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Compressible Flow and Propulsion Systems

Compressible Flow and Propulsion Systems

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causes and the effects arising from the motion of compressible fluids

particularly gases.

encountered in devices that involve the flow of gases at very high speeds.

in that both are necessary to the development of the required theoretical

background.

given below:

1. Conservation of mass

2. Newtons second law of motion

3. Conservation of energy

For steady flow, any partial derivative with respect to time is zero and the

equation becomes:

For one-dimensional flow any fluid property will be constant over an entire

cross section.

Thus both the density and the velocity can be brought out from under the

integral sign.

evaluate.

volume becomes

If there is only one section where fluid enters and one section where fluid

leaves the control volume, continuity equation becomes

differentiating equation. For steady one-dimensional flow this means that

Dividing by AV yields

Momentum Equation

The time rate of change of momentum of a fluid mass equals the net

force exerted on it.

If there is only one section where fluid enters and one section where fluid

leaves the control volume steady one-dimensional flow, the momentum

equation for a control volume becomes:

Energy Equation

For a system composed of a given quantity of mass that undergoes a

process, we say that

With enthalpy, the one-dimensional energy equation for steady-in-the-

mean flow is

where q and ws represent quantities of heat and shaft work crossing the

control surface per unit mass of fluid flowing.

Sonic Velocity

that is passed along to its neighboring molecules and in so doing creates

a traveling wave.

called the wave speed.

This speed not only depends on the type of medium and its

thermodynamic state but is also a function of the strength of the wave

medium and its state.

Sound waves are infinitesimal waves (or weak pressure pulses) which

propagate at the characteristic sonic velocity.

Consider a long constant-area tube filled with fluid and having a piston at

one end.

incremental velocity dV to the left.

The fluid particles immediately next to the piston are compressed a very

small amount as they acquire the velocity of the piston.

next group of fluid particles is compressed.

characteristic sonic velocity of magnitude a.

All particles between the wave front and the piston are moving with

velocity dV to the left and have been compressed from to + d and

have increased their pressure from p to p + dp.

For the analysis we choose the wave region as a control volume and

assume the wave front as a stationary wave.

For an observer moving with this control volume, the fluid appears to

enter the control volume through surface area A with speed a at pressure

p and density .

The fluid leaves the control volume through surface area A with speed a

dV, pressure p + dp and density + d.

When the continuity equation is applied to the flow through this control

volume, the result is

(1)

Since the control volume has infinitesimal thickness, the shear stresses

along the walls can be neglected.

We shall write the x-component of the momentum equation, taking

forces and velocity as positive if to the right.

(2)

subscript.

process in the limit.

Sound velocity can be expressed in terms of bulk or volume modulus of

elasticity Ev.

Since air is more easily compressed than water, the speed of sound in air

is much less than it is in water.

bulk modulus would be infinitely large

Equation can be simplified for the case of a gas that obeys the perfect

gas law:

For perfect gases, sonic velocity is a function of the individual gas and

temperature only. Sonic velocity is a property of the fluid and varies with

the state of the fluid.

If the velocity is less than the local speed of sound, M is less than 1 and

the flow is called subsonic.

than 1 and the flow is called supersonic.

Wave Propagation

pressure pulses are continually being emitted and they travel through the

medium at sonic velocity in the form of spherical wave fronts.

To simplify matters we keep track of only those pulses that are emitted

every second.

stationary.

Assume that it is moving at a speed less than sonic velocity, say a/2.

Figure shows such a situation at the end of 3 seconds.

Note that the wave fronts are no longer concentric. Furthermore, the

wave that was emitted at t = 0 is always in front of the disturbance itself.

Therefore, any person, object, or fluid particle located ahead will feel the

wave fronts pass by and know that the disturbance is coming.

Next, let the disturbance move at exactly sonic velocity. Figure shows this

case in which all wave fronts coalesce on the left side and move along

with the disturbance.

disturbance arrives at the same time as the wave front

Now suppose the disturbance is moving at velocity V > a. The wave fronts

coalesce to form a cone with the disturbance at the apex.

This is called a Mach cone. The region inside the cone is called the zone

of action since it feels the presence of the waves.

The outer region is called the zone of silence, as this entire region is

unaware of the disturbance.

The half-angle at the apex is called the Mach angle and is given the

symbol . It should be easy to see that

In the subsonic case the fluid can sense the presence of an object and

smoothly adjust its flow around the object.

In supersonic flow this is not possible, and thus flow adjustments occur

rather abruptly in the form of shock or expansion waves.

is suitable to use Mach number as a parameter in our basic equations.

