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Interpreting Piping and Instrumentation


Part 3 - Symbology Primer

Welcome back to Part 3 folks! Let me apologize at the outset for the delay in getting this posted
sooner but we had our Labor Day holiday here in the USA last week and oddly enough, we tend
NOT to work on Labor Day. Go figure... I suppose it should be called slacker day because I
really didn't do much the whole weekend. In any event, I'm back in the saddle so let's recap the
last two parts before we hit the trail again. We have a lot of ground to cover before sunset.

Part 1 talked about why the interpretation of P&IDs is important to everyone involved in
the planning, design, and construction through operation of a process plant.
Part 2 described the various functions P&IDs serve and highlighted the kinds of
information they convey, along with the support documents that are commonly associated
with them. We also talked about some of their weaknesses.

With the requisite academics out of the way, it's time to focus on the exciting stuff - P&ID
symbology interpretation. That's the goal I had when I started this series and by golly, I'm
sticking to it. However, I'm going to warn you up front - this is a big part in the series,
figuratively and literally speaking. I might even be pushing the limits of's server
capacity but I did my best to balance breadth of content with depth of detail. If you think I short-
changed any areas and would like more detail on any topic, please let me know via the comment
system. I'll do my best to oblige.

Lead Sheets Define Symbology

As I mentioned in Part 2, the meanings of the various symbols used on P&IDs (aka, symbology)
are defined on separate drawings called "Lead Sheets" (or Legend Sheets). These are your
"secret decoder rings" to P&ID symbology interpretation. Every company that builds process
plants should have a set of lead sheets customized to their particular ways and means. Having
seen a number of lead sheets over the years, I can tell you that most of them are just variations on
a core set of generally accepted symbols and notations that engineers and industry organizations
have settled on as defacto standards over the years. The lead sheets I provide in the supporting
file download to this series include the following;

D001 - Instrumentation and Valves

D002 - Codes, Tags, and Labels
Here's the good news - these lead sheets include 90.00?0.05% of what you need to know.
Seriously, the significant digits are right here, I checked them. Yeah, I realize some companies
have more than two lead sheets, four or five even. Probably even a few with six or seven just to
prove a point I suppose, but the number of lead sheets isn't important. What is important is that
they are logically organized so that the symbols and tags can be located easily. Poorly organized
and/or incomplete lead sheets will just frustrate folks who turn to them for help so it's important
to keep them neat, concise and logical. And the two I present here should be up-front-and-center
in your set. Related to the content I include on the example lead sheets, you might have noticed a
conspicuous absence of lead sheets for major equipment, i.e., tanks, pumps, and sundry items
typically included in process plants, etc. It's good to have lead sheets for that kind of stuff; I'm
not going to say otherwise. However, I have generally stopped using them in my group because;

1. It is almost always self-evident what a symbol represents for major equipment, and
2. Even if it's not apparent, the major equipment is always tagged and named with some
general specifications provided along one edge of the drawing. I underline always
because that's the way it should be. I don't want to debate it. Just make it so!

Aside from these reasons, it's tough to keep an equipment lead sheet updated when new or
custom equipment that doesn't really have an industry standard symbol is added to a drawing for
a particular job. I could go on regarding the topic of symbols for major equipment but this is a
topic I decided not to expand on in the interest of focusing more on the instrumentation and
controls side of symbology. Shoot me a note if you want to discuss this more.

Caveat Emptor

Before we move on, I want to address the operations folks here in attendance: Keep in mind that
reading and understanding P&IDs is a core topic of operator training. And that training happens
long before you step on-site. In fact, you should know this stuff before you enter the room as a
team member on a Process Hazards Analysis. As a process engineer at heart, I view operations as
my #1 client and work hard to make sure that they fully understand the plant and its procedures
so that it can safely and efficiently meet its objectives. If you are in an operations group, you are
not expected to have it all figured out just from reading this series alone. However, the following
sections should serve as a solid primer. And I will make you a simple promise - so long as you
don't get bored and start daydreaming about whether Brock Lesner will remain the UFC
heavyweight champion for the next five years (I don't even...), you will definitely walk away
from this series with a solid, functional understanding of P&IDs! If you don't, call me and I will
refund your money, no questions asked.

