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Unit Eleven

HOW TO READ BODY LANGUAGE

Before you read, here are some questions to think about .

1. What does "nonverbal Communication"? mean?

2. Do people from different countries use different gestures?

3. What are some typical type of body language used by people in your country?

4. Is your body language consistent with the body language of other people in your
culture?
I All of us communicate with one another nonverbally, as well as
with words. Most of the time we're not aware that we're doing it. We
gesture with eyebrows or a hand, meet someone else's eyes and look
away, shift positions in a chair. These actions we assume are random
and incidental. But researchers have discovered in recent years that
there is a system to them almost as consistent and comprehensible as
language.
2 Every culture has its own body language, and children absorb its
nuances along with spoken language. A Frenchman talks and moves in
French. The way an Englishman cr08ses his legs is nothing like the way a
male American does it. In talking, Americans are apt to end a statement
with a droop of the head or hand, a lowering of the eyelids. They wind up
a question with a lift of the hand, a tilt of the chin, or a widening of the
eyes. With a future-tense verb they often gesture with a forward
movement.
3 There are regional idioms, too: an expert can sometimes pick out
a native of Wisconsin just by the way he uses his eyebrows during
conversation. Your gender, ethnic background, social class, and personal
style all influence your body language. Nevertheless, you move and
gesture within the American idiom.
4 The person who is truly bilingual is also bilingual in body
language. New York's famous mayor, Fiorello La Guardia, politic ked in
English, Italian, and Yiddish. When films of his speeches are run
without sound, it's not too difficult to identify from his gestures the
language he was speaking. One of the rea80ns English-dubbed foreign
films often seem flat is that the gestures don't match the language.
5 Usually the wordless communication acts to qualify the words.
What the nonverbal elements express very often, and very efficiently, is

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the emotional side of the message. When a person feels liked or disliked,
often it's a case of "not what he said but the way he said it." Psychologist
Albert Mehrabian has devised this formula: total impact of a message
= 7 percent verbal + 38 percent vocal + 55 percent facial.
6 Experts in kinesics-the study of communication through body
movement-are not prepared to spell out a precise vocabulary of
gestures. When an American rubs his nose, it may mean he is
disagreeing with someone or rejecting something. But there are other
possible interpretations, teo. For example, when a student in conversation
with a professor holds the older man's eyes a little longer than is
usual, it can be a sign of respect and affection; it can be a subtle
challenge to the professor's authority; or it can be something else
entirely. The expert looks for patterns in the context, not for an isolated
meaningful gesture.
7 Kinesics is a young science-developed in the 1950s-and very
much the brainchild of one man, anthropologist Dr. Ray L. Birdwhistell.
But it already offers a wide variety of small observations. (For example,
eyebrows have a repertoire of about 23 possible positions; men use their
eyebrows more than women do.) Most people find they can shut out
conversation and concentrate on watching body language for only about
30 seconds at a time. Anyone can experiment with it, however, simply by
turning on the television picture without the sound.
8 One of the most potent elements in body language is eye behavior.
Americans are careful about how and when they meet one another's
eyes. In our normal conversation, each eye contact lasts only about a
second before one or both individuals look away. When two Americans
look searchingly into each other's eyes, emotions are heightened and the
relationship becomes more intimate. Therefore we carefully avoid this,
except in' appropriate circumstances.
9 Americans abroad sometimes. find local eye behavior hard to
interpret. "Tel Aviv was disturbing," one man recalled. "People stared
right at me on the street; they looked me up and down. I kept wondering
if I was uncombed or unzipped. Finally, a friend explained that Israelis
think nothing of staring at others on the street."
10 Proper street behavior in the United States requires a nice
balance of attention and inattention. You are supposed to look at a
passerby just enough to show that you're aware of his presence. If you
look too little, you appear haughty or secretive; too much, and you're
inquisitive. Usually what happens is that people eye each other until
they are about eight feet apart, at which point both cast down their eyes.
Sociologist Dr. Erving Goffman describes this as "a kind of dimming of

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lights." In parts of the Far East it is impolite to look at the other person at
all during conversation. In England the polite listener stares at the
speaker attentively and blinks his eyes occasionally as a sign of interest.
That eye-blink says nothing to Americans, who expect the listener to nod
or to murmur something-such as "mm-hmm."
11 There are times when what a person says with his body gives the
lie to what he is saying with his tongue. Sigmund Freud once wrote: "No
mortal can keep a secret. If his lips are silent, he chatters with his
fingertips; betrayal oozes out of him at every pore."
12 Thus, a man may successfully control his face, and appear calm
and self-con trolled-unaware that signs of tension and anxiety are
leaking out, that his foot is beating on the floor constantly, restlessly, as if
it had a life of its own. Rage is another emotion feet and legs may reveal.
During arguments the feet often become tense. Fear sometimes produces
barely perceptible running motions, a kind of nervous leg jiggle.
13 Recent studies by psychologists suggest that posture often reflects
a person's attitude toward people he is with. One experiment indicates
that when men are with other men they dislike, they relax either very
little or very much-depending on whether they see the other man as
threatening. Women in this experiment always signaled dislike with very
relaxed posture.
14 Postures sometimes offer a guide to broad relationships within a
group. Imagine that at a party, guests have been fired up by an argument.
You may be able to spot at a glance the two sides of the argument by
postures adopted. More of the pros, for example, may sit with crossed
knees, the cons with legs stretched out and arms folded. A few middle-of-the-
roaders may try a little of each-crossing their knees and folding
their arms. If an individual abruptly shifts his body around in his chair,
it may mean that he disagrees with the speaker or even that he is
changing sides. None of this, of course, represents an infallible guide,
but it is apparently significant enough to be worth watching for.
15 While children learn spoken and body language-proper postures,
eye behaviors, etc.-they also learn a subtler thing: how to react to
space around them. Man walks around inside a kind of private bubble,
which represents the amount of air space he feels he must have between
himself and other people. Anthropologists, working with cameras, have
recorded the tremors and minute eye movements that betray the moment
the individual's bubble is breached. As adults, however, we hide our
feelings 'behind a screen of polite words.
16 Anthropologist Dr. Edward T. Hall points out that, for two
unacquainted adult male North Americans, the comfortable distance to

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stand for private conversation is from arm's length to about four feet
apart. The South American likes to stand much closer, which creates
problems when the two meet face to face. For, as the South American.
moves in, the North American feels he's being pushy; and as the North
American backs off, the South American thinks he's being standoffish.
17 The American and the Arab are even less compatible in their
space habits. Arabs like close contact. In some instances, they stand very
close together to talk, staring intently into each other's eyes and
breathing into each other's face.
18 The amount of space a man needs is also influenced by his
personality-introverts, for example, seem to need more elbow room
than extroverts. Situation and mood also affect distance.
19 George du Maurier once wrote: "Language is a poor thing. You
fill your lungs with wind and shake a little slit in your throat and make
mouths, and that shakes the air; and the air shakes a pair of little drums
in my head. . . and my brain seizes your meaning in the rough. What a
roundabout way and what a waste of time!"
20 Communication between human beings would be just that dull if
it were all done with words. But actually, words are often the smallest
part of it.

Put T for true and F for false statements. Justify your answers.

___ 1. Body movements are less important than words in communication.

___ 2. It is difficult to dub a foreign film into English.

___ 3. Body language is full of subtle nuances.

___ 4. Usually the way you say the message acts to qualify the words.

___ 5. Experts can explain exactly a precise vocabulary of gestures.

___ 6. Israelis think nothing of staring at people on the street.

___ 7. According to George du Maurier, people make their message clear in a very
roundabout way.

___ 8. North Americans & South American have the same space requirements.

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Select the choice that best completes the sentence(s).
1. The author's purpose in this passage is to ---------.
a. provide the scientific classification of various type of communication.
b. explain that body language is full of nuances for each culture.
c. describes some typical types of body language used by Americans.

2. In a normal conversation, Americans -----------.


a. have eye contact lasting a second
b. look searchingly into each other's eyes
c. stare into each other's eyes for a long time

3. In the U.S. you appear secretive if you look at a passerby ---------.


a. inattentively
b. attentively
c. with a balance of attention and inattention

4. The sentence "the way an English man crosses his legs is nothing like the way a male
American does it". Implies that ----------.
a. Englishmen communicate differently from Americans
b. Englishmen and Americans have personality differences
c. body language differs in each culture

5. What is true of posture?


a. An individual's posture can reflect his attitude toward people he is with.
b. posture offers an infallible guide to broad relationships within a group
c. An individual can't show his disagreement by adopting a defensive posture

6. When the South American moves in the North American ---------.


a. feels stand offish
b. backs off
c. stands much closer

7. According to the passage ---------.


a. our gestures have no pattern
b. an outgoing person needs more space than an introverted person
c. some specific gestures have a potent meaning in a culture

Answer the following questions orally.


1. What have the researchers discovered in recent years about body language?

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2. When do children learn body lang?

3. What is Kinesics?

4. What is the difference between Americans & Israelis in eye behavior?

5. What does a man do when he is with a man he does not like?

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Lesson Eleven
Part B: Vocabulary

evidence solitary vision frequent

glimpse recent decade hesitate

absurd conflict minority fiction

1. Evidence: that which makes clear the truth or falsehood something


a. Each juror felt he needed more evidence before voting to convict the former football
star.
b. Her many awards were evidence enough that Leona excelled in playing.
c. Our teacher ignored the evidence that Simon had cheated on the test.

2. Solitary: alone; single; only


a. Sid's solitary manner kept him from making new friendships.
b. There was not a solitary piece of evidence that Manuel had eaten the cheesecake.
c. The convict went into a rage when he was placed in a solitary cell.

3. Vision: power of seeing; sense of sight


a. With the aid of the binoculars, my vision improved enough to see the entire vicinity.
b. Ted Williams had perfect vision, and that helped to make him a great baseball player.
c. The glasses that Irma bought corrected her near-sighted vision.

4. Frequent: happening often; occurring repeatedly


a. We made frequent visits to the hospital to see our grandfather.
b. On frequent occasions, Sam fell asleep in class.
c. Dr. Bonner gave me some pills for my frequent headaches.

5. Glimpse: a short, quick view


a. This morning we caught our first glimpse of the beautiful shoreline.
b. One glimpse of the very feminine vision was enough to tell Romeo that he loved Juliet.
c. The tall shrubs kept us from getting a glimpse of the new people who inhabited the
beach house.

6. Recent: done, made, or occurring not long ago


a. At a recent meeting, the Board of Education provided the evidence we had been asking
for.
b. Bessie liked the old silent movies better than the more recent ones.
c. Recent studies have concluded that more people are working than ever before.

7. Decade: ten years


a. After a decade of granting salary increases, my boss ended the practice.

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b. Many people moved out of this city in the last decade.
c. I have a vision that this decade will be better than the last one.

8. Hesitate: fail to act quickly; be undecided


a. Nora hesitated to accept the challenge.
b. When he got to the robbers' vicinity, he hesitated before going on.
c. The proverb tells us that he who hesitates is lost.

9. Absurd: plainly not true or sensible; foolish


a. It was absurd to believe the fisherman's tall tale.
b. The flabby boy realized that the suggestion to diet was not absurd.
c. Underestimating the importance of reading is absurd.

10. Conflict: direct opposition, disagreement


a. Our opinions about the company's success in the last decade are in conflict with what the
records show.
b. There was a noisy conflict over who was the better tennis player.
c. The class mediation team was invited to settle the conflict.

11. Minority: smaller number or part; less than half


a. Only a small minority of the neighborhood didn't want a new park.
b. A minority of our athletes who competed in the Olympics were victorious.
c. Blacks are a minority group in the United States.

12. Fiction: that which is imagined or made up


a. The story that the president had died was fiction.
b. We hardly ever believed Vinny because what he said was usually fiction.
c. Marge enjoys reading works of fiction rather than true stories.

Place one of the new words in each of the blanks below.


1. The old man had lived for seven ---------------.
2. He had the --------------- that some day there would be peace on earth.
3. Only a --------------- of the senators were against welfare.
4. No one has ever had even a --------------- of the future.
5. People used to think it was an --------------- idea that human beings could ever fly.
6. We make --------------- visits to Florida in the winter.
7. If you have any questions, don't --------------- to ask.
8. There was only a --------------- man on the beach.
9. The --------------- was over the high cost of bread.
10. --------------- studies have shown that the cost of living has gone up rapidly.
11. The gun alone was --------------- enough to convict the killer.
12. The stories Henry told people about his adventures turned out to be merely -------------.

II. From the list of 12 new words that follows, choose the one that corresponds to each
definition below.

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evidence solitary vision frequent

glimpse recent decade hesitate

absurd conflict minority fiction

a. ten years: -------------------------


b. happening often: -------------------------
c. alone: -------------------------
d. that which makes clear the truth or falsehood of something: -------------------------
e. occurring not long ago: -------------------------
f. a short, quick view: -------------------------
g. that which is imagined or made up: -------------------------
h. sense of sight: -------------------------
i. smaller number or part: -------------------------
j. direct opposition: -------------------------
k. plainly not true or sensible: -------------------------
I. fail to act quickly: -------------------------

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Unit Eleven
Part C: Grammar
51 Reciprocal Pronouns

Remember that the reciprocal pronoun phrase each other may be used when the
plural subject and complement refer to the same persons or things, and they are
performing a reciprocal (mutual) act.

S V Pronoun (reciprocal)
My sister and I visit each other about once a week

Remember that each other is used to express mutual acts for all persons. One
another is also correct.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: Family members love to each other.


CORRECT: Family members love each other.

INCORRECT: Let's meet each to the other after class.


CORRECT: Let's meet each other after class.

INCORRECT: It is considered cheating when students help each the other one on
tests or quizzes.
CORRECT: It is considered cheating when students help each other on tests or
quizzes.

EXERCISES

Business partners can usually sell their mutually owned property without consulting
______ unless they have agreed to a separate contract.
(A) other
(B) other one
(C) one the other
(D) each other

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

The twinkling lights of the firefly are signals to that the male and female of the
(A) (B)
species can find each to the other.
(C) (D)

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52 Count Nouns
Remember that count nouns have both singular and plural forms. Plural numbers
can precede count nouns but not noncount nouns.
There are several categories of count nouns that ca help you organize you study.
Some of them are listed here.

