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Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols.

351-352 (2013) pp 717-721 Online: 2013-08-08


(2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland
doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.351-352.717

An Experimental Study on the Flexural Behavior of Post-tensioned


Concrete Beams with CFRP Tendons

Woo-tai Jung1, a, Jong-sup Park1,b and Young-hwan Park1,c


1
Korea Institute of Construction Technology, (Daehwa-Dong)283, Goyangdae-Ro, Ilsanseo-Gu,
Goyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, Korea
a
woody@kict.re.kr, bstjspark1@kict.re.kr, cyhpark@kict.re.kr

Keywords: Post-tension, CFRP, Tendon, Prestressed Concrete, Saddle

Abstract. The exploitation of FRP tendon necessitates not only to improve the performances of the
FRP tendon and anchoring device but also to examine its structural performances by applying it to
various structures like concrete structures. This study applies CFRP tendon on internally and
externally post-tensioned concrete specimens so as to observe their flexural performance considering
the number of tendons and jacking force as test variables. The tests show that the externally
post-tensioned specimens undergo lesser cracks with wider distribution of the cracks than the
internally post-tensioned specimens with similar jacking force. In addition, the externally
post-tensioned specimens with larger number of saddles experience smaller number of cracks with
larger distribution. The specimens without saddle and the internally post-tensioned specimens with
the same jacking force exhibit similar behavior until the yielding of the reinforcement to show
different behaviors from the time at which the eccentricities of the tendons start to vary after yielding.
The externally post-tensioned specimens with saddle provide increased crack load compared to the
specimens without saddle, with an increase of approximately 25% of the ultimate load.

Introduction
The reinforcement and steel tendon used in reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete structures
experience corrosion due to various causes such as the carbonation of concrete, capillary movement
of water and water leakage following the deterioration of the structure. In the case of prestressed
concrete, the corroded steel tendon loses its jacking force, which may result in the shortening of the
lifespan of the structure. In order to solve the corrosion problem of such steel tendons, research took
interest on the use of FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) material instead of steel to develop
corrosion-free FRP tendons. The exploitation of FRP tendon necessitates not only to improve the
performances of the FRP tendon and anchoring device but also and in priority to examine its structural
performances by applying it to various structures like concrete structures. Tendons like the steel
tendons of prestressed concrete introduced generally the jacking force in the structure through
prestress and post-tension. Tendons are also used for strengthening through external tensioning.
Furthermore, since tendons can also be used as cables in special bridges like cable-stayed and
suspension bridges, tendons are exploited whenever a jacking force is necessary in any field of
application. Therefore, applying the FRP tendon in all kinds of structures and observing its behavior
is of primordial importance for its use in place of the steel tendon. This study applies the CFRP
(Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) tendon in post-tensioned concrete specimens and examines their
flexural performance according to the number of tendons and jacking force chosen as test variables.

Fabrication of Post-Tensioned Specimens


Test variables
The post-tensioned specimens were fabricated in two sets: the internally post-tensioned specimens
and the externally post-tensioned specimens. A total of 4 internally post-tensioned specimens were
fabricated. For these specimens, the main test variables were the number of tendons and the size of the

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718 Advances in Civil Structures

jacking force (Table 1). Three externally post-tensioned specimens were fabricated in which all the
tendons were jacked up to 40% of the tensile strength. The fabrication of these externally
post-tensioned specimens aimed the observation of the variation of the increase of the stress in the
CFRP tendon according to the eventual presence and number of saddle. All the internally and
externally post-tensioned specimens are unbonded and present identical disposition of the tendons so
as to enable the comparison of the variation of the increase of the stress in the CFRP tendon generated
by the jacking force and number of saddles.

