convergent measure. An example for the similar situation can be finding

solution. Euclidean distance between numeric points A to B is 25 and A

to C is 10 which means A is closure to C and not B.

Keywords: k-means clustering, categorical data, dynamic Categorical values are not the numbers or the distance. They

attribute weight, frequency probability, data density. are the enumerations such as grapes, pineapple and

mangos. Euclidean distance cannot be used to compute

distances between the above values of fruits. We cannot say

I. INTRODUCTION that pineapple is closer to grapes or mangos since Euclidean

distance is not useful to handle such information. Hence it is

The k-means method is highly used clustering technique that required to modify the cost function other than the Euclidean

which tries to minimize the average squared distance between distance. The possible options could be the use of distance

points in the same data set within a cluster. This technique is metrics like hamming distance or other metric which can be

not fool proof but its simplicity made it popular. There is a used for categorical data. In hamming distance if two

possibility in which this algorithm generates arbitrarily bad categorical values are same then make the distance 0 or else 1.

clustering even when number of data points i.e. n and number Instead of mean the frequency of the attribute is considered.

of clusters i.e. k are fixed.

In k-means algorithm the seeds are selected at random. This

There are multiple clustering algorithms proposed in which randomness introduces the problems like selecting the seeds

the data set getting divided into partition and hierarchy from the same cluster or not selecting the seed from a cluster.

IJISRT17JU25 www.ijisrt.com 34

Volume 2, Issue 6, June 2017 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

ISSN No: - 2456 - 2165

The improper selection of the initial seed tends to increase the distance between two objects else the attribute is ignored

number of iterations required for calculating the clusters from while calculating the distance. Also the relationship between

the given database. If algorithm selects the seeds in proper the data objects is discarded. The matching and mismatching

manner, ideally one seed per cluster then the cluster becomes is highlighted in this method. The weight of attribute is

faster and more accurate. The number of seeds must be equal directly proportional to the similarity of objects. The objects

to number of clusters available in the data set.Considering with dissimilar values has high values and vice verse. [1]

more or less number of seeds from the actual clusters

generates wrong cluster calculations. Hence selecting proper Greg Hamerly and Charles Elkan has published a paper which

cluster seeds is important describes a method for finding the input required for k-means

clustering i.e. k value which is number of clusterspresent in

The algorithms which are used to determine the number of the data set. When the value is smaller than the actual number

clusters are iterative in nature i.e. they use trial and error of clusters then the data gets divided into wrong clusters.

methodology for calculation. The iteration which gives more Same situation happens when the value is bigger than the

optimal output for the cost function (mostly squared sum in actual value. It is difficult to find k value programmatically.

case of numerical data) is taken as a standard value for number This paper has given a technique for determining the k-value.

of clusters. For example if there are 100 data points in a data It uses Gaussian distribution. For every k value the squared

set and 5 likely clusters then these algorithm keeps calculating sum is calculated and the optimum one is selected. [2]

the cost with cluster value starting from 1,2,3, and so on. It

generally gives optimum cost value for cluster value near to 5. David Arthur and Sergei Vassilvitskiihas published a paper to

In each iteration 100 points are used for calculations. This provide details about importance of proper seed selection. The

method is monotonous and gives degraded results. Hence an method given in the paper gives importance result for kmeans

efficient method with less time complexity is required to clustering algorithm. This technique tries to separate out the

determine the number of clusters. seeds across the data set. The distance from center is

calculated which is already selected. The next center is

In case of categorical value, each possible value has some selected at random. This is an probabilistic seed selection

property or context associated. If we use normal cost function method. It also provides the details around effect of wrong

for clustering like Euclidean distance then it discards the seed selection on clustering. Also the performance of

contextual value of that data point. For example A+,A-,B+,B- clustering is improved by this method. [3]

,O+,O- etc. are just signed characters for normal reader but

these are blood groups for a medical personal. Out of these Li Xinwu2010, has published a paper for clustering algorithm.