1. Names of persons,, their relationships, and their occupations:


one boy two boys
one friend two friends
one student two students

2. Names of animals, plants, insect:


one dog two dogs
one flower two flowers
one bee two bees

3. Names of things with definite, individual shape:


one car two cars
one house two houses
one room two rooms

4. Units of measurement:
one inch two inches
one pound two pounds
one degree two degree

5. Units of classification in society:


one family two families
one country two countries
one language two languages

6. Containers of noncount solids, liquids, pastes, and gases:


one bottle two bottles
one jar two jars
one tube two tubes

7. A limited number of abstract concepts:


one idea two ideas
one invention two inventions
one plan two plans

Number (plural) Noun (count-plural)


sixty years

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Avoid using a singular count noun with a plural number.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: We have twenty dollar left.


CORRECT: We have twenty dollars left.

INCORRECT: I hope that I can lose about five pound before summer.
CORRECT: I hope that I can lose about five pound before summer.

INCORRECT: Several of the people in this class speak three or four language.
CORRECT: Several of the people in this class speak three or four languages.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

A desert receives less than twenty-five _______ of rainfall every year.


(A) centimeter
(B) a centimeter
(C) centimeters
(D) of centimeters

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

In 1950 it was natively predicted the eight or ten computer would be sufficient
(A) (B) (C)
to handle all of the scientific and business needs in the United States.
(D)

53 Non-count Nouns
Remember that noncount nouns have only one form. They are used in agreement
with singular verbs. The word the does not precede them.
There are categories of noncount nouns that can help you organize your study.
Some of them are listed here.

1. Food staples that can be purchased in various forms:


bread
meat
butter

2. Construction materials that can change shape, depending on what is made:


wood
iron
glass

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3. Liquids that can change shape, depending on the shape of the container:
oil
tea
milk

4. natural substances that can change shape, depending on natural laws:


steam, water, ice
smoke, ashes
oxygen

5. Substances with many small parts:


rice
sand
sugar

6. Groups of things that have different sizes and shapes:


clothing (a coat, a shirt, a sock)
furniture (a table, a chair, a bed)
luggage (a suitcase, a trunk, a box)

7. Languages:
Arabic
Japanese
Spanish

8. Abstract concepts, often with endings-ness, -ance, -ence, -ity:


beauty
ignorance
peace

9. Most ing forms:


learning
shopping
working

Noun (noncount) Verb (singular)


Friendship is important

Avoid using the before a noncount noun. Avoid using a plural verb with a noncount
noun.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: The happiness means different things to different people.

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CORRECT: Happiness means different things to different people.

INCORRECT: Toshi speaks the Japanese at home.


CORRECT: Toshi speaks Japanese at hom

INCORRECT: Bread are expensive in the grocery store on the corner.


CORRECT: Bread is expensive in the grocery store on the corner.

EXERCISES

______ at 212 degrees F. and Freezes at 32 degrees F.


(A) Waters boils
(B) The water boils
(C) Water boils
(D) Waters boil

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

The religion attempts to clarify man's relationship with a superhuman power.


(A) (B) (C) (D)

54 Nouns with Count and Non-count Meanings

Remember that some nouns may be used as count or as nouncount nouns


depending on their meanings. Materials and abstract concepts are noncount nouns, but
they may be used as count nouns to express specific meanings.

Count noun Specific meaning Noncount noun General meaning


an agreement an occasion or a agreement abstract concept all
agreement document agreements
a bone a part of a skeleton bone construction material
bones
a business a company business abstract concept all
business business transactions
a cloth a piece of cloth cloth construction material
cloths
a decision an occasion decision abstract concept all
decisions decisions
an education a specific person's education abstract concept all
educations education
a fire an event fire material
fires

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Count noun Specific meaning Noncount noun General meaning
a glass a container glass construction material
glasses
a history A historical account history abstract concept all
history history
an honor an occasion or an honor abstract concept all
honors award honor
a language a specific variety language abstract concept all
language languages
a life a specific person's life abstract concept all
lives life
a light a lamp light the absence of
lights darkness
a noise a specific noise abstract concept all
noises sounds
a pain a specific pain abstract concept all
pains pain
a paper a document or sheet paper construction material
papers
a pleasure a specific occasion pleasure abstract concept all
pleasures pleasure
a silence a specific occasion silence abstract concept all
silences silence
a space a blank space the universe
spaces
a stone a small rock stone construction material
stones
a success an achievement success abstract concept all
successes success
a thought an idea thought abstract concept all
thoughts thought
a time a historical period or time abstract concept all
times moment time
a war a specific war war the general act of war
wars all wars
a work an artistic creation work employment abstract
works concept all work

a document
I have a paper due Monday

construction material
Let's use Paper To make the present

Avoid using count nouns with specific meanings to express the general
meanings of noncount nouns.

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EXAMPLES

INCOURECT: Dr. Bradley will receive special honor at the graduation.


CORRECT: Dr. Bradley will receive a special honor at the graduation.
(an award)

INCOURECT: She needs to find a work.


CORRECT: She needs to find work.
(employment)

INCOURECT: My neighbor dislikes a noise.


CORRECT: My neighbor dislikes noise.
(all sounds)

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

It is generally believed that an M.B.A. degree is good preparation for a career in


______.
(A) a business
(B) business
(C) businesses
(D) one business

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

A space is the last frontier for man to conquer.


(A) (B) (C) (D)

55 Count and Noncount Nouns with Similar meanings


Remember that there are pairs of nouns with similar meanings, but one is a
count noun and the other is a nouncount noun.
Count noun Noncount noun
a climate weather
climates

a laugh laughter
laughs

a human being humanity


human beings

a job work
jobs

a machine machinery
machines

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a person people
persons

a snowflake snow
snowflakes

a sunbeam sunlight;
sunbeams sunshine

a traffic jam traffic


traffic jams

a noun (count)
The shape of a snowflake is unique

Avoid using a with a noncount noun instead of a singular count noun.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: California has a good weather.


CORRECT: California has good weather.
California has a good

INCORRECT: A laughter is the best medicine.


CORRECT: Laughter is the best medicine.
or
A laugh is the best medicine.
INCORRECT: We are late because we got stuck in a traffic.
CORRECT: We are late because we got stuck in traffic.
or
We are late because we got stuck in traffic jam.
EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.


Unemployment compensation is money to support an unemployed person while he or
she is looking for _______.
(A) job
(B) a job
(C) works
(D) a work

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

It is believed that a people could live on Mars with little life support because
(A) (B) (C)
the atmosphere is similar to that of Earth.
(D)

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Unit Twelve
TO TRUST, PERCHANCE TO BUY

Before you read, here are some questions to think about .


1. Why are some sales people so successful in selling?
2. Have you ever bought something you didn't really want to buy it? Why did you buy
that?
3. What do you know about "hypnosis techniques'? How do these techniques work in
selling?
4. What do you know about selling style of your country? (the relationship between
customer and seller)

[The author, Donald J. Moine, has a Ph.D. in Psychology from the University of
Ontario, where he conducted a study of salespeople in various fields. Dr. Moine
found that the best salespeople use hypnosis techniques: they mirror the
thoughts, tone of voice, speech tempo and mood of the customer-to persuade
the customer to buy their product. ]
Getting in Sync
1 The best salespeople first establish a mood of trust and rapport by
means of "hypnotic pacing" -statements and gestures that play back a
customer's observations, experience, or behavior. Pacing is a kind of
mirror-like matching, a way of suggesting: "I am like you. We are in sync.
You can trust me."
2 The simplest form of pacing is "descriptive pacing," in which the
seller formulates accurate, if banal, descriptions of the customer's
experience. "It's been awfully hot these last few days, hasn't it?" "You
said you were going, to graduate in June," These statements serve the
purpose of establishing agreement and developing an unconscious
affinity between seller and customer. In clinical hypnosis, the hypnotist
might make comparable pacing statements. "You are here today to see
me for hypnosis." "You told me over the phone about a problem that
concerns you," Sales agents with only average success tend to jump
immediately into their memorized sales pitches or to hit the customer
with a barrage of questions. Neglecting to pace the customer, the
mediocre sales agent creates no common ground on which to build trust.
3 A second type of hypnotic pacing statement is the "objection
pacing" comment. A customer objects or resists, and the sales agent
agrees, matching his or her remarks to the remarks of the customer, A
superior insurance agent might agree that "insurance is not the best

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investment out there," just as a clinical hypnotist might tell a difficult
subject, "You are resisting going into trance, That's good. I encourage
that." The customer, pushing against a wall, finds that the wall has
disappeared. The agent, having confirmed the customer's objection,
then leads the customer to a position that negates or undermines the
objection. The insurance salesperson who agreed that "insurance is not
the best investment out there" went on to tell his customer, "but it does
have a few uses." He then described all the benefits of life insurance.
Mediocre salespeople generally respond to resistance head-on, with
arguments that presumably answer the customer's objection. This
response often leads the customer to dig in his heels all the harder.
4 The most powerful forms of pacing have more to do with how
something is said than with what is said. The good salesperson has an
ability to pace the language and thought of any customer. With hypnotic
effect, the agent matches the voice tone, rhythm, volume, and speech rate
of the customer. He matches the customer's posture, body language, and
mood. He adopts the characteristic verbal language of the customer
("sounds good," "rings a 6ell," "get a grip on"). If the customer is slightly
depressed, the agent shares that feeling and acknowledges that he has
been feeling "a little down" lately. In essence, the top sales producer
becomes a sophisticated biofeedback mechanism, sharing and reflecting
the customer's reality-even to the point of breathing in and out with the
customer.
5 I have found only one area in which the top salespeople do not
regularly pace their customers' behavior and attitudes-the area of
beliefs and values. For example, if a customer shows up on a car lot and
explains that she is a Republican, a moderately successful salesman is
likely to say that he is too, even if he isn't. The best salespeople, even if
they are Republicans, are unlikely to say so, perhaps because they
understand that "talk is cheap" and recognize intuitively that there are
deeper, more binding ways of "getting in sync" with the customer.
The Soft Sell
6 Only after they have created a bond of trust and rapport do the top
salespeople begin to add the suggestions and indirect commands that
they hope will lead the customer to buy. One such soft-sell technique is
using their patently true pacing statements as bridges to introduce
influencing statements that lead to a desired response or action. For
example: "You are looking at this car, and you can remember the joy of
owning a new reliable car," or "You are 27 years old, and we figure that
your need for life insurance is $50,000." These pacing and leading
statements resemble the way a hypnotist leads a client into hypnosis:

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"You are sitting in this chair, and you are listening to my voice"-the
unarguable pacing statements-"and your eyelids are getting heavy, and
they are beginning to close."
7 There does not have to be any logical connection between the
pacing statement and the leading statement. They can be totally
unrelated; yet when they are connected linguistically, they form a "sales
logic" that can be powerfully effective, even with such presumably
analytic and thoughtful customers as doctors and college professors.
8 The power of these leading statements comes from the fact that
they capitalize on the affirmative mental state built by the undeniably
true pacing statements with which the customer is now familiar.
Customers who have agreed with salespeople expect, unconsciously,
further agreement, just as customers who have disagreed expect further
disagreement. The "traditional" truth of these pacing statements rubs off
on the leading statements, and, without knowing it, the customer begins
to take more and more of what the sales agent says as both factual and
personally significant. Using hypnotic language, the agent activates the
customer's desire for the product.
9. Average sellers combine pacing and leading statements less
frequently and with less skill than do their superior colleagues. They also
speak in shorter, choppier sentences, and thus fail to create the
emotional web of statements in which the truthful and the possible seem
to merge.
ID One of the most subtle soft-sell techniques is to embed a
command into a statement. "A smart investor knows how to make a
quick decision, Robert." "I'm going to show you a product that will help
you, Jim, save money." Sales people ensure that their embedded commands
come across by changing the tone, rhythm, and volume of their
speech. Typically, as they pronounce the commands, they intuitively
slow their speech, look the customer directly in the eyes, and say each
word forcefully. A clinical hypnotist does the same thing deliberately. "If
you will listen to the sound of my voice, you will be able to relax."
11 The placement of an individual's name in a sentence seems like a
trivial matter; yet the position of a name can make a significant
difference in how strongly the sentence influences the listener. Placed
before or after the command portion of a sentence, it gives the command
an extra power.
12 By changing their speech rate, volume, and tone, the best sales
agents are able to give certain phrases the effect of commands. "If you
can imagine yourself owning this beautiful car and imagine how happy it
will make you, you will want to, Mr. Benson, buy this car." The two

141
phrases beginning with "imagine" become commands for the customer
to do just that. Owning the car is linked to the leading statement of how
happy it will make the customer. Finally, the statement carries the
embedded command: "Mr. Benson, buy this car."

Put T for true and F for false statements. Justify your answers.
____ 1. The best salespeople try to develop an affinity between the customers and
themselves to be trusted later on.
____ 2. Mediocre sales people try to pace the long, speech, and body language of their
customers.
___ 3. The best salespeople do not respond to resistance from the customer head- on.
___ 4. The best sales people mirror their customer's political beliefs.
___ 5. The pacing statements and the leading ones can be completely unrelated.
___ 6. Well educated customers recognize soft- sell techniques and they do not respond
to them.
___ 7. Using hypnotic language, mediocre gent activates the customer's desire for the
product.
___ 8. In an embedded command, the customer's name should be used exactly before
the command give on extra power to it.

_________________________________
Select the choice that best completes the sentence(s).

1. According to the passage, pacing is a kind of --------.


a. liking each other
b. getting in sync
c. observing the customer's gestures
2. The sentence "It's been awfully hot these days, hasn't it?" Is an example of ---------.
a. descriptive pacing
b. objection pacing
c. the soft-sell technique

3. Mediocre salespeople --------.


a. build rapport with customers before they try to sell anything
b. keep going over the same ground on which to build
c. jump immediately into their sales talk

4. The passage indicates that ----------

142
a. the truth of the leading statements influences the pacing statements.
b. average sellers combine pacing and leading statements skillfully to create a desired
response
c. the best sales people put subtle commands into their soft-sell statement

5. The best sales people ---------.


a. use some of their customer's expressions and speech mannerisms
b. argue with the customer when the customer makes an objection.
c. try to use less techniques of hypnosis that the average sales people do

6. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage? ---------.


a. Pronouncing the commands, sales people slow their speech and look the customer
directly in the eyes.
b. The top sales people try to share and reflect the customer's reality
c. By changing their speech rate volume, and tone, mediocre sales people give certain
phrases the effect of commands.