Table 1. Test variables for post-tensioned specimens


Designation of specimens Initial stress level (fpi/fpu) No. of CFRP tendons No. of deviators
Control - - -
IU25-45-1 0.25 1 -
IU25-45-2 0.25 2 -
Internal
IU50-45-1 0.5 1 -
IU40-45-2 0.4 2 -
EU40-D0-45 0.4 2 0
External EU40-D1-45 0.4 2 1
EU40-D3-45 0.4 2 3

Fabrication of specimens
The basic dimensions of the post-tensioned specimens are a cross-section of 200300 mm and
span length of 3000 mm. Ready-mixed concrete with design strength of 45 MPa is used for their
fabrication. The tension reinforcement is D10 bars of SD40 arranged with a reinforcement ratio of
0.0041. Three D13 bars are arranged for the compression reinforcement. The CFRP tendons are
products developed in this study. The dimensions of the specimens and properties of the adopted
materials are presented in Figure 1 and Table 2.

Table 2. Properties of materials


Materials Properties Values
Concrete Compressive strength of specimens 45 MPa
Tension reinforcement (HD10) Yield strength 426 MPa
Compression reinforcement (HD13) Yield strength 481 MPa
Elastic modulus 133 Gpa
Tensile strength 2500 MPa
CFRP tendon 9.5 Failure strain 1.8%
Diameter of core 9.5 mm
Sectional area of core 70.88 mm2

(a) Internally post-tensioned specimen


Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 351-352 719

(b) Externally post-tensioned specimen


Figure 1. Dimensions of post-tensioned specimens (mm)

Test Setup
The tests were conducted using a UTM with capacity of 980 kN. The load was applied through
4-point loading through displacement control at a speed of 0.02 mm/s until the first displacement of
10 mm and 0.05 mm/s for displacements larger than 10 mm so as to observe the behavior before and
after the occurrence of cracks in concrete.

Figure 2. Overview of loading test

Test Results
Failure mode
All the specimens continued to sustain the load through the CFRP tendons after yielding of the
tension reinforcement and experienced rupture through the compressive failure of the top concrete.
The cracks in the internally post-tensioned specimens showed wider distribution with larger number
of tendons. The wide distribution of the cracks in specimen IU25-45-2 can be explained by the fact
that the load to be sustained by 1 tendon was sustained by 2 tendons. Compared to the internally
post-tensioned specimen IU40-45-2 presenting the same jacking force, the externally post-tensioned
specimens experienced smaller number of cracks with a wide distribution. In addition, the externally
post-tensioned specimens showed smaller number and wide distribution of cracks with larger number
of saddles. This result seems to be attributable to the effect of the lifting force generated by the
tendons and saddles according to the increase of the load due to the removal of the secondary effect
inducing different eccentricities of the tendons brought by the saddles under loading.

Flexural behavior
Fig. 3(a) plots the load-displacement curves of the internally post-tensioned specimens. It can be
seen that the crack load, yield load and ultimate load increase with larger jacking forces. Specimens
IU25-45-2 and IU50-45-1 presenting the same jacking force exhibit similar behavior until yielding of
the reinforcement and start to show difference in their load-displacement curves after yielding. This
observation can be explained by the preponderance of the effect of the jacking force over the sectional
stiffness before yielding, which turns to be inverted after yielding.
720 Advances in Civil Structures

160 160
140 140
120 120
Load(kN)

Load(kN)
100 100
80 80
60 60
40 IU25-45-1 40
IU25-45-2 EU40-D0-45
20 IU50-45-1 20 EU40-D1-45
IU40-45-2 EU40-D3-45
0 0
0 20 40 60 80 0 20 40 60 80
Displacement(mm) Displacement(mm)
(a) Internal post-tension (b) External post-tension
Figure 3. Load-displacement curves of post-tensioned specimens