Flow Regimes

considering an aerodynamic body in a flowing gas.

Far upstream of the body, the flow is uniform with a free stream velocity

of V

Now consider an arbitrary point in the flow field, where p, T, , and V are

the local pressure, temperature, density, and velocity at that point.

All of these quantities are point properties and vary from one point to

another in the flow. The speed of sound a is a thermodynamic property

of the gas and varies from point to point in the flow.

If a is the speed of sound in the uniform free stream, then the ratio V/ a

defines the free-stream Mach number M.

from point to point in the flow field.

Consider the flow over an airfoil section as sketched in Figure. Here, the

local Mach number is everywhere less than unity.

Such a flow where M < I at every point, and hence the flow velocity is

everywhere less than the speed of sound is defined as subsonic flow.

varying properties.

Note that the initially straight and parallel streamlines in the free stream

begin to deflect far upstream of the body i.e. the flow is forewarned of the

presence of the body.

Also, as the flow passes over the airfoil, the local velocity and Mach

number on the top surface increase above their free-stream values.

everywhere will remain subsonic.

For airfoils in common use, if M < 0.8, the flow field is generally

completely subsonic.

identified with a free stream where M < 0.8.

If M is subsonic, but is sufficiently near 1, the flow expansion over the

top surface of the airfoil may result in locally supersonic regions, as

sketched in Figure.

supersonic flow.

which there is a discontinuous and sometimes rather severe change in

flow properties.

the trailing edge of the airfoil, and a second shock wave appears

upstream of the leading edge.

This second shock wave is called the bow shock, and is sketched in

Figure.

In front of the bow shock, the streamlines are straight and parallel, with a

uniform supersonic free-stream Mach number.

In passing through that part of the bow shock that is nearly normal to the

free stream, the flow becomes subsonic.

expands over the airfoil surface, and again terminates with a trailing-edge

shock.

Both flow patterns sketched in Fig. b and c are characterized by mixed

regions of locally subsonic and supersonic flow.

Such mixed flows are defined as transonic flows, and 0.8 < M < 1.2 is

defined as the transonic regime.

the supersonic flow over the wedge-shaped body in Fig. 1.

wedge. Across this shock wave, the streamline direction changes

discontinuously.

Ahead of the shock, the streamlines are straight, parallel, and horizontal;

behind the shock they remain straight and parallel but in the direction of

the wedge surface.

Unlike the subsonic flow in Fig. a, the supersonic uniform free stream is

not forewarned of the presence of the body until the shock wave is

encountered.

The flow is supersonic both upstream and (usually, but not always)

downstream of the oblique shock wave.

The temperature, pressure, and density of the flow increase almost

explosively across the shock wave shown in Fig. d.

become more severe. At the same time, the oblique shock

wave moves closer to the surface, as sketched in Fig. e.

the limiting case where M 0.

The former corresponds to no flow and is trivial. The latter states that the

speed of sound in a truly incompressible flow would have to be infinitely

large.

would be instructive to use Mach number as a parameter in our basic

equations.

This can be done easily for the flow of a perfect gas as in this case we

have a simple equation of state

Stagnation Relations

The internal energy and the flow energy of a fluid are frequently combined

into a single term, enthalpy.

Whenever the kinetic and potential energies of the fluid are negligible, as

is often the case, the enthalpy represents the total energy of a fluid.

potential energy of the fluid is still negligible, but the kinetic energy is not.

energy of the fluid into a single term called stagnation (or total) enthalpy.

enthalpy represents the total energy of a flowing fluid stream per unit

mass

brought to rest adiabatically.

properties.

During stagnation process, since the kinetic energy of a fluid is converted

to enthalpy (internal energy or flow energy), the fluid temperature and

pressure is increased.

Stagnation (or total) temperature is the temperature the gas attains when

it is brought to rest adiabatically.

process and is called the dynamic temperature.

For high-speed flows, the stagnation temperature is higher than the static

(or ordinary) temperature.

For example, the dynamic temperature of air flowing at 100 m/s is about 5

K.

Therefore, when air at 300 K and 100 m/s is brought to rest adiabatically

(at the tip of a temperature probe, for example), its temperature rises to

the stagnation value of 305 K.

the stagnation pressure.

numbers.

The stagnation process is considered isentropic and following relations

can be used for pressure.

actual conditions of M, V, T, p, and at a given point in a general

flowfield.

The actual flowfield itself may not have to be adiabatic or isentropic from

one point to the next.

Area changes, friction, and heat transfer are the most important factors

that affect the properties in a flow system.

these factors.