blood groups few are universal donor or universal acceptor. If It is an optimized version of k-means algorithm. K-means

general distance metrics are used then the background selects the initial centers and proceeds with the calculations.

information may get discarded. Hence it is important to use a The change in seeds results into altogether new results. The

separate distance metric for categorical data. problem of random seed selection can be overcome by proper

seed selection. This paper talks about taking the samples of

The k-means method is highly used clustering technique that data before the actual seed selection. The sample selection

which tries to minimize the average squared distance between speeds up the procedure as the number of data points

points in the same data set within a cluster. This technique is decreases. This method also takes care of seeds getting

not fool proof but its simplicity made it popular. There is a selected from same cluster. The same process is continues to

possibility in which the algorithm generates arbitrarily bad select all the required seeds. [4]

clustering even when number of data points i.e. n and number

of clusters i.e. k are fixed. NoureddineBouhmala2016, has published a paper to describe

the behavior of Euclidian distance metric. It also contains the

II. RELATED WORK details around the impact of Euclidian distance on clustering.

Clustering is important for finding out the similar type of

Hong Jia, Yiu-ming Cheung and andJiming Liu 2016, has objects. The distance between the data points is the measure

published a paper for a new distance metric which is suitable for the homogeneity of the data which belongs to the same

for categorical data. The distance metrics like Euclidean cluster. This metric is used in most of the cases where numeric

distance are not suitable for categorical data. They can be used data comes into the picture. It does not retain the quality of

with numerical data. Use of these metrics for categorical data values within same type. [5].

does not refer the properties of the categorical data. This paper

introduces frequency probability and dynamic weight as a new Jianpeng Qi, Yanwei Yu*, LihongWang,andJinglei Liu 2016

distance metric for categorical data. The frequency probability has published a paper around k-means algorithm. The

of the data is calculated on the basis of similarity between behavior of kk-means algorithm depends on the nature of

objects. In most of the cases more weight is given to few initial seeds which are selected for clustering. This paper

attributes which are more important for evaluation. If the proposes a optimized version of the existing algorithm. There

attribute values are different then it contributes for the overall is always a probability of two centers getting selected from the

IJISRT17JU25 www.ijisrt.com 35

Volume 2, Issue 6, June 2017 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

ISSN No: - 2456 - 2165

same cluster. To reduce this effect extra seeds are selected. numbers by merging the recalculated cluster data. [6]

The extra seeds are then slowly reduced to actual cluster

III. SYSTEM OVERVIEW The components from the system with details are as follow

clusters in a given data set which is different than the other It is the categorical input which can be in any form. The

traditional methods available for the same purpose. The source of the data is known to the user.

proposed method mainly focuses on the clustering of

categorical data types. The data from available source is 2. Monitor

imported to the system and stored in the suitable format. It It is the interface provided to the user for systems interactions.

also provides an option for selection of important attributes From this interface user can perform multiple operations. Also

and rejecting the rest. The data is sampled and plotted across the status and output of the result is displayed on the monitor.

the boundary limits present in thedata set. The whole plane is User has to provide input data source form this interface.

divided into small blocks which are filled with the data points

from the data set. Density of each block is calculated by 3. Database

considering number of elements which falls in the particular This component is the external entity which is connected to

block. The data block frequencies are arranged in descending the system over network. It stores the input data as well as the

order. The nonzero values are then analyzed using elbow processing data in it. This entity is optional depending on

method to get the point which gives more output with amount of data taken into consideration for clustering the

minimum number of clusters. The turning point of curve categorical data.

determines the number of clusters present in the dataset.

4. Process Director

The data blocks with higher density are considered as the This component acts as a coordinator between all the system

potential cluster heads. These cluster heads can be detected by components. It keeps the track of overall process. It also

traversing the block densities. A data point can be selected as provides the status details to monitor so that user can watch it

a seed from each data block. This may give slightly different on display.

seed than the actual seed but still much more efficient than the

random seed selection. The seeds are selected from each block 5. Data Collector

till the point it meets number of clusters calculated earlier. It takes the details for data input form the monitor and

This maintains the number of iterations constant which is connects to the source. It imports the data and stores it into the

better than the random method. While performing the data database. It takes the input in multiple format and stores

clustering, time required for clustering, sum of all distances processing friendly format.

within the cluster and number of iterations are noted down to

compare it with random method. The results of comparison 6. Data Analyzer

between frequency based and random method are explained in It uses the input data and calculates the probability density. It

performance and result section in detail. also calculates dynamic attribute weight. Using both the fields

distance between data objects is calculated.