Instrumentation and Controls Symbology

We'll kick things off with what has traditionally been viewed as the "hardest part" of P&ID
interpretation, that of course being instrumentation and controls. In my experience, this is the
area that gives newcomers the most grief. Trust me, it's not that hard and once you have this area
conquered, everything after that is stupid simple and the learning curve will skyrocket.
The main symbols used for Instrumentation and Control (I&C) are shown in the table above.
When you spot one of these on a P&ID, you will be able to glean three things from it, including:

1. What is that device?

2. Where is it located?
3. Why is it there?

The 'what' and 'where' aspects can be determined from the symbol shape. The 'why' part comes
from text placed inside the symbol that is made up of two parts that form the "tag number". This

1. An abbreviation for what the device is (based on ISA S5.1), combined with a
2. Loop number based on your company's preferred numbering system

Before I dig into this topic more heavily, it's worth providing a couple simple tag number
examples as a lead-in. Pressure indicators have the abbreviation PI and temperature indicators
use the abbreviation TI. It follows logically that flow and level indicators use the abbreviations
FI and LI, respectively. Since most plants can have many instruments of the same type, a unique
number is applied so that each one can be individually identified. This number is often referred
to as the "loop number". Thus, the device abbreviation + loop number become the unique "tag
number". While the device abbreviations are largely based on accepted standards (ISA S5.1), the
loop numbering system is company specific. My group happens to use a four digit numbering
system. In this case, typical tag numbers for pressure and temperature indicators in our plants
will be PI0134 and TI4348, respectively. You could even reuse the loop number "0134" to define
other types of devices, such as a level indicator, LI0134 or flow indicator, FI0134. The same
holds true for loop number "4348"; it may be used for PI4348, LI4348 and HS4348 (where HS
stands for Hand Switch). The key point is that the abbreviation + loop number must be unique
for each device otherwise, it cannot be uniquely identified. You can get creative and apply
special prefixes (or suffix) numbers to the tag number when you want to reuse the same tag (like
in cases where you have redundant devices but you don't want them to have different loop
numbers). I will get into those when we look at the example P&IDs. But that is detail stuff.

What is that control symbol?

Refer to the first row in the table above. A circle symbol is quite simply any physical instrument
or device in the field or on a panel. It doesn't matter if it is a level transmitter, a flow meter, a
pressure gauge or some other type of indicator. If it is a physical device that measures or displays
something, it will be illustrated by the use of a circle on a P&ID. Notice also how I placed the tag
number PI0134 inside the symbol. The common practice is to place the device function
abbreviation on the top line, with the loop number at the bottom. When the device is ordered and
a stamped tag is requested, it should match the tag number placed inside the symbol on the
P&ID. Aside: Sometimes, you will hear folks refer to the symbols as instrument "bubbles". This
is just jargon that is commonly used. When you hear it, they are simply referring categorically to
the symbol shapes I am talking about in this part. Just act like you've been calling them bubbles
for years and show now sign of confusion!

Move down to the symbols on the second row of the table - the ones that show a circle inside of
a square. These are used to represent a graphic on a computer screen or control panel that you
can see and possibly interface with via touch panel or a computer mouse. It might be used to
show the level in a tank (as the tab number in the bubble shown here suggests) or represent a
hand switch that you can click on with the mouse to start a pump (or a million other things!). The
point is if you can see it on a control screen, it will be represented as a circle inside a square on
P&IDs. Don't ask me who decided this, it wasn't me! The last two rows are for symbols that let
the reader know a computer is used to do some sort of complex processing. In the case of the
hexagon, it means a "computer" is used. That's a pretty vague description don't you think? I
mean, is your plant a "PC or a Mac"? I don't want to get into that debate (my wife uses a Mac,
otherwise I would) but my point is that some of these symbols begin to show their quaint age.

In the case of a square with a diamond in it, that means a programmable logic controller (PLC) is
used. Ah yes, the venerable PLC - still hanging tough after all these years. Even if you are not
familiar with control computers or PLCs, don't sweat it. Just know that these symbols really
represent software instructions that engineers write to define the automated behavior of the plant.
For example, code that tells a pump to automatically stop when the tank it is pumping from runs
low. That would be a so-called low level interlock type function that would exist as instructions
inside a PLC. In this instance, a level element provides the input and the computer runs a set of
instructions that say 'stop the pump' if tank level is low. These symbols are often left off of
P&IDs because they really don't provide any usable information that you could get out of just
looking at the symbol. For example, in the simple example that I just provided, how could you
describe the low level interlock using a symbol that looks like a square with a diamond in it?
You couldn't! You would need to supplement the P&ID with a written description of what the
plant is supposed to do with all of the input it receives. So the symbols would just take up space
and clutter the drawing for no good reason other than perhaps provide some pointer via a tag
number to coded instructions. But the P&IDs serve the process, not the programmer so we can't
have that!