In this topic the general problem of varying-area flow under the

assumptions of no heat transfer (adiabatic) and no friction is considered.

To develop relations for the variation of fluid properties with area changes

and Mach number we begin with energy equation.

(1)

definition of W (flow work) and Q (Tds) is given as:

= 0. The equation becomes

(2)

(3)

For the isentropic case, the subscripts is dropped and the partial

derivative is changed to an ordinary derivative in the velocity of sound

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

dA dp

=

A V2

( 1M 2 ) (8)

From equation (5) we see that at low Mach numbers, density variations

will be quite small, whereas at high Mach numbers the density changes

very rapidly.

This means that the density is nearly constant in the low subsonic regime

(d 0) and the velocity changes compensate for area changes.

results can be obtained from equations 5-7.

Equation (8) describes the variation of pressure with flow area. For

subsonic flow (M < 1), dA and dp must have the same sign.

That is, the pressure of the fluid must increase as the flow area of the

duct increases and must decrease as the flow area of the duct decreases.

(subsonic nozzles) and increases in diverging duct (subsonic diffusers).

In supersonic flow (Ma >1), dA and dp have opposite signs.

Two common devices involving area change are nozzle and diffuser.

depending on the flow regime

what it looks like.

A nozzle is a device that converts enthalpy (or pressure energy for the

case of an incompressible fluid) into kinetic energy.

an increase or decrease in area, depending on the Mach number.

A diffuser is a device that converts kinetic energy into enthalpy (or

pressure energy for the case of incompressible fluids).

velocity, which occurs at the exit of the nozzle.

velocities and a diverging nozzle at supersonic velocities.

mass and energy principles, a diverging section must be added to a

converging nozzle to accelerate a fluid to supersonic velocities.

(diverging) section. A large decrease in density makes acceleration in the

diverging section possible.

Consider the subsonic flow through a converging nozzle as shown in

Figure.

The nozzle inlet is attached to a reservoir at pressure pr and temperature

T r.

The reservoir is sufficiently large so that the nozzle inlet velocity is

negligible.

The fluid velocity in the reservoir is zero and the flow through the nozzle

is approximated as isentropic,

cross section through the nozzle are equal to the reservoir pressure and

temperature, respectively.

Now we begin to reduce the back pressure and observe the resulting

effects on the pressure distribution along the length of the nozzle, as

shown.

If the back pressure pb is equal to pt, which is equal to pr, there is no flow

and the pressure distribution is uniform along the nozzle.

When the back pressure is reduced to p2, the exit plane pressure pe also

drops to p2. This causes the pressure along the nozzle to decrease in the

flow direction.

pressure required to increase the fluid velocity to the speed of sound at

the exit plane or throat).

The mass flow reaches a maximum value and the flow is said to

be choked.

Further reduction of the back pressure to level p4 or below does not result

in additional changes in the pressure distribution, or anything else along

the nozzle length.

(i) pe = pb for pb p*

(ii) pe = p* for pb < p*

Under steady-flow conditions, the mass flow rate through the nozzle is

constant and is expressed as:

m=AV =

p

( )

RT

A ( M RT )= pAM

RT

(9)

and A = A* we get

(10)

2. For only pt increasing mmax increases.

3. For only Tt increasing mmax decreases.

4. For only A* increasing mmax increases.

A relation for the variation of flow area A through the nozzle relative to

throat area A* can be obtained by combining Eqs. (9) and (10) for the

same mass flow rate and stagnation properties of a particular fluid.

This yields:

( +1) /[ 2 ( 1 ) ]

A

A =

1

M [( )(

2

+1

1+

1 2

2

M )]

Another parameter sometimes used in the analysis of one-dimensional

isentropic flow of ideal gases is M*, which is the ratio of the local velocity

to the speed of sound at the throat

=M

V V a RT

M = M =

a a a R T

M =M

+1

2+ ( 1 ) M 2

ConvergingDiverging Nozzles

attaching a diverging flow section to the subsonic nozzle at the throat.

that the fluid will be accelerated to a supersonic velocity.

In fact, the fluid may find itself decelerating in the diverging section

instead of accelerating if the back pressure is not in the right range. The

various cases are given below:

(B) The flow remains subsonic throughout the nozzle, and the mass

flow is less than that for choked flow.

The fluid velocity increases in the first (converging) section and

reaches a maximum at the throat (but Ma < 1).

The velocity reduces in the second (diverging) section of the

nozzle, which acts as a diffuser.

(C) The throat pressure becomes p* and the fluid achieves sonic

velocity at the throat and maximum mass flow takes place.

slowing the fluid to subsonic velocities.