IV. ARCHITECTURAL VIEW

7. Data Plotter

The architecture diagram of the system shown below helps us It divides the data plane into unit blocks. It takes the input

to know the system. from data analyzer on that basis distributes the data to the

blocks. It also calculates the data density of each block. The

relative weight for each block is also calculated.

8. Result Processor

It traverses the output of data plotter around the data density

and determines required parameters. The required parameters

are number of clusters in the given dataset and seed selection.

following areas

Figure 1:- System Architecture

seeds at random and then performs further calculations. The

IJISRT17JU25 www.ijisrt.com 36

Volume 2, Issue 6, June 2017 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

ISSN No: - 2456 - 2165

seeds selected may belong same cluster hence takes more time differentiate to points having same value. In that case a new

for convergence. Also there is a possibility that an outlier gets centroid value needs to be selected. The new frequency based

selected as a seed which againgives unwanted results. The approach is efficient when it comes to seed selection which is

proposed system will select the seeds more precisely and different from each other and evenly distributed.

overcomes the problems introduced due to random seed

selection A) Sum of distance from centroid

Following table provides more details around how the

b)Categorical Data: In existing system, categorical data is first proposed and old method behaves in real time. The dataset

converted into numerical data and then clustering is performed used for the analysis is Credit Card application data.The

over it. This does not consider the meaning associated with distance calculated here is using frequency based distance

categorical data. The proposed system will preserve the metric

implicit meaning of categorical data

#Clusters Distance Sum(OLD) Distance Sum (NEW)

c) K-value calculations: In existing system the k value is

determined by calculating squared sum of the elements again 1 589.524 589.524

and again for all possible cluster values. This approach is less 2 326.73248 323.1865

efficient. The proposed solution will determine the k values 3 157.47209 70.84742

using block density of the data set in a more efficient way.

4 87.48878 51.239746

d)Iterations required: In existing system, due to random seed 5 13.071791 4.901921

selection approach more number of iterations are required for 6 13.071791 3.02679477

convergent solution. The proposed solution will precisely

Table 1: Distance Sum Comparison

select the initial seed considering data density and relative

weight which will reduce the number of iterations required for

The graph for comparison between distance sums calculated

convergence

using random seed selection with frequency based seed

selection.

e)Distance Metric: Existing system uses Euclidean distance

It is clear from the below graph that the distance calculated

for measuring the distance between elements. Euclidean

using new seed selection is more efficient since it has a

distance is good for numerical data but gives bad results for

straight line till the point which has balanced cluster and sum

categorical data. The proposed system will use another

values. The sum calculated using random seed selection is

distance metric which is based on probability frequency and

more than the new method and it takes time to optimize the

dynamic attribute weight. It gives better results for categorical

cluster and sum values.

data.

proposed approach to compare it with traditional approach.

There are mainly two approaches while comparing the results.

One approach is to find out how good the k value selection is

calculates. Traditional method to calculate the k value is to

calculate sum of all distances between elements and its

respective clusters centroids and then finding the point which

is most efficient while balancing out the cluster number and

sum. This approach involves many more calculation. Whereas

in new approach, number of clusters are calculated using the Graph 1: Distance Sum Comparison

block density term used in the earlier sections. This method .

reduces the number of calculations required. A data series

block and its density are analyzed and a point with maximum B) Time taken for clustering

frequency and minimum clusters is calculated. The same Time taken by clustering depends on the

number can be used as cluster number for k means clustering. implementation and hardware on which the program is