Symbology Star Power!

This brings me to the arbitrary star rating I gave all of the symbols in the table (see "Bob's
Review" key at bottom of table). Folks, this isn't published by the ISA (as if I had to qualify
this...) but we've been together long enough for you to know that this is how I roll. It's my way of
explaining the frequency and importance of these symbols in most cases. Here goes. For each
symbol, I rate it based on how often it typically shows up on drawings that I have worked on
over the years. Every plant is different but there is a general theme here. I view symbols with
only one star as pretty much useless because the abstract concept they are trying to illustrate
simply can't be done effectively with just symbology. Two star symbols have value but may not
show up very often or at all in many cases, depending on the type of plant and its design.
Anything at or above three stars is a celebrity in our P&ID feature presentations. We're talking
Arnold Schwarzenegger, whereas the one star symbol is akin to the nondescript ensign killed off
in the first five minutes of a Star Trek episode. So what about those quizzical computer symbols
that I poke fun of? Well, you can still use them if you want but they need heavy support from a
document that describes all of the functional requirements of a plant and that is typically called a
Functional [Control] Description. Maybe in a future series (if you're good), we will cover
functional control aspects. Oh Goody! I can almost sense your joy at the thought! Hey, pay
attention and no smart remarks. We still have work to do here!

Where is the device located?

If you glance back at the table, you will see that there are four columns that provide the 'Where'
part of a symbol. Now, as we discussed in Part 2 of this series, P&IDs generally aren't good at
showing you where something is located in the field. We aren't talking about that kind of 'where'.
In this case, we are using where as a relative reference. Relative location is indicated via the
presence of a centered, horizontal line (or lack thereof), a dual centered horizontal line, or a
dashed centered horizontal line placed inside the symbol;

1. Single horizontal line - located on a main control panel near the control room or some
computer screen in the main control room,
2. No horizontal line - located somewhere in the field, probably close to the general area
shown on the P&ID,
3. Double horizontal line - on some secondary (satellite) local panel in the field.
4. Single dashed horizontal line - inaccessible or not generally located where it can be
easily accessed or viewed. May also be used for hidden or password protected areas of a
control system.
Notice in the above items, no specific location information is provided, only that the device or
graphic is associated with a relative, general location. In many cases, it's not hard to figure out
where something is just from where the symbol is at on the drawing. But there are limits to what
the symbol can convey.

More on the Dashes

I have found that the dashed line symbols can cause confusion so I want to speak on those a bit
more. When you see a symbol such as the one shown at left, that simply means that you can't
normally see it or work with that device it in the field. It might be installed behind or inside of a
panel so that it is normally not in view (inaccessible to the operator). So in the symbols shown
here, a circle with a dashed line in the middle means it is an instrument or device that you can't
normally see or get to. If you are an operator, it is probably something you do not need to get to
but it might still be vitally important to the plant control system, so we show it this way on a
P&ID. In a similar fashion, a graphic display symbol with a dashed line in the middle simply
means that this portion of the control system is password protected or hidden from normal view
on a screen or operating panel so you can't get to it unless you know the secret access code. It's
not that people are keeping secrets from you (or maybe they are...hmmmm); it's just that it might
contain important settings that nobody should ever need to mess with.

Why is that device here?

You've come a long way towards understanding control symbology. You can now identify what
a control symbol represents and its relative location in the plant. But you still don't know why it's
there. It's not helpful to know how to identify a control symbol type if you cannot explain what
purpose it serves in the plant. That is the point of the textual abbreviations placed inside the
symbols. We touched on this a bit above so now lets cover the essence of what you need to know
- and keep in mind, come of this is the way I like to do things, which doesn't necessarily mean it
is the best or only way. Refer to the figure below entitled "Instrument Symbol Tag
Identification". A control symbol will typically contain two lines inside it, as follows:

1. Upper Line - an abbreviation for the functionality it provides (based on the ISA 5.1
standard), and
2. Lower Line - a loop number that corresponds to the equipment or area it is associated
with (or based on your company's preferred standard).