(D) The fluid that achieved a sonic velocity at the throat continues

accelerating to supersonic velocities in the diverging section as

the pressure decreases.

This acceleration comes to a sudden stop, however, as a normal

shock develops at a section between the throat and the exit.

(E) The normal shock moves downstream away from the throat as pb

is decreased. The shock forms (normal or oblique) at the exit

plane of the nozzle at point E (in Figure).

(F) The flow is supersonic through the entire diverging section in this

case, and it can be approximated as isentropic.

(G) The flow in the diverging section is supersonic, and the fluid

expands to pF at the nozzle exit with no shock forming within (or

outside) the nozzle.

Irreversible mixing and expansion waves occur downstream of the

exit plane of the nozzle.

formulas can be used and then modified using coefficients such as nozzle

efficiency, velocity coefficient and discharge coefficient.

Suppose the nozzle is supplied with a gas at stagnation pressure and

temperature of pt1 and Tt1 respectively.

The gas expands adiabatically but with increasing entropy. The nozzle

efficiency is calculated as:

For nozzles that involve negligible heat transfer (per unit mass of fluid

flowing), we have

Since inlet velocity is very small when compared to exit we can write

2

V 2/ 2

n = 2 (1)

V 2s/ 2

Velocity coefficient is defined as the square root of efficiency

V2

C v=

V 2s

of actual mass flow rate to ideal mass flow rate which is obtained by

expanding the gas isentropically to same final pressure.

V 22 s

ht 1 =h2 s +

2

T 2s

V 22 s=2 C p T t 1 1 ( Tt 1 )

For isentropic process

1 /

T 2 s P2 s

T t1

= ( )

Pt 1

1/

( ( ) )

V 22 s=2 C p T t 1 1

P2 s

Pt 1

(2)

and stagnation state t2 we get

1/

2

V =2 C p T t 2

2

( ( ) )

P

1 2

Pt2

(3)

T t 1=T t 2

/ 1

{ [ ]}

1 /

P2 P

Pt 2

= 1n 1 2 s

Pt 1( ) (4)

{ [( ) ( ) ]}

2/ ( +1 ) /

m 2 p p

=p t (5)

A R Tt 1 pt pt

Using this equation for isentropic ideal flow between 1 and 2s we get

{ [( ) ( ) ]}

2/ ( +1 ) /

ms 2 p2s p

= pt1 2s (6)

A RT t 1 1 pt 1 pt 1

{ [( ) ( ) ]}

2 / ( + 1) /

m 2 p2 p

=p t 2 2 (7)

A R Tt 1 1 pt2 pt 2

Dividing equations (6) and (7) and noting that p2= p2 s we get Cd

( )

( 1 ) / ( 1 ) /

p2 s p2

C d=

( )

pt 1

1 ( ) pt2

(8)

( 1 ) / ( 1) /

p2 p2 s

( )

pt 2

1

( ) pt 1

p2

From equations 4 and 8 and eliminating pt 2

( 1) /

C d=

n (( ) )p2 s

pt 1

[ ( ) ]

( 1 ) /

p2 s

1 n 1

pt 1

across a plane which is perpendicular to flow direction. In the actual

nozzle this assumption is not valid particularly for large angles.

Thus if the nozzle size and weight is reduced by increasing its angle, the

assumption of 1D flow becomes incorrect.

In converging nozzle, the inward radial momentum of the fluid also results

in vena contracta region. The cross-sectional area of vena contracta is

much smaller than nozzle exit area.

The combination of non-uniform flow and vena contracta reduces the

mass flow rate. The non-uniform flow is shown in a nozzle of 40 at pt/pe =

4 as an example. It is observed that the Mach No. is not constant in the

vertical direction.

The sonic lines at various pressure ratios indicate that due to increase in

pressure ratio the flow profile becomes flatter.

Consider a control volume that surrounds all the fluid inside the device /

system.

Velocities are shown relative to the device, which is used as a frame of

reference in order to make a steady-flow picture. The x-component of the

momentum equation for steady flow is:

We define an enclosure force as the vector sum of the friction forces and

the pressure forces of the wall on the fluid within the control volume.

Let Fenc is the x-component of this enclosure force on the fluid inside the

control volume.

the right, the fluid must be pushing on the enclosure with a force of equal

magnitude to the left

The combination of variables found in the equation is called the thrust or

impulse function.

The external forces are the ambient pressure over the entire enclosure.

Let Fext is the positive thrust that arises from the external forces pushing

on the enclosure.

It is customary in the field of propulsion to work with the free-stream

conditions (p0 and V0) that exist far ahead of the actual inlet.

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