The load-displacement curves of the externally post-tensioned specimens in Fig. 3(b) indicate
different behaviors before yielding of the reinforcement according to the eventual presence of saddle.
The behaviors of specimen EU40-D0-45 without saddle and the internally post-tensioned specimen
IU40-45-2 with the same jacking force exhibit similar trend until yielding of the reinforcement and
start to differ since the variation of the eccentricities of the tendons after yielding.
As shown in Fig. 4, the tensioned specimens provide increased crack load and yield load with
respect to the increase of jacking while the ductility decreases (Fig. 5). Compared to the specimens
without saddle, the externally post-tensioned specimens with saddle exhibit increased crack load with
an augmentation of about 25% of the ultimate load. The specimens without saddle are affected by a
secondary effect in which the eccentricities of the tendons vary according to the increase of the load.
Besides, the specimens with saddle do not experience variation of the eccentricity of the tendon owing
to the support of the saddle, which results in smaller displacement than the specimens without saddle
under the same load.
4.0
crack load yield load max Load
3.5

3.0

2.5
P/Pcontrol

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
Control-45Mpa IU25-45-1 IU25-45-2 IU50-45-1 IU40-45-2 EU40-D0-45 EU40-D1-45 EU40-D3-45

specimens

Figure 4. Comparison of the crack, yield and ultimate loads of the post-tensioned specimens
8.0

7.0

6.0

5.0
Dmax/Dyield

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

0.0
Control-45Mpa IU25-45-1 IU25-45-2 IU50-45-1 IU40-45-2 EU40-D0-45 EU40-D1-45 EU40-D3-45

specimens

Figure 5. Comparison of the ductility of the post-tensioned specimens


Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 351-352 721

Conclusions
The flexural behavior of post-tensioned specimens using CFRP tendons was examined in this paper.
The following conclusions can be derived from the results of the loading tests performed on these
specimens.
(1) The configuration of the cracks in the internally post-tensioned specimens showed wider
distribution with larger number of tendons. The wide distribution of the cracks in specimen
IU25-45-2 can be explained by the fact that the load to be sustained by 1 tendon was sustained by
2 tendons.
(2) Compared to the internally post-tensioned specimen IU40-45-2 presenting the same jacking force,
the externally post-tensioned specimens exhibited smaller number of cracks with a wide
distribution. In addition, the externally post-tensioned specimens showed smaller number and
wide distribution of cracks with larger number of saddles. This result could be attributed to the
effect of the lifting force generated by the tendons and saddles according to the increase of the
load due to the removal of the secondary effect inducing varying eccentricities of the tendons
brought by the saddles under loading.
(3) Specimens IU25-45-2 and IU50-45-1 presenting the same jacking force exhibited similar
behavior until yielding of the reinforcement and started to show difference in their
load-displacement curves after yielding. This observation was explained by the preponderance of
the effect of the jacking force over the sectional stiffness before yielding, which turned to be
inverted after yielding.
(4) The behaviors of specimen EU40-D0-45 without saddle and the internally post-tensioned
specimen IU40-45-2 with the same jacking force exhibited similar trend until yielding of the
reinforcement and started to differ since the variation of the eccentricities of the tendons after
yielding.
(5) Compared to the specimens without saddle, the externally post-tensioned specimens with saddle
exhibited increased crack load with an augmentation of about 25% of the ultimate load. The
specimens without saddle were affected by a secondary effect in which the eccentricities of the
tendons varied according to the increase of the load. Besides, the specimens with saddle did not
experience variation of the eccentricity of the tendon owing to the support of the saddle, which
resulted in smaller displacement than the specimens without saddle under the same load.

Acknowledgements
This research was supported by a grant from a Strategic Research Project funded by the Korea
Institute of Construction Technology.

References
[1] Construction & Transportation R&D Report (2008), Development and application of FRP
prestressing tendon and anchorage for concrete structures, pp. 357-386.
[2] Ministry of Construction & Transportation (2005), Korea Highway Bridge Design Code, p.
345.
[3] Ministry of Land, Transport & Maritime Affairs (2011), Basic research on FRP cable system for
cable-stayed bridge, pp. 84-103.
Advances in Civil Structures
10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.351-352

An Experimental Study on the Flexural Behavior of Post-Tensioned Concrete Beams with CFRP
Tendons
10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.351-352.717