The upper line text abbreviation, along with the lower line tag number makes up the unique
symbol identification tag. It is important that each symbol have a unique tag so that it can be
individually identified. In this example, the symbol would be referred to as PDIT1703 in a
process document or operating procedure. There may be a bunch of other symbols with 1703 in
them, but they must have a different text abbreviation before the 1703 or you won't be able to
uniquely identify it. Part 4 of this series will talk more about typical device tagging protocols but
for now; consider this your "Introduction to Tagging 101".

The letters on the first line are in accordance with ISA standard 5.1, as described in the upper left
corner of lead sheet D001. Each letter provides unique information. We can use the table in
D001 to determine that this symbol represents:

1. "P" - First Letter stands for "Pressure"

2. "D" - Second letter is a modifier for the first and stands for "Differential"
3. "I" - Third letter stands for "Indicating"
4. "T" - Fourth letter stands for "Transmitter"
5. 1703 is the loop number (the Electrical Engineering eggheads need loop numbers

I like to base loop numbers off the associated major equipment. That's just me, and I think it
makes good sense. But if your company uses a different technique, roll with it. Now is not the
time to be a renegade creator of new tagging systems. Fight your battles but win your wars! So in
this case, we have a pressure differential indicating transmitter installed on equipment 1703. You
might see such a device across a strainer inlet and outlet to let you know what the pressure drop
is across it so that you can clean it when it gets high.

Common Instrument Abbreviations

There are a number of instrument letter combinations that you are likely to come across a lot. A
few of these are listed in the figure titled "Common Primary Device Symbols". These examples
will help you get some practice understanding the abbreviations used for control symbols. You
can compare the examples to the table on D001 to get the hang of it. These examples all
represent field-mounted devices. We know that because they are all simple circle symbols with
no horizontal lines. I told you this was pretty straight forward!
The hardest part in deciphering the abbreviations inside control symbols is figuring out what the
letters designate when there are three or more letters used. Here are a couple rules of thumb:

In the case of abbreviations with four letters, the second letter is a modifier to the first.
When only three letters are used, the second letter probably is not a modifier.

As with any "rule of thumb", you mileage may vary, so if in doubt, look it up using the table on
D001 (or your own company lead sheets).

Symbol Attributes

Depending on the symbol purpose, various other attributes may be placed near control symbols
in "supporting role". The section called "Instrument Abbreviations" on lead sheet D001 defines
some of the more common ones you might run into. These are simply helpful bits that provide
further clarification for the situation at hand. In many cases, it is helpful to know "at a glance"
that a valve is FC (Fail Closed) or that DI is a (Digital Input). Refer to this table when you
encounter abbreviations used around control symbols.

Instrument Input-Output (I/O)

Despite major advances in computer technology and communications protocols, many

instruments still transmit their signals using a trusty analog signal (via a 4-20ma, 24V). For
switched devices, the input is typically a switch that simply provides a voltage input. While it is
not a common practice to show the type of signal a particular device sends to and/or receives
from the control system (collectively referred to as the I/O), in my company I like to employ
simple triangular symbols along the interconnecting lines to help illustrate the I/O flow (if you
will) on a P&ID. This is illustrated using the symbols shown in the figure below. The important
point to remember when you see these symbols is that the I/O flow is always from the control
computer's perspective. Thus, all outputs (DO, AO) come out of a output module and go to some
field device. Conversely, all inputs (DI, AI) are signals from field devices that flow into some
input module. Other types of I/O that may require specialized transducer cards or network
protocols are sometimes used. For example, the KT signal is a common type of signal that a
thermocouple employs. You may have also heard of RTD temperature sensors. There are a
myriad of transmission protocols used today and as process engineers, we don't need to get
caught up in that. But it is helpful to understand the flow of I/O in a plant and using these
symbols is a cheap, easy way of showing that with no penalty on the complexity of the drawing!
All of the I/O symbols invariably link to the software line type (described below), as this is used
to illustrate software processing within a computer or PLC. You don't know what is taking place
just by looking at a line, but you can be sure that whatever it is, the Functional Control
Description is the place to look to find out.