7. Which one is NOT an example of "embedded command".


a. you use it to yourself to buy this product, Mary.
b. You are resisting going into trace. That's good. I encourage that.
c. you will listen to the sound of my voice, you will be able to relax.

Answer the following questions orally.

1. What is hypnotic pacing?


2. How do the best sales people try to build rapport with their customer?
3. What does a customer do if the sales agent argues with him/her over an objection?
4. Why are some leading statements so powerful?
5. What is the most subtle soft-sell techniques?

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Lesson Twelve
Part B: Vocabulary

ignite abolish urban population

frank pollute reveal prohibit

urgent adequate decrease audible

1. Ignite: set on fire


a. Spark plugs ignite in an automobile engine.
b. One match can ignite an entire forest.
c. A careless remark helped to ignite the conflict between the brothers and the sisters.

2. Abolish: do away with completely; put an end to


a. The death penalty has recently been abolished in our state.
b. We abolished numerous laws that didn't serve any purpose in this decade.
c. My school has abolished final exams altogether.

3. Urban: of or having to do with cities or towns


a. Many businesses open offices in urban areas.
b. I plan to exchange my urban location for a rural one.
c. Only a small minority of the people of the United States live far from any urban area.

4. Population: people of a city or country


a. China has the largest population of any country.
b. The population of the world has increased in every decade.
c. After the recent floods, the population of Honduras was reduced by 10,000.

5. Frank: free in expressing one's real thoughts, opinions, or feelings; not hiding what
is in one's mind
a. Never underestimate the value of being frank with one another.
b. Eretha was completely frank when she told her friend about the sale.
c. People liked Duffy because they knew he would be frank with them.

6. Pollute: make dirty


a. The Atlantic Ocean is in danger of becoming polluted.
b. There is much evidence to show that the air we breathe is polluted.
c. It is claimed that soap powders pollute the water we drink.

7. Reveal: make known


a. Napoleon agreed to reveal the information to the French population.
b. The evidence was revealed only after hours of questioning.
c. General Motors revealed reluctantly that there were defects in their new models.

144
8. Prohibit: forbid by law or authority
a. Elvin's manager prohibited him from appearing on television.
b. Many homeowners prohibit others from walking on their property.
c. The law prohibits the use of guns to settle a conflict.

9. Urgent: demanding immediate action or attention; important


a. An urgent telephone call was made to the company's treasurer.
b. The principal called an urgent meeting to solve the school's numerous problems.
c. When he heard the urgent cry for help, the lifeguard did not hesitate.

10. Adequate: as much as is needed; fully sufficient


a. Rover was given an adequate amount of food to last him the whole day.
b, A bedroom, kitchen, and bath were adequate shelter for his living needs.
c. Carlos was adequate at his job but he wasn't great.

11. Decrease: make or become less


a. As he kept spending money, the amount he had saved decreased.
b. In order to improve business, the store owner decreased his prices.
c. The landlord promised to decrease our rent.

12. Audible: able to be heard


a. From across the room, the teacher's voice was barely audible.
b. After Len got his new hearing aid, my telephone calls became audible.
c. Commands from Ann's drill sergeant were always easily audible.

Place one of the new words in each of the blanks below.


1. The doctor was completely --------------- with the dying man.
2. In an --------------- whisper, Maria called for my attention.
3. We didn't need any evidence to see that the poor man was in --------------- need of
money and food.
4. All his life the child was used to living in --------------- areas.
5. Dry matches to --------------- the campfires were sought by the Boy Scout.
6. Smoking is --------------- in the medical building.
7. Gasoline fumes help to --------------- the air.
8. The --------------- in the number of people voting in national elections is due to lack of
interest.
9. Some citizens believe that we will never be able to --------------- war.
10. The --------------- of New York City is about eight million people.
11. In the comics, Superman never --------------- his true identity.
12. They needed an --------------- supply of water to last for the entire trip through the
desert.

From the list of 12 new words that follows, choose the one that corresponds to each
definition below.

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ignite abolish urban population

frank pollute reveal prohibit

urgent adequate decrease audible

1. having to do with cities or towns: ---------------


2. make known: ---------------
3. as much as is needed; sufficient: ---------------
4. make dirty: ---------------
5. do away with completely: ---------------
6. make or become less: ---------------
7. free in expressing one's thoughts: ---------------
8. demanding immediate action: ---------------
9. set on fire: ---------------
10. people of a city or country: ---------------
11. able to be heard: ---------------
12. forbid by law or authority: ---------------

146
Unit Twelve
Part C. Grammar

56 Non-count Nouns that Are Count Nouns in Other Language

Remember that many nouns which are count nouns in other languages may be
nouncount noun in English. Some of the most troublesome have been listed for you on
the following page.

advice homework money poetry


anger ignorance music poverty
courage information news progress
damage knowledge patience
equipment leisure permission
fun luck

Noun (noncount)
Did you do your homework

Avoid using a or an before noncount nouns.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: Do you have an information about it?


CORRECT: Do you have information about it?

INCORRECT: Counselors are available to give you an advice before you register for
you classes.
CORRECT: Counselors are available to give you advice before you register for
your classes.

INCORRECT: George had a good luck when he first came to State University.
CORRECT: George had good luck when he first came to State University.

EXERCISES

Part A: choose the correct answer.

Fire-resistant materials are used to retard ______ of modern aircraft in case of


accidents.
(A) a damage to the passenger cabin
(B) that damages to the passenger cabin
(C) damage to the passenger cabin
(D) passenger cabin's damages

147
Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

A progress has been made toward finding a cure for AIDS.


(A) (B) (C) (D)

57 Singular and Plural Expressions of Noncount Nouns

Remember that the following singular and plural expressions are idiomatic:

a piece of advice two pieces of advice


a piece of bread two pieces of bread
a piece of equipment two pieces of equipment
a piece of furniture two pieces of furniture
a piece of information two pieces of information
a piece of jewelry two pieces of jewelry
a piece of luggage two pieces of luggage
a piece of mail two pieces of mail
a piece of music two pieces of music
a piece of news two pieces of news
a piece of toast two pieces of toast
a loaf of bread two loaves of bread
a slice of bread two slices of bread
an ear of corn two ears of corn
a bar of soap two bars of soap
a bolt of lightning two bolts of lightning
a clap of thunder two claps of thunder
a gust of wind two gusts of wind

a singular of noun (noncount)


A folk song is a piece of popular music

number plural of noun (noncount)


I ordered twelve bars of soap

Aovid using the noncount noun without the singular or plural idiom to express a
singular or plural.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: A mail travels faster when the zip code is indicated on the envelope.
CORRECT: A piece of mail travels faster when the zip code is indicated on the
envelope.

148
INCORRECT: There is a limit of two carry-on luggages for each passenger.
CORRECT: There is a limit of two pieces of carry-on luggage for each passenger.

INCORRECT: Each furniture in this display is on sale for half price.


CORRECT: Each piece of furniture in this display is on sale for half price.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

Hybrids have one more ________ per plant than the other varieties.
(A) corns
(B) ear of corn
(C) corn ears
(D) corn's eras
Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

A few tiles on Skylab were the only equipments that failed to perform well
(A) (B) (C) (D)
in outer space.

58 Classifications Kind and Type

Remember that kind and type express classification.

Kinds Noun (plural count)


types of (noncount)
Cable TV has many different Dr. kinds of shows
Parker gives several types of homework

One Kind Noun (singular count)


Type of (noncount)
one kind of show is news
one type of homework is a lab report

Avoid using kind of and type of with a plural count noun. Avoid using kind and
type without of.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: There are four kind of Coke now.


CORRECT: There are four kinds of Coke now.

149
INCORRECT: We saw several kind of birds at the wildlife preserve.
CORRECT: We saw several kinds of birds at the wildlife preserve.

INCORRECT: This exam has two types problems.


CORRECT: This exam has two types of problems.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

According to estimates by some botanists, there are ______.


(A) seven thousand type
(B) seven thousand types
(C) type of seven thousand
(D) type seven thousand

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

One kind of tool that was popular during the Stone Age was a flake, used for
(A) (B) (C) (D)
cutting and scraping.

59 Infinitive and ing Subjects

Remember that either an infinitive or an ing form may be used as the subject of
a sentence or a clause.

S (infinitive) V
To read a foreing language is even more difficult

S (infinitive) V
To read a foreing language is even more difficult

Avoid using a verb word instead of an infinitive or an ing form in the subject.
Avoid using to with an ing form.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: To working provides people with personal satisfaction as well as


money.
CORRECT: To work provides people with personal satisfaction as well as money.

150
or
Working provides people with personal satisfaction as well as money.

INCORRECT: The sneeze spreads germs.


CORRECT: To sneeze spreads germs.
or
Sneezing spreads germs.

INCORRECT: Shoplift is considered a serious crime.


CORRECT: To shoplift is considered a serious crime.
or
Shoplifting is considered a serious crime.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

_____ trees is a custom that many people engage in to celebrate Arbor Day.
(A) The plant
(B) Plant
(C) Planting
(D) To planting

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

Spell correctly is easy with the aid of a number of word processing programs
(A) (B) (C)
for personal computers.
(D)

60 Qualifying Phrases with ing Nouns

Remember that an ing form may be used as a noun. In some grammar books,
this ing form is called a gerund. Remember that ing forms are usually noncount
nouns and that noncount nouns are not preceded by the unless followed by a qualifying
phrase.
We have already classified most ing forms as noncount nouns, but there is one
pattern in which the is used with a noncount ing noun. When a prepositional phrase
qualifies the noun, that is, adds specific information, the may be used with an ing noun
subject.

qualifying phrase
The -ing of noun
The Reading Of technical material Requires knowledge of technical terms

151
EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: Correcting of errors in a language class can be embarrassing.


CORRECT: The correcting of errors in a language class can be embarrassing.

INCORRECT: Writing of letters is an art.


CORRECT: The writing of letters is an art.

INCORRECT: Writing of letters is an art.


CORRECT: The winning of prizes is not as important as playing well.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

_____ is not a new idea.


(A) The planning of cities
(B) Cities to plan them
(C) Plan cities
(D) To planning cities

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

Writing of instructions for computers is called computer programming.


(A) (B) (C) (D)

152
Unit Thirteen
INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES

Before you read, here are some questions to think about.

1. Do you think related languages come from an original parent language?

2. What family does your language come from originally?

3. Is it related to any other lungs? Which ones?

[Languages are divided into families. In other words. related languages come
from a common origin. For example, many of the present-day languages in
Europe, Asia, and America come from a single parent language, Indo-European.
This article comes from a book entitled The Languages of the World by Kenneth
Katzner published in 1975 by Funk & Wagnalls. New York, New York.]
1 The Indo-European family of languages is the world's largest,
embracing most of the languages of Europe. America, and much of Asia.
It includes the two great classical languages of antiquity. Latin and
Greek; the Germanic languages such as English, German. Dutch, and
Swedish; the Romance languages such as Italian, French, Spanish, and
Portuguese; the Celtic languages such as Welsh and Gaelic; the Slavic
languages such as Russian, Polish. Czech, and Serbo-Croatian; the
Baltic languages, Lithuanian and Latvian; the Iranian languages such as
Persian and Pashto; the Indic languages such as Sanskrit and Hindi;
and other miscellaneous languages such as Albanian and Armenian. In
Europe only Basque, Finnish. Estonian, Hungarian. Turkish. and a few
languages of Russia are not of this family; the others have apparently all
descended from an original parent tongue.
2 Who were the original Indo-Europeans and when and where did
they live? Since they left no written documents. which are. after all. the
basis of history, the answers to these questions can be best obtained by
attempting to reconstruct their language. If we may assume that a word
that is similar in most of the Indo-European languages designates a
concept that existed in the original Indo-European society and that. on
the other hand. a word that varies in most Indo-European languages
designates a concept not discovered until later, we may then draw certain
tentative conclusions. It would appear that the Indo-Europeans lived in
a cold northern region; that it was not near the water, but among forests;
that they raised such domestic animals as the sheep. the dog. the cow.
and the horse; that among wild animals they knew the bear and the wolf;

153
and that among metals they probably knew only copper. Many believe
that it was the use of the horse and chariot that enabled them to overrun
such an enormous expanse of territory.
3 The general consensus is that the original Indo-European
civilization developed somewhere in eastern Europe about 3000 RC
About 2500 Rc. it broke up; the people left their homeland and migrated
in many different directions. Some moved into Greece, others made their
way into Italy, others moved through Central Europe until they
ultimately reached the British Isles. Another division headed northward
into Russia, while still another branch crossed Iran and Afghanistan
and eventually reached India. Wherever they settled, the Indo-Europeans
appear to have overcome the local inhabitants and imposed their
language upon them. One must conclude that they were a most
remarkable people.
4 The possibility of so many languages having descended from a
common ancestor was first suggested in 1786, though the similarity of
Sanskrit and Italian was noted as early as the sixteenth century. By 1818
more than fifty separate languages were established as Indo-European;
Albanian was added to the list in 1854 and Armenian in 1875.The total
number of Indo-European speakers is about 1,875,000,000 people,
approximately half the earth's total population.
5 The following table, giving the equivalents of six English words in
numerous languages, will serve to illustrate the basic interrelation of the
Indo-European languages.

Put T for true and F for false statements. Justify your answers.

___ 1. French comes from the Romance subgroup.

___ 2. German is related to the Germanic languages in the same way as Russian is
related to the Romance languages.

___ 3. The two great classical languages of antiquity, Latin & Greek belong to the
world's largest family of languages.

___ 4. Linguists have tried to reconstruct the original Indo-European lang.

___ 5. So many languages descended from a common ancestor.

154
___ 6. By 1818 Albanian was part of fifty separate languages established as Indo-
European.

___ 7. The Indo-European civilization originated in approximately 2500 B.C


somewhere in eastern Europe.

Select the choice that best completes the sentence(s).

1. The passage states that --------.


a. languages of Russia are the subgroups of the world's largest family of language.
b. all present-day languages come from the Indo-European language
c. The Iranian languages belong to the largest lung family in the world.