The second approach for comparison is seed running. While comparing the random seed selection method

selection. In traditional method the seed are selected in with frequency based seed selection, both the implementations

random fashion. The random selection may lead to selecting were run on same system to keep the results consistent. The

outlier as a centroid, multiple seed selection from the same hardware used was 2.53GHz CPU and 4GB RAM. In random

cluster etc. For categorical data it is not possible to

IJISRT17JU25 www.ijisrt.com 37

Volume 2, Issue 6, June 2017 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

ISSN No: - 2456 - 2165

seed selection if a wrong seed is picked up then an extra The number of iterations required in case of random seed

iteration is required to take the solution towards convergence. selection increases considerably with the number of clusters

present in the dataset. Random selection gives comparatively

Following table gives more details about the comparison better result when the data is evenly distributes but not in the

between times taken. Time taken for clustering is more in case when these is a frequency biased distribution.

traditional method of clustering in which the seed are selected

randomly. Frequency based seed selection takes less time for Below is the graph for comparison between iterations required

clustering since it does not involve the multiple iterations while using random seed selection with frequency based seed

required for convergence. selection.

1 463 372

2 477 242

3 1638 185

4 21644 177

5 813635 185

Table 2: Time taken comparison

Graph 3: Iterations required comparison

takes a contact number of iterations for convergence i.e.

1iteration.

From above comparisons between random method of seed

selection and new frequency based seed selection, it can be

concluded that that frequency based seed selection is an

efficient method for cluster the categorical data.

VI. CONCLUSION

Graph 2: Time taken comparison This paper has proposed a method to calculate k value

required in k means clustering algorithm using block

frequency method over traditional trial and error method. This

In above graph it is clear that frequency based seed selection

reduces the overhead of running k means algorithm multiple

takes less time than time taken by random seed selection.

times just to find the optimum number of clusters present in

B) Iterations required for convergence the dataset. This paper has also provided a method to select

the seeds efficiently using frequency of elements over

Following table provides more details around how the

traditional method of random seed selection. The new seed

proposed and old method behaves when it comes to number of

selection selects the points smartly to avoid clash with points

iterations required for convergence.

already selected as centroids. Also the new seed selection

method is implemented and the results are explained in

#Clusters #iterations(OLD) #iterations (NEW) statistically as well as graphically. The analysis of the

1 1.2 1 comparative results confirms that frequency based seed

selection is better than random seed selection.

2 1.6 1

3 7.4 1 References

4 105.5 1 [1] Yiu-ming Cheung, Hong Jia and Jiming Liu 2016, A New

5 3834 1 Distance Metric for Unsupervised Learning of Categorical

Table 3: Iterations required comparison Data in IEEE Transactions On Neural Networks And Learning

Systems, Vol. 27, NO. 5 on MAY 2016.

IJISRT17JU25 www.ijisrt.com 38

Volume 2, Issue 6, June 2017 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

ISSN No: - 2456 - 2165

means

[3] Sergei Vassilvitskii and David Arthur, k-means++: The

Advantages of Careful Seeding.

[4] Li Xinwu Research 2010, Text Clustering Algorithm

Based on Improved Kmeans in International Conference On

Computer Design And Applications (ICCDA 2010).

[5] NoureddineBouhmala, How Good Is The Euclidean

Distance Metric For The Clustering Problem in 2016 5th IIAI

International Congress on Advanced Applied Informatics in

2016.

[6] Jianpeng Qi, Yanwei Yu*, LihongWang,andJinglei Liu

2016 K*-Means: An Effective and Efficient K-means

Clustering Algorithm in IEEE International Conferences on

Big Data and Cloud Computing (BDCloud) in 2016.

Premsagar S Dandge is currently pursuing M.E (Computer)

from Department of Computer Engineering, JSPMs

JayawantraoSawant College of Engineering, Pune, India.

Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, Maharashtra, India -

411007.

Prof.A.K.Guptais currently working as Professor with

Department of Information Technology, JSPMs

JayawantraoSawant College of Engineering, Pune, MH, India.

IJISRT17JU25 www.ijisrt.com 39

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