Line Symbols

The key line types are highlighted in the figure at right. By far, the most common line type is the
solid line, which is used to represent a pipe. Although not shown, a process line with long dashes
means the pipe is existing or is outside the battery limits (OSBL) of the plant. Other common
line types that you should be able to identify are electrical signal (anywhere wires are employed),
instrument air to control valves/devices (labeled as pneumatic signal) and software or data link
which includes "virtual" communication such as what occurs inside a computer program or PLC
ladder logic. The software can include anything that happens inside a computer, but you need a
functional description to actually know what that is, as we discussed earlier in this brief. Just
know that when you see a software line, it means computers are at work linking the devices in
some meaningful way that relates to the system controls.

Computing Functions

These symbols describe the types of functions that run inside a computer program. A problem
with applying these symbols is that they do not really provide solid insights into how the plant is
controlled in complex instances. For this reason, most P&IDs will make limited use of
computing function symbols. You can safely ignore these and not miss out on much because the
functional control description is really intended to describe control details that these symbols try
to illustrate.

Valve Symbols

The figures below show the key symbols for the various types of manually-operated valves and
actuator details for automated valves. Note the attributed stems on the actuators to indicate fail
state. This is a good example of using attributes to provide key information that is valuable to
Connection Types

Regarding connections, the symbology shown in the figure below is standard. One point I will
make is that in plastic piping systems (PVC, CPVC and ABS), everything is generally glued
using a connection type called "socket weld". However, socket weld can also be applied to
metallic piping systems where a welded connection is employed using socketed (versus butt
weld) fittings. There is no specific designation between glued or welded socket connections. Nor
is there a symbol for threaded connections.
When you start getting into what type of connection should be used in a particular pipe, this is
not really something that is based on personal preference or simply what you might have on hand
in the maintenance trailer. This is something that is based on things like the line service (what's
in the line), conditions (temperature, pressure), and other factors (like supporting requirements).
This kind of stuff is defined in a Material and Line Specification Standard. We won't cover that
in detail here but you know what? I just got an idea! This is great topic for a future series. The
fun never ends does it?

What about pipe fittings?

In case you are wondering (and I know you were), P&IDs generally do not show pipe fittings
(elbows, tees, unions, o-lets, etc.). Nor will they include all the various flanged connections

that might actually exist in the plant. These are details that show up on piping plans/sections,
isometrics and fabrication drawings. So, unless it is important to the process design for some
reason, fittings and extraneous flanged connection are generally not shown. If you need to get a
fitting take-off, look elsewhere!
Transducer Functions

This is an area that defines signal conversion. Only electrical engineers get excited about this
stuff, and you really don't need to focus too much on this. In fact, I almost skipped it but I just
know that if I did someone would ask, so let's get this out of the way because this electrical stuff
is starting to get a tad boring... A transducer is something that takes a signal in one form and
converts in into another form so that it can be used by a downstream device. For example, a
control valve may need air to actuate but receive an electrical signal to tell it to do that.
Somehow, you have to get the electric signal converted into an equivalent air signal so the valve
can move. Hello signal transducer.

In this particular example, an I/P (current to pneumatic) transducer is necessary so that the valve
can be positioned to any desired opening point with just an electrical signal. This is the most
common transducer function used in many plants; the others listed are comparatively rare. So,
understand what I/P means when you see it and don't worry too much about the rest of them for
now. When you graduate to Master Ninja P&ID interpreter, then we will focus on these details.

Primary Flow Elements

These symbols are nothing more than graphic illustrations that complement the control bubbles
to help readers of the drawing more easily identify the type of flow element being employed. The
most common types are shown in this table on D001. These symbols are not really critical
towards an understanding of the instrumentation or controls. Level elements don't have an
equivalent. Nor do other common instrument types.

OK, so now you have a solid feel for what P&IDs are, the purposes they serve, their limitations
and supporting document requirements and now - a pretty solid handle on the symbology used.
Despite all the ground we covered in this part, we haven't really had a chance to go through a few
examples. Everyone knows that when it comes to learning new information, application it is key.
The old adage "use it or lose it" applies. I still aim to get to some examples but for now, just take
a well deserved break and let this stuff sink it. Besides, I'm sure they need to go buy a couple
more hard drives for Parts 4 and 5.