2. Researchers have obtained information about the original Indo-European language by


--------.
a. looking at existing languages
b. finding some legal documents
c. examining the written reports

3. What do "their" and "them" refer to in "Wherever they settled, the Indo-Europeans
appear to have overcome the local inhabitants and imposed their language upon
them."
a. Indo-Europeans / Indo-Europeans
b. Indo-Europeans/ local inhabitants
c. local inhabitants/ Indo-Europeans

4. According to the passage which of the followings is NOT true about original Indo-
Europeans?
a. They spread over a very large area in great numbers
b. Among animals, they were familiar with sheep and other domestic pets
c. They lived in a forested area having a cold weather

5. The passage indicates that ---------.


a. all languages of Europe and Asia are of Indo-European family
b. we can come to certain conclusions about when and where original Indo-Europeans
lived.
c. what Indo-Europeans found around them in the place where they lived had a great
deal to do with how they tried to live

6. Indo-Europeans were a most remarkable people because ------.


a. wherever they settled, they dominated & imposed their language on local inhabitants
b. they traveled in all directions to new areas
c. their civilization developed some where in Eastern Europe about 300 B.C

155
7. If a word designates a concept that existed in the original Indo-European society, the
word probably --------.
a. is similar in most Indo-European languages
b. varies in most Indo-European languages
c. is used by most Indo-Europeans differently

8. All can be inferred from the passage EXCEPT --------.


a. language is power
b. the world would be better if there were one single lang.
c. related languages come from a common origin.

Answer the following questions orally.


1. How can history be constructed?

2. Why did Indo-European have an enormous expanse of territory?

3. Where did Indo-Europeans migrate about 2500 B.C.?

4. How many people speak Indo-European langs today.

156
Lesson Thirteen
Part B: Vocabulary

journalist famine revive commence

observant identify vessel


migrate

persist hazy gleam editor

1. Journalist: one who writes for, edits, manages, or produces a newspaper or


magazine
a. There were four journalists covering the murder story.
b. Barbara's experience working at a book store wasn't adequate preparation for
becoming a journalist.
c. A journalist must have a comprehensive knowledge of the city where he or she
works.

2. Famine: starvation; great shortage


a. Famine in India caused the death of one tenth of the population.
b. There has been a famine of good writing in the last decade.
c. The rumor of a famine in Europe was purely fiction.

3. Revive: bring back or come back to life or consciousness


a. There is a movement to revive old plays for modern audiences.
b. The nurses tried to revive the heart attack victim.
c. Committees are trying to revive interest in population control.

4. Commence: begin; start


a. Graduation will commence at ten o'clock.
b. Bella hesitated before commencing her speech.
c. The discussion commenced with a report on urban affairs.

5. Observant: quick to notice; watchful


a. We were observant of the conflict between the husband and his wife.
b. Because Cato was observant, he was able to reveal the thief's name.
c. Milt used his excellent vision to be observant of everything in his vicinity.

6. Identify: recognize as being, or show to be, a certain person or thing; prove to


be the same
a. Numerous witnesses identified the butcher as the thief.
b. Mrs. Shaw was able to identify the painting as being hers.
c. With only a quick glimpse, Reggie was able to identify his friend in the crowd.

157
7. Migrate: move from one place to another
a. The fruit pickers migrated to wherever they could find work.
b. Much of our population is constantly migrating to other areas of the country.
c. My grandfather migrated to New York from Italy in 1919.

8. Vessel: a ship; a hollow container; tube containing body fluid


a. The Girl Scouts were permitted a glimpse of the vessel being built when they toured
the Navy Yard.
b. My father burst a blood vessel when he got the bill from the garage.
c. Congress voted to decrease the amount of money being spent on space vessels.

9. Persist: continue firmly; refuse to stop or be changed


a. The humid weather persisted all summer.
b. Would Lorraine's weird behavior persist, we all wondered?
c. Lloyd persisted in exaggerating everything he said.

10. Hazy: misty; smoky; unclear


a. The vicinity of London is known to be hazy.
b. Factories that pollute the air create hazy weather conditions.
c. Although Cora had a great memory, she was unusually hazy about the details of our
meeting on January 16th.

11. Gleam: a flash or beam of light


a. A gleam of light shone through the prison window.
b. The only source of light in the cellar came in the form of a gleam through hole in the wall.
c. My grandmother gets a gleam in her eyes when she sees the twins.

12. Editor: person who prepares a publication; one who corrects manuscript and
helps to improve it
a. The student was proud to be the editor of the school newspaper.
b. Meredith's journalistic knowledge came in handy when he was unexpectedly given
the job of editor of The Bulletin.
c. It is undeniable that the magazine has gotten better since Ellis became editor.

Place one of the new words in each of the blanks below.


1. The wedding will --------------- at eight o'clock.
2. When Abe lost his job, he had to --------------- to a place where he could find work.
3. We could tell Ira was happy by the bright --------------- in his eyes.
4. Because of the ---------------, people were dying in the streets.
5. Many people claim to have seen a ghostly --------------- sailing through the fog.
6. Can you --------------- the flags of all the states in the United States?
7. He was --------------- of all the rules of his religion.
8. The --------------- sent five reporters to cover the big story,
9. They were trying to --------------- interest in old movies.

158
10. The travelers were stupid to --------------- in eating the food after they were told it
was spoiled.
11. --------------- weather kept the pilot from seeing the airfield clearly.
12. The young --------------- applied for his first job at a small newspaper.

159
Unit Thirteen
Part C. Grammar

61 Nominal That Clause

Remember that sometimes the subject of a verb is a single noun. Other times it
is a long noun phrase or a long noun clause.
One example of a long noun clause is the nominal that clause. Like all clauses,
the nominal that clause has a subject and verb. The nominal that clause functions as the
main subject of the main verb which follows it.

Nominal that clauses V


That vitamin C prevents colds is well known

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: That it is that she has known him for a long time influenced her
decision.
CORRECT: That she has known him for a long time influenced her decision.

INCORRECT: It is that we need to move is sure.


CORRECT: That we need to move is sure.

INCORRECT: Is likely that the library is closed.


CORRECT: That the library is closed is likely.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

_____ migrate long distances is well documented.


(A) That it is birds
(B) That birds
(C) Birds that
(D) It is that birds

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

That it is the moon influences only one kind of tide is not generally known.
(A) (B) (C) (D)

160
PROBLEMS WITH DETERMINERS

Determiners are a special kind of adjective. Like other adjectives, determiners


describe nouns. But unlike other adjectives, determiners must agree with the nouns they
describe. In other words, you must know whether the noun is a singular count noun, a
plural count noun, or a noncount noun before you can choose the correct determiner.
The noun determines which adjective form you use.

62 Determiners A and An

Remember that both a and an mean one. They are used before singular count
nouns. A is used before words that begin with a consonant sound. An is used before
words that begin with a vowel sound.

A consonant sound
A foreign student must have an 1-20 form

An Vowel sound
An International student must have an 1-20 form

Avoid confusing vowel and consonant spellings with vowel and consonant
sounds. U is a vowel spelling, but it has the consonant sound Y in words like use,
universal, usual, etc. H is a consonant spelling, that has a vowel sound in words like
hour and honor, but not in words like history and honor.

EXAMPLES
INCORRECT: It is a big decision to choose an university.
CORRECT: it is a big decision to choose a university.

INCORRECT: Do you have an use for this empty box?


CORRECT: Do you have a use for this empty box?

INCORRECT: Chemistry 100H is a honors section.


CORRECT: Chemistry 100H is an honors section.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

Sunspots are known to cause ______ enormous increase in the intensity of the sun's
electromagnetic radiation.
(A) an
(B) a
(C) some

161
(D) one
Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

Although almost all insects have six legs a immature insect may not have
(A) (B) (C) (D)
any.
63 Noncount Nouns with Qualifying Phrases - The

Remember the is used with count nouns. You have also learned that the can be
used before an ing noun that is followed by a qualifying phrase.
In addition, the can be used before a noncount noun with a qualifying phrase.

The Noncount noun Qualifying Phrase


The art of the Middle Ages in on diplay

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: Poetry of Carl Sandburg is being read at the student union on Friday.
CORRECT: The poetry of Carl Sandburg is being read at the student union on
Friday.

INCORRECT: Poverty of people in the rural areas is not as visible as that of people
in the city.
CORRECT: The poverty of people in the rural areas is not as visible as that of
people in the city.

INCORRECT: Science of genetic engineering is not very old.


CORRECT: The Science of genetic engineering is not very old.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

_____ of Country- Western singers may be related to old English ballads.


(A) The musi
(B) Music
(C) their music
(D) Musics

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

Philosophy of the ancient Greeks has been preserved in the scholarly writing
(A) (B) (C)
of Western civilization.
(D)

162
64 Meaning All

Remember that no article () before a noncount or a plural count noun has the
same meaning as all.

all noun (noncount) verb (singular)



All art is Interesting
Art is interesting

all noun (count-plural) verb (plural)



All trees prevent erosion
trees prevent erosion

Avoid using the before the noun to express all.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: The dormitories are noisy


CORRECT: Dormitories are noisy
(all dormitories)

INCORRECT: The convenience stores have high prices.


CORRECT: Convenience stores have high prices.
(all convenience stores)

INCORRECT: I like the music.


CORRECT: I like music.
(all music)

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer

_______ is an ancient source of energy.


(A) The wind
(B) Winds
(C) Wind
(D) A wind

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

163
The soil is composed of a mixture of organic matter called humus and
(A) (B) (C) (D)
inorganic matter derived from rocks.

65 No Meaning Not Any

Remember that no means not any. It may be used with a singular or plural count
noun of with a noncount noun.

no noun (count singular) verb (singular)


noun (count plural) verb (plural)
No tree grows above the tree line
No trees grow above the tree lime

no noun (noncount) verb (singular)


No art is on display today

Avoid using the negatives not or none instead of no Avoid using a singular verb
with a plural count noun.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: There is not reason to worry.


CORRECT: There is no reason to worry.

INCORRECT: None news is good news


CORRECT: No news is good news

INCORRECT: We have not a file under the name wagner.


CORRECT: We have no file under the name Wagner.
EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

At Woolworth's first five-and-ten-cent store, _______ more than a dime.


(A) neither items cost
(B) items nto cost
(C) items none costing
(D) no item cost

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

Some religions have none deity but are philosophies that function instead of
(A) (B) (C) (D)
religions.

164
Unit Fourteen
THE HEALING POWER OF BELIEF

Before you read, here are some questions to think about.

1. Have you ever been close to death?

2. Do you know why some patients respond better to treatment than others do?

3. What do you know about the power of belief?

4. What is the role of faith, hope and will to live in recovery & healing?

5. Do you think the mind can control the body?

6. Which one is more important? Medical treatment or strong will to live.

[The medical profession is beginning to learn that what people believe strongly
affects their state of being. Here's a report by an expert who has been studying the
mind-body effect at the UCLA (University of California in Los Angeles) medical
school. Norman Cousins is the author of Human Options, from which this article
was drawn. Human Options was published by W. W. Norton &Co., Inc. in 1982.]
1 For the past two years, I have been studying cancer survivors at
UCLA, trying to find out why it is that some people respond much better
to their treatment than do others. At first I thought that some patients did
well because their illnesses were not as severe as the illnesses of others.
On closer scrutiny, however, I discovered that severity of the illness was
only one of a number of factors that accounted for the difference
between those who get well and those who don't. The patients I am
talking about here received upon diagnosis whatever therapy-medication,
radiation, surgery-their individual cases demanded. Yet the response to such treatments
was hardly uniform. Some patients fared much better in their therapies than others.
2 What was it, then, that was different? Was there anyone thing that
all survivors had in common? Yes. I have found that the major
characteristics of these survivors were very similar. Among the similarities
are~ .They all had a strong . will to live. They were not panicky about their illness.
They had confidence in their ability to persevere.
Despite all the forecasts to the contrary, they believed they could
make it.
They were capable of joyous response. They were convinced that their treatment would

165
work.
Annie's story
3 One woman with whom I worked closely is perhaps symbolic of
the entire group. Let's call her Annie. Her illness was diagnosed as
cancer of the liver. An exploratory operation convinced the surgeons
that the disease was too far along to be treated by any known means. But
Annie, far from being discouraged or depressed by this verdict, was
absolutely determined to overcome her illness. She decided to fight with
all of her powers of mind and body. Her family physician was so
impressed with her spirit that he felt the dismal prediction of the
specialists ought not to preclude further efforts. Very supportive, he
encouraged Annie to see a surgeon in Houston who had a high record of
success with patients who had a strong will to live and a confident
attitude. The surgeon's name was John Stehlin.
4 Annie went to Houston and was interviewed by Dr. Stehlin. She
visited the floorin St. Joseph's Hospital where Dr. Stehlin's patients were
cared for. Instead of a gloomy white hospital setting, she found a
cheerful. animated, attractive series of rooms, the largest of which was
called the Living Room. It was equipped with easy chairs, reading
corners, and alcoves for audio-video machines, containing a large array
of tape cassettes of some of the funniest motion pictures ever produced.
Or, Stehlin installed the sets and obtained the cassettes aftefreading an
article I wrote for the New England Journal of Medicine on the
therapeutic value of laughter, He had always believed that hopefulness
and laughter go together. People who are capable of experiencing joy, he
discovered, were much better candidates for successful surgery and
therapy than those who were morbid and apprehensive.
5 After spending only 15 minutes with Dr. Stehlin, Annie felt
uplifted and thrilled by the atmosphere of the place, She met with
patients who had come through even greater ordeals than her own. Dr.
Stehlin examined Annie and studied her medical record. Then he told
her he would be willing to operate and give her the best possible carebut
only if she had complete confidence in herself, in him, and in the
operation. 'He suggested that she return home to think about it.
6 Annie did, but there wasn't much to think about. She was eager to
proceed. When she returned to Houston, it was obvious to Dr. Stehlin
that she was strongly motivated. He operated and removed 70 percent of
her liver. Nevertheless, Annie's convalescence at St. Joseph's was rapid.
She was caught up in a powerful, affirmative atmosphere. Today, three
years later, she is active and free of symptoms. Annie and Dr. Stehlin
know the odds are that there are probably other pockets of cancer

166
throughout her body. But her condition has stabilized. She is a happy,
functioning human being.
Powers of the mind
7 At the School of Medicine of the University of California, Los
Angeles, I have been trying to find out if emotions affect the chemistry of
the human body. For several decades, the term "psychosomatic" has
been in general use. It means mind-body relationship. But the precise
way the mind affects the body has not been clearly defined. As the result of recent
research, however, it is possible to say that specific changes take place throughout
the body as the result of human attitudes.
8 Indeed, Dr. Richard Bergland, a brain researcher at the Harvard
Medical School, has written a paper suggesting that the human brain is basically a
gland. Building on this view, Dr. Carmine Clemente, director of the Brain Research
Institute at UCLA, has been looking into the secretions of the brain. He has
estimated that there may be thousands of such secretions-all of which play a part in
the functioning of the body.
9 What to me is most fascinating of all about these secretions is that
they are not locked away or completely removed from the conscious intelligence. It is
true that the mind has no ongoing awareness of the numberless functions generated
by the brain-the beating of the heart, the actions of the nerve cells, the functions of
all the glands. But the fact that we have no direct knowledge of these functions as
they occur does not mean that we are barred from any supervision over them. The
significance of biofeedback-a term used to describe the ability of the mind to enter
into the workings of the body-is that human beings may actually be able to exert
increasing control over themselves and may be able to play an important role in
overcoming illness.
10 Numerous medical reports now cite instances in which individuals have been able to
direct their bodies in ways generally believed to be beyond the reach of the
conscious intelligence. At the UCLA School of Medicine, I witnessed a
demonstration in which a man controlled his own heartbeat. He could speed it up or
slow it almost to a stop merely by concentrating. Such a performance is not
unknown in Eastern cultures, but it was startling, to say the least, to see such a
demonstration in an American medical school, with a dozen or more physicians as
fascinated observers of this use of biofeedback. Patients are using biofeedback
techniques at the Menninger Foundation in Topeka, Kansas, and at other medical
centers as a means of relieving their migraine headaches or lowering their blood
pressure. The evidence is incontrovertible that chemical changes take place in the
body as a result of mental functions or moods.
The placebo effect
11 This mind-body effect should not be surprising in view of the
experience over the years with placebos. The term "placebo" is used to describe a "pill"
that contains no medical ingredients but that often produces the same effect as
genuine medication. Placebos provide ample proof that expectations can have an
effect on body chemistry. According to a recent article on placebos in Medical
World News, studies conducted over the past 25 years have shown that placebos
satisfactorily relieved symptoms in an average of 35 percent of patients tested.
These symptoms include fever, severe postoperative pain, anginal pain, headache,

167
and anxiety, among other complaints. The explanation for this strange phenomenon
is that the human mind can create actual
changes in body chemistry as a result of what it believes. If, for example, a
person believes that a certain medication contains a substance that can
accomplish a specific need, the body tends to move in that direction.
12 An increasing number of scientists now contend that the body's
healing system and its belief system are closely related. That is why hope,
faith, and the will to live can be vital factors in the war against disease.
The belief system converts positive expectations into plus factors in any
contest against illness.
A doctor's best medicine
13 Another crucial factor that influences the system of belief and
healing is the attitude of the physician. One of a doctor's main functions
is to engage to the fullest the patient's own ability to mobilize the forces
of mind and body in turning back disease. The patient's belief in the
judgment and healing power of the physician is often, more important
than the treatment itself in reversing the course of the illness. Dr. Herbert
Benson, an associate professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School
and author of The Mind-Body Effect, believes that a doctor's "caring"
about his or her patient causes specific physiological improvement. In
Annie's case, for example, she had a very supportive family physician
plus the enlightened Or. Stehlin, who was very aware that encouragement
and a positive attitude can be all-important.
14 People who are seriously ill need to believe that they have a
chance. They respond not just to the doctor's attitude but to the mood of
the people very close to them. If hope is missing from the eyes and from
the voices of their families, the absence will be felt. I feel that in the
future there will be more and more programs in which caring
professionals will help patients and their families to cope and to support
the ill person and each other.
The positive effects of laughter
15 It makes no sense to believe that only the negative emotions have
an effect on the body's chemistry. Every emotion, negative or positive,
makes its registrations on the body's systems. When I was ill, I read every
humorous book I could get my hands on. My goal was to be uplifted and
relieved of worry and panic through laughter. That's why Dr. Stehlin
uses comic films as part of his therapy. Illness is not a laughing matter,
but perhaps it ought to be. Laughter is a form of internal jogging. It
moves the organs around. It enhances respiration. It is an igniter of great
expectations.
16 Through my studies at the medical school and from my own
experience, I have learned that one of the prime elements of human

168
uniqueness is the ability to create and exercise new options. What an
individual decides to do with his or her life; what a person believes or
doesn't believe about the great mysteries of life; how people go about
fulfilling their individual and collective needs and desires-all these
involve options. Protecting arid cherishing our right to exercise these
options may well represent the finest example of true human freedom.
17 We must learn never to underestimate the capacity of the human
mind and body to regenerate-even when the prospects seem most
wretched. The life-force may be the least understood force on earth. The
eminent psychologist and philosopher William lames said that human
beings tend to live too much within self-imposed limits. It is possible that
these limits will recede when we respect more fully the natural drive of
the human mind and body toward perfectibility and regeneration.
18 The most important thing I have learned about the power of belief
is that an individual patient's attitude toward serious illness can be as
important as medical help. It would be a serious mistake to bypass or
minimize the need for scientific treatment, but that treatment will be far
more effective if people put their creative hopes, their faith, and their
confidence fully to work in behalf of their recovery.

Put T for true and F for false statements. Justify your answers.

___ 1. Severity of the illness was the only factor that accounted for the difference
between those who get well and those who don't.

___ 2. Annie has never lost hope even when the odds have been against her.

___ 3. Medical treatment is not necessary if a patient has creature hopes to live.

___ 4. There is no evidence to suggest that the mind causes chemical changes in the
body.

___ 5. The placebo effect is important because it shows the power of the mind's
expectations over body chemistry.

___ 6. Human beings may be able to exert control over the secretions of the brains.

___ 7. A person can direct his body in ways believed to be beyond the reach of the
conscious intelligence.

169
___ 8. The human mind & body have a great capacity to regenerate.

Select the choice that best completes the sentence(s).

1. Receiving upon diagnosis whatever therapy-medication, radiation, surgery


------------.
a. some patients fared better in treatment than others do
b. all patients had uniform reactions to such treatment.
c. No patient were panicky about their illness.

2. The passage states that Annie ----------.


a. felt completely overcome by her illness
b. was discouraged by the results of the exploratory surgery
c. decided to overcome her illness with her power of mind

3. Which one is NOT correct about Dr. Stalin? Dr. Stalin ---------.
a. believed in a close relationship between hopefulness and laughter
b. discovered whether or not a person experiences joy is effective in successful surgery
c. wrote an article for the New English Journal of Medicine on therapeutic value of
laughter.

4. It can not be inferred from the sentence "hop, faith & the will to live can be vital
factors in the war against disease" that --------.
a. medical help is the most important factor in behalf of a patient's recovery
b. body's healing system and its belief are closely related
c. the patient can mobilize the forces of mind and body in any contest against illness.

5. Our mind has neither direct knowledge of the numberless functions nor ------.
a. power to enter into the workings of the body
b. a continuing awareness of all functions generated by the brain
c. an important role in overcoming illness.

6. What does this passage states about laughter?


a. Illness ought not be considered as a laughing matter.
b. People can be uplifted & relieve of panic by laughing
c. Laughton has no effect on the body's chemistry

7. The sentence "Some patients with serious illness recover completely despite the
medical prognosis" indicates that ---------.
a. some specialists were wrong in their diagnosis and that the disease was not as
advanced as they said
b. there is no place for treatments when dealing with serious illness
c. people have the ability to create new options & fulfill their needs & desires

170
8. According to the passage if you were seriously ill, ---------.
a. remain cheerful & not give into morbid thought
b. get the best medical treatment available
c. try to have a technically skilled physician

Answer the following questions orally.


1. What were the major characteristics of survivors?

2. What was St. Joseph's hospital like?

3. What is the role of doctor's "caring" in the system of healing?

171
Lesson Fourteen
Part B: Vocabulary

unruly rival violent brutal

opponent brawl duplicate vicious

whirling underdog thrust bewildered

1. Unruly: hard to rule or control; lawless


a. Unruly behavior is prohibited at the pool.
b. When he persisted in acting unruly, Ralph was fired from his job.
c. His unruly actions were a menace to those who were trying to work.

2. Rival: person who wants and tries to get the same thing as another; one who
tries to equal or do better than another
a. The boxer devised an attack that would help him to be victorious over his young rival.
b. Sherry didn't like to compete because she always thought her rival would win.
c. Seidman and Son decided to migrate to an area where they would have fewer rivals.

3. Violent: acting or done with strong, rough force


a. Carefully, very carefully, we approached the violent man.
b. Violent behavior is prohibited on school grounds.
c. Vernon had a tendency to be violent when someone angered him.

4. Brutal: coarse and savage; like a brute; cruel


a. Dozens of employees quit the job because the boss was brutal to them.
b. The brutal track coach persisted in making the team work out all morning under
the hot sun.
c. Swearing to catch the murderer, the detectives revealed that it had been an
unusually brutal, violent crime.
|
5. Opponent: person who is on the other side of a fight, game, or discussion;
person fighting, struggling or speaking against another
a. The Russian chess player underestimated his opponent and lost.
b. He was a bitter opponent of costly urban reform.
c. Seeing his flabby opponent, Slugger was sure he would be victorious.

6. Brawl: a noisy quarrel or fight


a. The journalist covered all the details of the brawl in the park.
b. Larry dreaded a brawl with his father over finding a job.
c. What started out as a polite discussion soon became a violent brawl.

7. Duplicate: an exact copy; make an exact copy of; repeat exactly


a. Elliott tried to deceive Mrs. Held by making a duplicate of my paper.
b. We duplicated the document so that everyone had a copy to study.

172
c. The so-called expert did a mediocre job of duplicating the Van Gogh painting.

8. Vicious: evil; wicked; savage


a. Liza was unpopular because she was vicious to people she had just met.
b. The vicious editor published false stories about people he disliked.
c. Mr. Voss was reluctant to talk about his vicious pit bull.

9. Whirling: turning or swinging round and round; spinning


a. The space vessel was whirling around before it landed on earth.
b. As they tried to lift the bulky piano, the movers went whirling across the living
room.
c. Because Angelo drove too much, he commenced to feel that everything was whirling
around his head.

10. Underdog: person having the worst of any struggle; one who is expected to
lose
a. Minority groups complain about being the underdogs in this century.
b. I always feel sorry for the underdog in a street fight.
c. The Jets were identified as underdogs even though they had beaten the Los Angeles
Rams earlier in the season.

11. Thrust: push with force


a. Once the jet engine was ignited, it thrust the rocket from the ground.
b. He had adequate strength to thrust himself through the locked door.
c. Eva was in a terrible rage when she thrust herself into the room.

12. Bewildered: confused completely; puzzled


a. The lawyer was bewildered by his client's lack of interest in the case.
b. His partner's weird actions left Jack bewildered.
c. Bewildered by the sudden hazy weather, he decided not to go to the beach.

Place one of the new words in each of the blanks below.


1. Rory was thrown out of school because of his ----------------- behavior.
2. The ----------------- lion attacked the lost child in the forest.
3. They had a ----------------- over who was a better swimmer.
4. The magician ----------------- his hand into his hat, and out came a rabbit.
5. A man was caught trying to ----------------- documents that were top secret.
6. His ----------------- was a man who was trying to win the heart of his girl.
7. The experienced chess player tried to keep his ----------------- guessing.
8. The boy was ----------------- by the fact that his parents had abandoned him.
9. Whenever the skinny boy got into a fight he was the -----------------.
10. When some animals aren't fed on time they become very -----------------.
11. The ball was hit so hard that it went ----------------- down the field.
12. Five hundred men were killed in that ----------------- battle.

173
Unit Fourteen
Part C. Grammar

66 One of the and Some of the

Remember that one means one of a group. Some means several of a group.

one of the noun (count plural) verb (singular)


One of the trees is dead

Some of the noun (count plural) verb (plural)


Some of the trees are dead

Some of the noun (count plural) verb (singular)


Some of the art is in the museum

Avoid using one of the or some of the with a singular count noun or one of the
with a noncount noun. Avoid using a plural verb with one of the.

EXMPLES

INCORRECT: Some of the parking space at the back are empty.


CORRECT: Some of the parking spaces at the back are empty.

INCORRECT: One of the major field of study that Laura is considering is nursing.
CORRECT: One of the major fields of study that Laura is considering is nursing.
INCORRECT: One of my friends are in the hospital.
CORRECT: One of my friends is in the hospital.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

One of _______ of the late Middle Ages was Saint Thomas Aquinas, a scholar who
studied under Albertus Magnus.
(A) the thinkers who was great
(B) the great thinker
(C) the greatest thinkers
(D) who thought greatly

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

One of the primary cause of accidents in coal mines is the accumulation of


(A) (B) (C)
gas.
(D)

174
67 Few and Little

Remember that few and little have the same meaning, but few is used before
plural count nouns and little is used before noncount nouns.

Few Noun (count)


Few reference books may be checked out

Avoid using a noncount noun instead of a count noun after few.

little noun (nonecount)


Before he came to the U.S. he had done Little traveling

Avoid using a count noun instead of a noncount noun after little.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: Professor Stone keeps little chairs in his office because he doesn't
have room for many.
CORRECT: Professor Stone keeps few chairs in his office because he doesn't have
room for many.

INCORRECT: John has very little friends.


CORRECT: John has very few friends.

INCORRECT: There is few time to waste.


CORRECT: There is little time to waste.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

Although southern California is densely populated, ______ live in the northern part of
the state.
(A) a little people
(B) few people
(C) few people
(D) a little of people

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

Unless one subscribes to a large metropolitan newspaper such as the Wall


(A) (B)
Street, or the Washington Post, one will find very few news from abroad.
(C ) (D)

175
68 Much and Many

Remember that many and much have the same meaning, but any is used before
plural count nouns and much is used before noncount nouns.

Many Noun (count-plural)


There are Many Television program For children on Saturday

Avoid using a noncount noun instead of a plural count noun after many.

Much noun (noncount)


We don't have Many Information

Avoid using a count noun instead of a noncount noun after much.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: The letter was short because there wasn't many news.
CORRECT: The letter was short because there wasn't much news.

INCORRECT: Peter and Carol don't have much children.


CORRECT: Peter and Carol don't have many children.

INCORRECT: How much years have you been living in Texas?