Be sure to drop me any comments you have so that I can tailor the remaining

RGCook (not verified)

Oct 5,

aravind (not verified)

Oct 3, 2010

hai to all, i need a clar representation about closed tank and open tank level calculation and how
to measure and calculate the range for the level and flow transmitter i am in need of this

lww (not verified)

Oct 7, 2010

what are some more linstrument ine symbols and function symbols

jessica (not verified)

Oct 13, 2010

thanks for sharing! it's very useful informations! waiting for part 4 and 5!

Ken (not verified)

May 18, 2011

Robert, I bet you, your stuff is AWESOME! Where did you learn how to teach so easily? My
four years in Univ. studying mineral processing technology couldn't give me much on P&IDs
than I have just gotten out of you right here. It has kept haunting me ever since I left Uni 11yrs
ago and was just lucky to have branched into HSE. But bcos I now find myself also doing
process safety management, I had to run back to refresh on my P&Id stuff. Thanks for the great
job Bob. Cheers. Ken. Thanks for the good job.

RGCook (not verified)

Sep 8, 2011

Ken and Andrew, Many thanks for your kind feedback. I've been away too long. I intend to
begin my next series. It will be the Prequel to P&IDs. I still plan to contribute my best on the
process engineering core. Scope and writing functional descriptions that really work in helping
programmers make the plant do what it should. Along with major equipment specs (the key
stuff). Etc. It's so easy to get caught up in huge tomes on these topics and I think this is the value
of this site. For older guys like me to distill it down based on experience and what really works.
Thanks for the motivation to get started again. Best, Bob

jvasko (not verified)

Sep 8, 2011

Great to hear this Robert. Your series has consistently been one of the most popular on

Annie John (not verified)

Dec 30, 2011

Hi Robert Writing this to convey a special thank you for making reading P&IDs fun to learn. At
work . I was tasked this week, to create a tutorial for our fresh recruits on reading P&IDs.
Googling led me to your article that greatly simplified my task.. I have borrowed freely from
your blog and it has made my write-up that much richer. You will find that you are immortalized
through my reference list !!. In closing , it must be said that you have flair for making drab
technical stuff seem light and even interesting May your tribe flourish...Happy New Year

RGCook (not verified)

Dec 30, 2011

Annie, Many thanks for your kind feedback. I am very happy that you can use it in your work. I
leveraged the great vision of this site to provide this open and free resource. I had fun putting it
together (despite the work), and still plan to get a few more out. I will resolve to do that in 2012!
Best wishes to you in 2012 as well. Bob <div style="display:block;margin:6px 0 0"><a
class="a2a_dd" href=""><img
src="" width="171" height="16"
border="0" alt="Share/Save/Bookmark">

ram (not verified)

Jan 1, 2012

i am a process engineer with some operation back ground and willing to make career in process
safety. I have started learning P& ID but I could not locate all symbols which are generally used
with some basic description and examples. Also I would like to have simplified loops normally
seen on the P& ID explained. Please provide further source for reading. I found your article very
good and it is great service to young process engineers.
RGCook (not verified)
Jan 1, 2012

ram, Thanks for your note. Regarding explanation of simplified loops, have you looked at any of
the companion videos I provide at youttube? This is at least a start. Take a look and let me know
if that helps. - Bob

FJ BLACK (not verified)

Apr 10, 2012

Thank you so much for your clear and informative articles. I wish I had found this site years
ago!!!! Unfortunately, the link to download the Lead Sheets for this article doesn't seem to work
- could you look into this and hopefully fix. Many Thanks F J Black

RGCook (not verified)

Apr 10, 2012

FJ, Thanks for the feedback. I have notified the operators of this site about the broken link. If
you wish to send me a private email, I will send the files directly to you. I've obscured the @
symbol below to keep the spammers at bay. robert.cook AT Best wishes, Bob

Hanieh (not verified)

Apr 10, 2012

Hi Robert I was looking for a good guide line about P&ID and all of a sudden I found it all here.
I am so excited to read more. Your article is full of good and handy information and I would say
it is simply "well-written".... Just Thank you , Thank you and Thank you. please keep on the
good job!