CORRECT: How many have you been living in Texas.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

Although the Ojibwa Indians fought frequently with the Sioux, they didn't have
_______ with early white settlers.
(A) white settlers.
(B) much contact
(C) lots contact
(D) large contact

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

Many heavy work that was once done by hand can now be done more easily
(A) (B) (C) (D)
with the help of compressed air.

176
69 A Little and Little
A Few and Few

Remember this story in English:


There were two men. Each man ha hall a cup of happiness. One men said,
"How sad I have little happiness." The other man said, "How wonderful I have a little
happiness." The difference between little and a little is the point of view. Little or few
means not a lot. A little or a few means some.

a little noun (noncount)


little
we have a little time
we have little time

a few noun (count-plural)


few
we made a few mistakes
we made a few mistakes

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: Give me little butter, please.


CORRECT: Give me a little butter, please.

INCORRECT: We have a little news about the plane crash.


CORRECT: We have little news about the plane crash.
(not much)

INCORRECT: There are few tickets left for the concert.


CORRECT: There are a few tickets left for the concert.

Note: All of the sentences in this problem are grammatically correct, but only
the sentences marked correct express the meanings in parentheses

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

_____ is currently available to researchers and physicians who study and treat
acromegaly, a glandular disorder characterized by enlargement and obesity.
(A) The little information
(B) Few information
(C) Little information
(D) A few information

177
Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

When there is a few money remaining after all expenses have been paid, we
(A) (B) (C)
say that a small economic surplus or profit has been created.
(D)

70 Only a Few and Only a Little

Remember that only a few and only a little have the same meaning, but only a
few is used before a plural count noun and only a little is used before a noncount noun.

only a few noun (count plural)


only a few dollars have been budgeed for supplies

Avoid using few instead of a few after only.

only a little noun (count plural)


We have only a little homework for Monday

Avoid using little instead of a little after only.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: Only a little students are lazy.


CORRECT: Only a few students are lazy.

INCORRECT: Tom took only few picutres.


CORRECT: Tom took only a few pictures.

INCORRECT: We will need only a few food for the picnic,


CORRECT: We will need only a little food for the picnic.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

_____ can be grown on arid land.


(A) Only a few crops
(B) Only few crop
(C) Only a little crops
(D) Only little crop

178
Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

Only a little early scientists, among them Bacon, Copernicus, and Bruno,
(A) (B) (C)
believed that the principles underlying the physical world could be discovered
(D)
and understood through careful observation and analysis.

179
Unit Fifteen
Motherhood in Changing World: Women in Ghana

Most women in Ghana- the educated and illiterate, the urban and rural, the
young and old- work to earn an income in addition to maintaining their roles as
housewives and mothers. Their reputation for economic independence, self-
reliance, and hard work is well-known and well-deserved.
Most of Ghana's working women are farmers and traders. Only one woman in
five, or even fewer, can be classified as simply housewives. Even these women
often earn money by sewing or by baking and cooking things to sell. They also
maintain vegetable gardens and chicken farms. The woman who depends entirely
upon her husband for her support is looked upon with disfavor.
Nine out of ten women fifteen years of age and over are married. Women say
they would like to have six or more children, and in fact an average of seven
children is born to every woman. In short, the normal life pattern for most
Ghanaian women is to combine an active role in the economy with an active role as
wife and mother of a large family.
How do these working mothers cope with their multiple responsibilities in the
home and on the job? Traditionally the tasks of motherhood have been shared.
Mothers and sisters, grandmothers and nieces all helped to raise children and to
carry out daily tasks, including housework, trading and farming activities. As the
family grew, older brothers and sisters also helped to care for the younger ones and
helped in the home.
Today with more children going to school, with more people moving away
from their traditional homes where support from their family would be provided,
how can the mother cope with her many responsibilities? Not only must she
continue her income-producing activities, but she must take on such heavy, time-
consuming housework as carrying water and firewood, grinding and pounding,
along with her frequent burden of pregnancy, nursing, baby and child care.
Some new ideas are being tried. One of these is family planning to help
reduce family size. Another helpful solution is the day care center, but this is
available mainly in urban areas and usually the fees are too high for the poor.
Ghanaians realize that more day care centers are needed. Ghana today is looking

180
for new ways to meet the needs of women and their families so women can
continue to play their multiple roles in the home and in the country.
I. True/False/Not Stated
___ 1. Women are hard-workers in Ghana.
___ 2. Women dislike having many children in Ghana, and they welcome family
planning.
___ 3. Women cope with their multiple-choice responsibilities alone.
___ 4. Today in Ghana, women face new problems.
___ 5. In general, the author praises women in Ghana.
II. Choose the best answer.
1. What does the first paragraph mainly discuss?
a. Only young women work
b. Women of any kind do work
c. Husbands do no allow women to work
d. Most women are dependant on their husbands

2. In paragraph 1, "self-reliance" means ----------.


a. depending on the people b. respecting by people
c. having confidence d. knowing the two roles

3. What is the main idea of paragraph 2?


a. Both working and non-working women earn money
b. Most non-working women do not like to earn money
c. One woman out of five is a housewife
d. Only a few women prefer to work

4. What kind of women, do the Ghanaians prefer? The women who -----.
a. only sew and bake
b. work to earn money
c. is young
d. is dependant economically

5. By what age are most Ghanaian women married?


a. 15 b. 10
c. 16 d. 7

6. The text says women in Ghana ----------


a. are economically dependent upon their husbands
b. are not reputable economically
c. are economically independent

181
d. are rich

7. Normal life pattern for most Ghanaian women is ---------.


a. an active role in the economy
b. an active role as wife
c. to use an active role as wife and mother
d. to be in the home and on the job

8. According to the text in Ghana society women ---------.


a. work as slaves b. work hard and are respected
c. work hard and are insulted d. do not work at all

9. Family planning in Ghana --------.


a. is hated b. is not executed yet but proposed
c. is favorite d. is executed

10. Traditionally women in Ghana cope with their motherhood responsibility-------


-.
a. alone by themselves b. by the help of their family
c. by employing others d. by the husbands

III. Answer the questions orally.

1. What is the reason behind the reputation of the Ghanaian women?


2. What are most of Ghana's working women's jobs?
3. Which woman in Ghana is looked upon with disfavor?
4. Why can not women today cope with their multiple responsibilities?
5. What new ideas are being tried for their problems?

182
183
Lesson Fifteen
Part B: Vocabulary

expand alter mature sacred

revise pledge casual pursue

unanimous fortunate pioneer innovative

1. Expand: increase in size; enlarge; swell


a. We will expand our business as soon as we locate a new building.
b. Present laws against people who pollute the air must be expanded.
c. Expanding the comic strips, the editor hoped that more people would buy his paper.

2. Alter: make different; change; vary


a. I altered my typical lunch and had a steak instead.
b. Dorothy agreed to alter my dress if I would reveal its cost to her.
c. It's absurd to spend money to alter that old candy store.

3. Mature: ripe; fully grown or developed


a. I could tell that Mitch was mature from the way he persisted in his work.
b. Only through mature study habits can a person hope to gain knowledge.
c. It is essential that you behave in a mature way in the business world.

4. Sacred: worthy of respect; holy


a. Her sacred medal had to be sold because the family was in urgent need of money.
b. It was revealed by the journalist that the sacred temple had been torn down.
c. Kate made a sacred promise to her parents never to miss a Sunday church service.

5. Revise: change; alter; bring up to date


a. My family revised its weekend plans when the weather turned hazy.
b. The dictionary was revised and then published in a more expensive edition.
c. Under the revised rules, Shane was eliminated from competing.

6. Pledge: promise
a. Before the grand jury, the sinister gangster pledged to tell the whole truth.
b. Monte was reluctant to pledge his loyalty to his new girlfriend.
c. Pledged to discovering the facts, the journalist began to dig up new evidence for his
readers.

7. Casual: happening by chance; not planned or expected; not calling attention to


itself
a. As the villain stole the money from the blind man, he walked away in a casual manner.
b. The modertaor made a casual remark about the brawl in the backroom.
c. Following a casual meeting on the street, the bachelor renewed his friendship with the

184
widow.

8. Pursue: follow; proceed along


a. We pursued the bicycle thief until he vanished from our vision.
b. Ernie rowed up the river, pursuing it to its source.
c. The senior wanted to pursue urban affairs as his life's work.

9. Unanimous: in complete agreement


a. The class was unanimous in wanting to eliminate study halls.
b. There has never been an election in our union that was won by a unanimous vote.
c. The Senate, by a unanimous vote, decided to decrease taxes.

10. Fortunate: having good luck; lucky


a. Wesley was fortunate to have an adequate sum of money in the bank.
b. It is fortunate that the famine did not affect our village.
c. The underdog was fortunate enough to come out a winner.

11. Pioneer: one who goes first or prepares a way for others
a. My grandfather was a pioneer in selling wholesale products.
b. England was a pioneer in building large vessels for tourists.
c. In the fourth grade, I assembled a picture collection of great America pioneers.

12. Innovative: fresh; clever; having new ideas


a. The innovative ads for the candy won many new customers.
b. Everyone in our office praised the boss for his innovative suggestions.
c. Nicole decided to alter her approach and become more innovative.

Place one of the new words in each of the blanks below.


1. Dominick was ---------------- to have such good friends.
2. Rhonda didn't believe in divorce because she felt that marriage is ----------------.
3. The pilot had to ---------------- his course when he ran into bad weather.
4. Everyone approved of Dave's ---------------- proposal.
5. David wanted to ---------------- medicine as a career.
6. He moved out of the house when he became a.
7. The vote to make Jim president of the camera club was ---------------- young man.
8. When his mother died of cancer, the young doctor decided to ---------------- his life to
finding a cure for it.
9. They had to ---------------- their plans when a third person decided to join them for lunch.
10. My grandfather was a ---------------- in the field of sports medicine.
11. The relaxed friends spoke in a ---------------- manner as they talked on the street.
12. I can feel my stomach ---------------- when I breathe deeply.

185
Unit Fifteen
Part C. Grammar
71 A Large (Small) Number of and a Large (Small) amount of

Remember that a large (small) number of and a large (small) amount of have the
same meaning but a large (small) number of is used before a plural count noun and a
large (small) amount of is used before a noncount noun.

Large
A number of
small Noun (count-plural)
A large number of students from other countries attend
Sate University

Large
A amount of
small Noun (noncount)
A small amount of rain is expected tomorrow

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: You will just need a small number of clothing to go to college because
the lifestyles is very informal.
CORRECT: You will just need a small amount of clothing to go college because
the lifestyle is very informal.

INCORRECT: There are a small amount of Chinese restaurants in the city.


CORRECT: There are a small number of Chinese restaurants in the city.

INCORRECT: We don't have time for a large amount of interruptions.


CORRECT: We don't have time for a large number of interruptions.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

Only ______ of the breeds of cattle have been brought to the United States.
(A) a small amount
(B) a little amount
(C) a small number
(D) a little number

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

The amount of books in the Library of Congress is more than 58 million


(A) (B) (C) (D)
volumes.

186
72 Almost All of the and Most of the

Remember that all of the and most of the mean all except a few, but almost all of
the includes more.

Almost all (of the) most (of


the) Noun (count-plural) Verb (plural)
Almost all (of the) Most (of trees in our yard trees are oaks
the) are oaks

Almost all (of the)


most (of the) Noun (count-plural) Verb (plural)
Almost all (of the) trees in our yard trees are oaks
Most (of the) are oaks

Avoid using almost without all or of the. Avoid using most of without the.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: Almost the states have a sales tax.


CORRECT: Almost all of the states have a sales tax.

Almost all states have a sales tax.


or
Most of the states have a sales tax.
or
Most states have a sales tax.
INCORRECT: Most of teachers at State University care about their students'
progress.
CORRECT: Almost all of the teachers at State University care about their
students' progress.
or
Almost all teachers at State University care about their students'
progress.
or
Most of the teachers at State University care about their students'
progress.
or
Most teachers at State University care about their students' progress.

INCORRECT: My cousin told me that most of people who won the lottery got only a
few dollars, not the grand prize.
CORRECT: My cousin told me that almost all of the people who won the lottery
got only a few dollars, not the grand prize.
or

187
My cousin told me that almost all people who won the lottery got
only a few dollars, not the grand prize.
or
My cousin told me that most of the people who won the lottery got
only a few dollars, not the grand prize.
or
My cousin told me that most people who won the lottery got only a
few dollars, not the grand prize.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

_____ fuel that is used today is a chemical form of solar energy.


(A) Most of
(B) The most
(C) Most
(D) Almost the

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

Almost the plants known to us are made up of a great many cells, specialized
(A) (B) (C)
to perform different tasks.
(D)

PROBLEMS WITH OTHER ADJECTIVES

Besides determiners that express number and amount, there are adjectives and
adjective-related structures that express sufficiency, consecutive order, quality, and
emphasis.
Adjectives usually do not change to agree with the noun that they modify.

73 Sufficiency-Enough with Nouns

Remember that enough means sufficient, it can be used before or after a plural
count noun or a noncount noun.

noun (count-plural)
noun (noncount)
We have enough tickets
We have enough time

188
noun (count-plural)
noun (noncount) enough
We have Tickets enough
We have Time enough

Avoid using as and the with enough. Avoid using a singular count noun instead
of a plural count noun.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: There aren't enough car for all of us to go.


CORRECT: There aren't enough car for all of us to go.
or
There aren't cars enough for all of us to go.

INCORRECT: Without enough the sleep, you won't be able to do well on the
examination.
CORRECT: Without enough sleep, you won't be able to do well on the
examination.
or
Without sleep enough, you won't be able to do well on the
examination.

INCORRECT: Do we have hamburgers enough as for the party?


CORRECT: Do we have enough hamburgers for the party?
or
Do we have hamburgers enough for the party?

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

When your body does not get _____, it cannot make the glucose it needs.
(A) enough food
(B) food as enough
(C) food enoughly
(D) enough the food

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

As soon as the company has as enough earnings to make up for a bad year, the
(A) (B) (C)
stockholders of cumulative preferred stock receive dividends for the bad year as well
(D)

189
74 Sufficiency-Enough with adjectives

Remember that enough with a adjectives means sufficiently.