RGCook (not verified)

Apr 10, 2012

You are quite welcome Hanieh. Please refer to my response to FJ BLACK above regarding a
broken link to the example files. If you would like a copy, send me an email as well. Best
regards, Bob

Douglas (not verified)

Apr 11, 2012

Sorry the link wasn't working. I saw the comments and have fixed it! Douglas@Chenected.
Hanieh (not verified)
Apr 11, 2012

Thanks again Robert , The link is now working, tnx to Douglas too. I also wish to ask you about
preparing the P&IDs, like basic rules ,, where to put check valve, where to put gate and etc. or
How to do pipe sizing ? I have heard about simple calculation of Flow/Velocity and then pipe
sizing , but what is the best velocity for each case ? is there any Ref? I think I am asking lot!
Thanks in advance

babak (not verified)

Jun 28, 2012

easy to understand thanks

Amit (not verified)

Aug 11, 2012

dear sir i m confused about the primary & secondary line used in p&ids sir i just want to know
how to understand where is the primary line (process line) is used and where is the secondary
line is used in a drawing.

VIJAY (not verified)

Oct 24, 2012

hello sir, how to identify a I/P signal from an insrument or a system to instrument index

leah (not verified)

Jan 4, 2013

I I've learned a lot about P&ID and how to use the symbols.... Thank you for this site that you've

Vee (not verified)

Apr 9, 2013

Hi there, I was wondering about the P&ID Diagram that is the profile picture for 'Interpreting
Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams-Symbology [Part 3 of 5]', I have seen this P&ID plant
diagram all over the web and I still have not managed to decipher what chemical plant this is, a
little help please?
Dear Robert, I am writing to express my profound gratitude to you for making P & ID
interpretation seem easier. I am a mechanical engineer but was hardly into any technical job.
Recently, I suddenly find myself in process safety. However, I was always frightened and
overwhelmed whenever I come across P & ID and I decided to attend training courses. Just about
when I was to register for the training in Canada, I came across your blog. After a careful reading
of your blog together with other materials I got, I am now very confident to confront any P & ID
I come across. Thanks a lot for helping me to save money. A lot of people pay handsomely to get
the information you posted freely. I would like to ask if you have any material on plot plan and
3D drawing interpretations as that is my next technical area to improve. I will be grateful if you
could write me on my private email. Once again, thanks a lot for your generosity in Human
Capacity Development.

I am following following sequence for line identification lines.


80- SW-SS316-0001

BY LINE NO 0001.


The line label you devised is certainly workable. The only suggestion I have (and it is simply
that), is to consider changing your PIPE MOC to a line specification. A properly defined line
specification includes all fittings, pipe MOC, schedule, valves, welding, and even hydro testing,
etc. requirements for a particular service. When you only specify the material of construction, it
leaves a lot of open questions. For example, say to you put it on a 40mm line vs. an 80mm line.
Are the schedules different due to P/T considerations? Are there limintations with respect to the
type of connection that is allowed? Smaller bore pipe may not be able to use threaded
connections due to derating from the thread. These types of things will haunt you later when the
fabricator comes back asking questions.

I am getting confudes that in pipe lines some times dummys are there, they are blanked by flange
on it , (means not connected to any system),

In P&IDs do we need to show this in diagram.

Anant, Thanks for your question. The use of blind flanges has many possible purposes in a
process. They could exist on tanks/vessels for future flexibility, process expansion, options to
add additional lines, etc. Alternately, they may simply be the result of change; perhaps a line or
piece of equipment was removed and it was easier to simply blind a flange at a convenient point
than to remove it from the system altogether. In pipelines, they might exist to provide flexibility
for clean-out, new/future additions that are planned or to simply have them for draining or other
needs. It is very common not to show all blind flange nozzles that a vessel has on a P&ID. Many
times, a tank will be very old and a lot of nozzles will simply be blinded and abandoned so there
is little point in cluttering a P&ID with things that have no practical purpose.

Having said that, when I audit a set of P&IDs, I would highly recommend that you do show all
blinded flanges on piping systems. You are going for an accurate representation of what the plant
actually looks like and knowing there are blind flanges at various points in the piping could be
beneficial to future needs, reviews, etc. For tanks, it might make sense to reference the
fabrication drawings for details and appurtenances.

So in the final analysis, I would advice you to show all flanged connections, even spool pieces if
they serve a useful purpose surrounding maintenance or other activities. Unlike fittings, where
flanges are concerned, there is usually a purpose for them beyond simply connecting things
together and it is generally a good idea to know where blind flanges are in a plant. Opionions
may vary on this point but that's my advice.