S V adjective enough infinitive


It is warm enough to go swimming

S V not enough infinitive


It is Not enough to go swimming

Avoid using enough before he adjective instead of after it. Avoid using as
between enough and the infinitive.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: Her little car isn't big enough as to seat more than two people
comfortably.
CORRECT: Her little car isn't big enough to seat more than two people
comfortably.

INCORRECT: That excuse isn't enough good.


CORRECT: That excuse isn't good enough.

INCORRECT: He should be as strong enough to get out of bed in a few days.


CORRECT: He should be strong enough to get out of bed in a few days.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

The definitions for "gram calories" or "calories" are _______ for most engineering
work.
(A) accurate as enough
(B) enough accurate
(C) accurate enough
(D) as accurate enough

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

Most large corporations provide pension plans for their employees so that they will be
secure enough than to live comfortably during their retirement.

190
75 Consecutive Order One, Another, the Other

Remember that one, another, and the other are used before or instead of singular
count nouns. When they are used before singular count nouns, they are adjectives.
When they are used instead of singular count nouns, they are pronouns.
One, another, and the other organize three nouns consecutively. One and the
other organize two nouns consecutively. One means the first one mentioned. Another
means one more in addition to the first one mentioned. The other means the one
remaining.

1 Count noun
One (singular) 2 count noun
another (singular)
One movie starts at another movie starts at
five, seven, and
3
the other count noun (singular)
the other movie starts at
nine

1 count noun 2 3
One (singular) another the other
One bus leaves at another at six, the other at ten
two and

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: One of my roommates studies engineering, another studies business,


and the another studies computer science.
CORRECT: One of my roommates studies engineering, another (roommate)
studies business, and the other (roommate) studies computer science.

INCORRECT: One problem is finding an apartment, another is furnishing it, and


other is getting the utilities turned on.
CORRECT: One problem is finding an apartment, another (problem) is furnishing
it, and the other (problem) is getting the utilities turned on.

INCORRECT: Of the three busiest vacation areas in the United States, one is Disney
World, one another is New York City, and other is Washington, D. C.
CORRECT: Of the three busiest vacation areas in the United States, one (area) is
Disney World, another (area) is New York City, and the other (area) is
Washington, D. C.

191
EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

There are three kinds of solar eclipses: one is total, another is annular, and _____.
(A) the another is partial
(B) the partial is other
(C) other is partial
(D) the other is partial

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

One of the most popular major fields of study for foreign scholars in the
(A) (B)
United States is business and the another is engineering.
(C) (D)

192
Lesson Sixteen
US Cities: Past and Present

The problems of the nation's cities-pollution, crime, riots, a lack of planning,


transportation- are bad, but they were worse in the so-called "good old days,"
according to Dr. Charles Adrian, He gives pollution from automobiles as one
example. He agrees that it may be bad now, but he states that there was a lot of
pollution from horses and other animals in American cities in the 19th century.
"Most cities have their own slaughterhouses where cows and pigs were killed
a century ago. They were careless about throwing out the remains of the animals
and that sort of thing," he said. "And the sewer system for waste disposal was
almost nonexistent."
Some of the problems that bothered people living in the cities during that
period are still with us poor planning, problems in low-income neighborhoods,
police relations, and public transportation.
"Pollution was a very important problem for city governments in the last
century, particularly with regard to water supplies, "Dr. Adrian said. "They had
some idea that water could be polluted, but they didn't know how. Trying to get
pure water was a big problem."
"People like to talk about the good old days, but, actually, the cities of the
19th century were dirty and, in many ways, filthier than today. Communicable
disease was a great concern. There was still smallpox and also yellow fever,
malaria, cholera and typhoid. The infant death rate was high, and there were other
dangers as well.
"It is true that people were not being killed by cars. However, they often were
killed or seriously injured by runaway horses. It was quite common, "Dr Adrian
said.
Crime was a great concern then too, according to Dr. Adrian. "Mugging
wasn't as common then," he said, "but it did exist. Pickpockets were very skilled,
too. Also, from the 1830's on, there were a lot of summer ghetto riots. That wasn't
just something from the 1960's. There were several causes, but, basically, it was
because many people moved to the cities from rural areas."
Planning of cities and their neighborhoods was controlled by land speculators

193
and real estate developers who were only interested in making money.
Finally, Dr. Adrian thinks that the situations and problems facing American
cities have not changed so much, and he suggests that we look back at the past and
try to learn from it.

I -True/False/Not Given
___ 1. Dr. Adrian believes that the sewer system for waste disposal was existent in old
times.

___ 2. A lot of people were killed by cars in old days.

___ 3. Mugging in 19th century was not so common.

___ 4. The infant death rate in 20th century is not as high as 19th century.

___ 5. Dr. Adrian is an optimist and he believes that things are getting better.

II. Choose the correct answer.

1. Paragraph 4, mostly deals with --------.


a. air pollution b. water pollution
c. public transportation d. sewer system
2. The main idea of this article is ----------.
a. water pollution is the major concern of a lot of people now.
b. supplying pure water was difficult in old days.
c. cities were worse in the past than they are now.
d. cities were cleaner in old days.

3. According to Dr. Adrians ideas in paragraph 3, which problem does not bother
people now?
a. public transportation b. police relations
c. high infant death rate d. poor planning

4. In paragraph 7, Dr. Adrian believes that mugging --------.


a. did not exist in old days
b. in old times was not as common as these days
c. existed in old times, but it was not as common as these days
d. in old times was as common as present days

5. Which statement is not in opposite to Dr. Adrians ideas?


a. Things are getting worse.

194
b. Forget the past. Look at the future.
c. Lets look at the past and try to learn from it.
d. Forget the future. Only present time important

III- Answer the following questions orally.


1. Who controlled planning of cities in the 19th century?
2. What was the main reason of ghetto riots?
3. Why do you think that communicable diseases are very dangerous?
4. How did slaughterhouses make the cities polluted?
5. According to Dr. Adrian's idea, what problems are still with people in the U.S?

195
Lesson Sixteen
Part B: Vocabulary

slender surpass vast doubt

capacity penetrate pierce accurate

microscope grateful cautious confident

1. Slender: long and thin; limited; slight


a. Carlotta's slender figure made her look somewhat taller than she was.
b. There was only a slender chance that you could conceal the truth.
c. The slender thief was able to enter the apartment through the narrow window.

2. Surpass: do better than; be greater than; excel


a. The machines of the twentieth century surely surpass those of earliest times.
b. Most farmers believe that rural life far surpasses urban living.
c. It is undeniable that a cold lemonade in July cannot be surpassed.

3. Vast: very great; enormous


a. Daniel Boone explored vast areas that had never been settled.
b. Our campus always seems vast to new students.
c. Vast differences between the two sides were made clear in the debate.

4. Doubt: not believe; not be sure of; feel uncertain about; lack of certainty
a. Scientists doubt that a total cure for cancer will be found soon.
b. The question of whether he could survive the winter was left in doubt.
c. We don't doubt that the tradition of marriage will continue.

5. Capacity: amount of room or space inside; largest amount that can be held by a
container
a. A sign in the elevator stated that its capacity was 1100 pounds.
b. The gasoline capsule had a capacity of 500 gallons.
c. So well-liked was the prominent speaker that the auditorium was filled to capacity when
he began his lecture.

6. Penetrate: get into or through


a. We had to penetrate the massive wall in order to hang the mirror.
b. Although Kenny tried to pound the nail into the rock with a hammer, he couldn't
penetrate the hard surface.
c. The thieves penetrated the bank's security and stole the money.

7. Pierce: go into; go through; penetrate


a. My sister is debating whether or not to get her ears pierced.
b. I tried to ignore his bad violin playing, but the sound was piercing.

196
c. Halloran violently pierced the skin of his rival, causing massive bleeding.

8. Accurate: exactly right as the result of care or pains


a. Ushers took an accurate count of the people assembled in the theater.
b. Emma's vision was so accurate that she didn't need glasses.
c. In writing on the topic, Vergil used accurate information.

9. Microscope: instrument with a lens for making objects larger so that one can see
things more clearly
a. The students used a microscope to see the miniature insect.
b. When young Oprah's birthday came around, her uncle gave her a microscope
c. Using a microscope, the scientist was able to probe into the habits of germs.

10. Grateful: feeling gratitude; thankful


a. The majority of pupils felt grateful for Mr. Ash's help.
b. We were grateful that the gloomy weather cleared up on Saturday.
c. In his letter, Waldo told how grateful he was for the loan.

11. Cautious: very careful; never taking chances


a. Be cautious when you choose your opponent.
b. Good authors are cautious not to exaggerate when they write.
c. If the rain is falling in torrents, it is best to drive cautiously.

12. Confident: firmly believing; certain; sure


a. Judge Emery was confident he could solve the conflict.
b. When he lifted the burden, Scotty was confident he could carry it.
c. Annette was confident she would do well as a nurse.

Place one of the new words in each of the blanks below.


1. Little Paul was --------------------- that he got the Christmas present he asked for.
2. I --------------------- that you can break Michael Jordan's scoring record.
3. My mother used to say that I was as --------------------- as a toothpick.
4. Be --------------------- about swimming right after eating a meal.
5. The map he drew of our neighborhood was not very ---------------------.
6. In Superman comics, the only thing Superman couldn't --------------------- was lead.
7. When my family went to look for a new house, we had a --------------------- choice.
8. Modern highways far --------------------- the old dirt roads of yesterday.
9. The jar was filled to ---------------------.
10. We were all very --------------------- that Duane would pass his exams.
11. The --------------------- used by my biology teacher is very expensive.
12. The music was so loud that I thought that it would --------------------- my eardrums.

197
Unit Sixteen
Part C. Grammar

76 Consecutive Order- Some, Other, the Other


Some, Others, the Others (the Rest)

Remember that some, other, and the other are used before plural count nouns.
They are adjectives.

1
Some count noun 2 count noun
(plural) another (plural)
some houses are for other houses are for sale,
rent, and
3
the other count noun (plural)
the rest of the
the other houses are empty
the rest of the

Some, others, and the others (the rest) are used instead of plural count nouns. They are
pronouns.

1
Some count noun (plural) 2
another
Some schools are universities, other are colleges, and
Some schools are universities, other are colleges, and
3
the other
the rest
the other are junior colleges
the rest are junior colleges

Avoid using another instead of other. Avoid using rest of or rest instead of the rest or
the rest.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: Some of these T-shirts are red, others are blue, and rest are white.
CORRECT: Some of these T-shirts are red, others are blue, and the rest are white.

INCORRECT: Some of our friends are from the Middle East, the others are from the
Far East, and the rest are from Latin America.

198
CORRECT: Some of our friends are from the Middle East, others are from the Far
East, and the rest are from Latin America.

INCORRECT: Some people finish a bachelor's degree in four years and other take
five years.
CORRECT: Some people finish a bachelor's degree in four years and other people
take five years.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

Some plants are annuals; _______ are biennials; the rest are perennials.
(A) some another
(B) another
(C) others
(D) others

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

In experiments with large numbers of animals crowded in small cages, some


(A)
have not been affected, but the rest of have shown all of the symptoms
(B) (C) (D)
associated with stress and mental illness.

77 Numerical Order

Remember that the is used with an ordinal number before a singular count noun
to express numerical order. A cardinal number is used after a singular count noun to
express numerical order.
Remember that the following are ordinal numbers:

first sixth eleventh sixteenth


second seventh twelfth seventeenth
third eighth thirteenth eighteenth
fourth ninth fourteenth nineteenth
fifth tenth fifteenth twentieth

The Ordinal number Count noun (singular)

I am outlining the sixth chapter in my


notebook

199
Avoid using the before the noun instead of the ordinal number. Avoid using a
cardinal instead of an ordinal number.

Remember that the following are cardinal numbers.

one six eleven sixteen


two seven twelve seventeen
three eight thirteen eighteen
four nine fourteen nineteen
five ten fifteen twenty

Count noun (singular) Cardinal number


I am outlining chapter six in my notebook

Avoid using the before the cardinal number or before the noun. Avoid using an ordinal
number in stead of a cardinal number.
EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: Flight 656 for Los Angeles is now ready for boarding at the concourse
seven.
Flight 656 for Los Angeles is now ready for boarding at concourse
seven.

INCORRECT: We left before the beginning of act third.


CORRECT: We left before the beginning of the act third.
or
We left before the beginning of act three.

INCORRECT: Your tickets are for gate the tenth, section B.


CORRECT: Your tickets are for gate ten, section B.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

_____ planet from the sun, mars, has a year of 687 days.
(A) The fourth
(B) The four
(C) Four
(D) Fourth

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

Labor Day is always celebrated on first Monday in September.


(A) (B) (C) (D)

200
78 Nouns That Function as Adjectives

Remember that when two nouns occur together, the first noun describes the
second noun, that is, the first noun functions as an adjective. Adjectives do not change
form, singular or plural.

noun Noun
All of us are foreign Language Teachers

Avoid using a plural form for the first noun even when the second noun is plural. Avoid
using a possessive form for the first noun.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: May I borrow some notebooks paper?


CORRECT: may I borrow some notebook paper?

INCORRECT: All business' students must take the Graduate management Admission
Test.
CORRECT: All business students must take the Graduate management Admission
Test.

INCORRECT: I forgot their telephone's number.


CORRECT: I forgot their telephone number.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

_____ is cheaper for students who maintain a B average because they are a better risk
than average or below-average students.
(A) Automobile's insurance
(B) Insurance of automobiles
(C) Automobile insurance
(D) Insurance automobile

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

Sex's education is instituted to help the student understand the process of


(A) (B)
maturation, to eliminate anxieties related to development, to learn values, and
(C) (D)
to prevent disease.

201
79 Hyphenated Adjectives

Remember that it is common for a number to appear as the first in a series of


hyphenated adjectives. Each word in a hyphenated adjective is an adjective and does not
change form, singular or plural.

a adjective - adjective noun


Agriculture 420 is a five - hour class

a adjective - adjective - adjective noun


A sixty - year - old employee may
retire

Avoid using a plural form for any of the adjectives joined by hyphens even when the
noun that for lows is plural.

INCORRECT: A three-minutes call anywhere in the United States costs less than a
dollar when you dial it yourself.
CORRECT: A three-minute call anywhere in the United States costs less dollar
when you dial it yourself.

INCORRECT: They have a four-months-old baby.


CORRECT: They have a four-month-old baby.

INCORRECT: Can you make change for a twenty-dollars bill?


CORRECT: Can you make change for a twenty-dollar bill?

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

The evolution of vertebrates suggests development from a very simple heart in fish to a
_______ in man.
(A) four-chamber heart
(B) four-chambers heart
(C) four-chamber hearts
(D) four-chamber's hearts

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

The MX is a four-stages with an 8,000 mile range, larger than that of the
Minuteman.

202
80 Adjectives Ending in en and -ing

Remember that an ing noun that functions as an adjective usually expresses


cause. It is derived from an active verb. An ed adjective usually expresses result. It is
derived from a passive verb.

-ed adjective (by someone or something)


The audience is thrilled (by the concert)

-ing adjective (by someone or something)


The concert is Thrilling (the audience)

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: We were surprising by the results of the test.


CORRECT: We were surprised by the results of the test.
(The results were surprising.)

INCORRECT: This desk is disorganizing.


CORRECT: This desk is disorganized.

INCORRECT: What an interested idea!


CORRECT: What an interesting idea1
(We are interested.)

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

The Canterbury Tales, written about 1386, is as alive and ______ today as it was nearly
600 years ago.
(A) appealed
(B) appeal
(C) appealing
(D) the appeal of

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

It is not surprised that the Arabs, who possessed a remarkable gift for
(A) (B) (C)
astronomy, mathematics, and geometry, were also skillful mapmakers.
(D)

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Unit Seventeen
Ordinary Aspirin Is Truly a Wonderful Drug

Americans this year will swallow 15,000 tons of aspirin, one of the safest and
most effective drugs invented by man. The most popular medicine in the world
today, it is an effective pain reliever. Its bad effects are relatively mild, and it is
cheap.
For millions of people suffering from arthritis, it is the only thing that works.
Aspirin, in short, is truly the 20th-century wonder drug. It is also the second largest
suicide drug and is the leading cause of poisoning among children. It has side
effects that, although relatively mild, are largely unrecognized among users.
Although aspirin was first sold by a German company in 1899, it has been
around much longer than that. Hippocrates, in ancient Greece, understood the
medical value of the leaves and tree bark which today are known to contain
salicylates, the chemical in aspirin. During the 19th century, there was a great deal
of experimentation in Europe with this chemical. and it led to the introduction of
aspirin. By 1915, aspirin tablets were available in the United States.
A small quantity of aspirin (two five-grain tablets) relieves pain and
inflammation. It also reduces fever by interfering with some of the body's reactions.
Specifically, aspirin seems to slow down the formation of the acids involved in
pain and the complex chemical reactions that cause fever. The chemistry of these
acids is not fully understood, but the slowing effect of aspirin is well known.
Aspirin is very irritating to the stomach lining, and many aspirin takers
complain about upset stomach. There is a right way and a wrong way to take
aspirin. The best way is to chew the tablets before swallowing them with water, but
few people can stand the bitter taste. Some people suggest crushing the tablets in
milk or orange juice and drinking that.

I -True/False/Not Given
___ 1. Aspirin is the second largest suicide drug.
___ 2. Aspirin increases fever.
___ 3. Aspirin has a lot of side effects.
___ 4. Aspirin contains chemicals that reduce pain.

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___ 5. Aspirin was known in ancient Greece.

II. Choose the best answer.

1. According to the text aspirin is ---------.


a. a good medicine
b. a bad medicine
c. an effective drugs but has relatively mild bad effects
d. a deadly drug

2. Aspirin is good for ---------.


a. relieving pain b. relieving inflammation
c. reducing fever d. all of the above

3. Aspirin is the only drug that works for those suffering from ----.
a. pain b. inflammation
c. fever d. arthritis

4. ---------- led to the introduction of aspirin.


a. German company
b. Hippocrates
c. A great deal of experimentation in Europe
d. the United States

5. The best way to use aspirin is --------.


a. to swallow it b. to drink it with water
c. to drink it with milk d. to chew it

III. Answer the following questions orally.

1. What is aspirin made of?


2. What are salicylates?
3. What is the medical value of aspirin?
4. What amount of aspirin can relieve pain and inflammation?
5. What is the effect of taking too much aspirin?

205
Lesson Seventeen

Part B: Vocabulary

appeal addict wary aware

misfortune avoid wretched keg

nourish harsh quantity opt

1. Appeal: attraction; interest; to urge


a. Anything Jorge could get at wholesale price had a great appeal for him.
b. My boss always appeals to his employees to work swiftly and neatly.
c. I found her clothing designs to be enormously appealing.

2. Addict: one who cannot break away from a habit or practice; addicted unable to
break a habit
a. Because he was a heroin addict, it was essential for Carlos to get the drug each day.
b. Marcia became flabby because she was addicted to ice cream sodas.
c. Those who take aspirins and other pain-killers regularly should realize that they may
become drug addicts, too.

3. Wary: on one's guard against danger or trickery; cautious


a. Marilyn's mother told her to be wary of strangers.
b. After Orlando had been the victim of a cheat, he was wary of those who said they
wanted to help him.
c. Living in a polluted city makes you wary of the air you breathe.

4. Aware: knowing; realizing


a. Donna was aware of her tendency to exaggerate.
b. It was some time before the police became aware of the brawl that was taking place on
the street.
c. The only way to gain knowledge is to be aware of everything around you.

5. Misfortune: bad luck


a. It was my misfortune that our car wasn't thoroughly checked before the trip through the
desert.
b. Being bitten by the vicious dog was quite a misfortune for Tommy.
c. I had the misfortune of working for a greedy man.

6. Avoid: keep away from; keep out of the way of

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a. If you are fortunate you can avoid people who are trying to deceive you.
b. There was no way to avoid noticing her beautiful green eyes.
c. Avoid getting into a brawl if you can.

7. Wretched: very unsatisfactory; miserable


a. I feel wretched after a night when I've scarcely slept.
b. There was unanimous agreement that we had seen a wretched movie.
c. Toby had wretched luck in the exam.

8. Keg: small barrel, usually holding less than ten gallons


a. The corner saloon uses numerous kegs of gasoline on a Saturday night.
b. "Get a keg of nails," the carpenter shouted at me.
c. It is obvious to me that the situation is filled with peril, a real powder keg if I ever saw
one.

9. Nourish: make or keep alive and well, with food; feed; develop an attitude
a. A diet of nourishing food is served to every hospital patient.
b. It was easy to detect that the skinny boy was not well nourished.
c. After the operation, our doctor plans to nourish my mother with vitamins and good food.

10. Harsh: rough to the touch, taste, eye, or ear; sharp


a. The law is harsh on people who go around menacing others.
b. Looking at his cigarette, Phil realized it was absurd to inhale such bars smoke.
c. Hazel altered her tone of voice from a harsh one to a soft tone.

11. Quantity: amount


a. I never neglect to carry a small quantity of money with me.
b. Who believes that quantity is better than quality?
c. A large quantity of meat is always stored in our freezer.
12. Opt: choose or favor; select
a. If you give me an ice cream choice, I'll opt for chocolate.
b. Our cheerleaders plan to opt for new sweaters.
c. On Friday, three of my buddies will opt to go into the navy.

Place one of the new words in each of the blanks below.


1. Sometimes it is best to --------------- being too nice to strangers.
2. I wasn't --------------- that there were concerts in the park on Tuesdays.
3. We bought a large --------------- of potato chips for the party.
4. Rock music just doesn't --------------- to me.
5. My aunt was in --------------- health and had to have nurses on twenty-four hour duty.
6. The --------------- smoke from the fireplace burned my eyes.
7. It was quite a --------------- that Beverly's husband died in an automobile accident.
8. If I had to --------------- for a new career, it would be medicine.
9. It is smart to be --------------- of foods whose contents are not listed on the package.
10. The judge denounced the thief for stealing a --------------- of molasses.

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11. A candy bar will not --------------- you the way a piece of meat will.
12. Baxter took pep pills regularly and became a drug --------------- without realizing it.

From the list of 12 new words that follows, choose the one that corresponds to each
definition below.
appeal addict wary aware

misfortune avoid wretched keg

nourish harsh quantity opt

a. attraction: -----------------------------
b. miserable: -----------------------------
c. one who cannot break a habit: -----------------------------
d. realizing: -----------------------------
e. small barrel: -----------------------------
f. cautious: -----------------------------
g. keep away from: -----------------------------
h. rough to the touch, taste, eye, or ear: -----------------------------
i. amount: -----------------------------
j. choose or favor: -----------------------------
k. bad luck: -----------------------------
I. make or keep alive and well with food: -----------------------------

208
Unit Seventeen
Part C. Grammar
81 Cause-and-Result-So

Remember that so is used before an adjective or an adverb followed by that. The


so clause expresses cause. The that clause expresses result.

CAUSE RESULT
S V so adverb that S V
adjective
She got up so late that she missed her bus
The music was so loud that we couldn't talk

Avoid using as or too instead of so in clauses of cause. Avoid using as instead of that in
clauses of result.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: He is so slow as he never gets to class on time.


CORRECT: He is so slow that he never gets to class on time.

INCORRECT: This suitcase is as heavy that I can hardly carry it.


CORRECT: This suitcase is so heavy that I can hardly carry it.

INCORRECT: We arrived so late as Professor Baker had already called the roll.
CORRECT: We arrived so late that Professor Baker had already called the roll.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

Oil paints are _______ they have become the most popular painter's colors.
(A) so versatile and durable that
(B) so versatile and durable than
(C) such versatile and durable as
(D) Such versatile and durable

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

By the mid-nineteenth century, land was such expensive in large cities that
(A) (B)
architects began to conserve space by designing skyscrapers.
(C) (D)

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82 Cause-and-Result-Such

Remember that the such clause expresses cause and the that clause expresses
result.

CAUSE RESULT
S V such a adjective count noun (singular) that S V
It was such a hot day that we went out

S V so adjective a count noun (singular) that S V


It was so hot a day that we went out

Avoid using so instead of such before a. Avoid omitting a from the patterns.

CAUSE RESULT
S V such adjective count noun (plural) that S V
noun
(noncount)
These are such long assignments that I can't finish them
This is such good news that I will call them

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: It was so interesting book that he couldn't put it down.


CORRECT: it was such an interesting book that he couldn't put it down.
or
It was so interesting a book that he couldn't put it down.

INCORRECT: She is such nice girl that everyone likes her.


CORRECT: She is such a nice girl that everyone likes her.
or
She is so nice a girl that everyone likes her.

INCORRECT: We had so a small lunch that I am hungry already.


CORRECT: We had such a small lunch that I am hungry already.
or
We had so small a lunch that I am hungry already.

EXERCISES

Part A: choose the correct answer.

210
Water is ______ that is generally contains dissolved materials in greater or lesser
amounts.
(A) such an excellent solvent
(B) such excellent a solvent
(C) such a excellent solvents
(D) a such excellent solvent

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

Albert Einstein was such brilliant a scientist that many of his colleagues had to
(A) (B)
study for several years in order to form opinions about his theories.
(C) (D)

83 Excess-Too

Remember that too means excessively. The too clause expresses cause. The
infinitive expresses result.

CAUSE RESULT
too adjective infinitive
This tea is too hot to drink

Avoid using so or such a instead of too before an adjective when an infinitive follows.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: The top shelf in the cupboard is so high for me to reach.


CORRECT: The top shelf in the cupboard is too high for me to reach.

INCORRECT: Ralph is such a young to retire.


CORRECT: Ralph is too young to retire.

INCORRECT: This brand is too expensive for buy.


CORRECT: This brand is too expensive to buy.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

The tiny picture on microfilm are _______ small to be read with the naked eye.
(A) so
(B) too
(C) much
(D) such

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Part B: Choose the incorrect answer.

Mercury is not often visible because it is so near the sun to be seen.

84Emphasis-Very

Remember that very is used for emphasis. Very does not usually introduce a
clause or infinitive that expresses result.

very adjective
This tea is very hot

Avoid using too or so instead of very when there is no clause of result.


Note: in conversational English, you will often hear so instead of very, but this is not
correct in the kind of formal, written English found on the TOEFL.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: We went out to eat because we were too hungry.


CORRECT: We went out to eat because we were very hungry.

INCORRECT: This dorm has too small rooms.


CORRECT: this dorm has very small rooms.

INCORRECT: New York is so big, and I am not used to it.


CORRECT: New York is very big , and I am not used to it.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

Young rivers have no flood plains and their valleys are _______.
(A) very narrow
(B) too narrow
(C) so narrow
(D) narrowly

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

The smallest of the apes, the apes, the gibbon, is distinguished by its too long
(A) (B) (C) (D)
arms.
85 Adjectives with Verbs of the Sense

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Remember that an adjective, not an adverb, is used after verbs of the senses. The
following verbs are examples of verbs of the senses:

feel sound
look taste
smell

S V (senses) adjective
I felt bad about the mistake

Avoid using an adverb instead of an adjective after verbs of the senses.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: We love to go to the county in the spring because the wild flowers
smell so sweetly.
CORRECT: We love to go to the country in the spring because the wild flowers
smell so sweet.

INCORRECT: Although the medicine tastes badly, it seems to help my conditions.


CORRECT: Although the medicine tastes bad, it seems to help my condition.

INCORRECT: The meal tasted well.


CORRECT: The meal tasted good.

EXERCISES

If one is suffering from a psychosomatic illness, that is, a disease contributed to by


mental anxiety, one may still feel very ______.
(A) badly
(B) bad
(C) worsely
(D) worser

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

It has been proven that when a subject identifies a substance as tasting well,
(A) (B)
he is often associating the taste with the smell.
(C) (D)

213
Unit Eighteen
The Crime of the Month

Do more murders occur in the summer or in the winter? Are you more likely
to be robbed in January or in May? This passage describes some research that
shows how the seasons affect criminal and intellectual behavior
Crime has its own cycles, a magazine reported some years ago. Police records
that were studied for five years from over 2,400 cities and towns show a surprising
link between changes in the season and crime patterns.
The pattern of crime has varied very little over a long period of years. Murder
reaches its high during July and August. Murder, moreover, is more than seasonal:
it is a weekend crime. It is also a nighttime crime: 62 percent of murders are
committed between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m.
Unlike the summer high in crimes of bodily harm, burglary has a different
cycle. You are most likely to be robbed between 6 p.m. and 2 a.m. on a Saturday
night in December, January, or February. The most uncriminal month of all? May-
except for one strange statistic. More dog bites are reported in this month than in
any other month of the year.
Apparently our intellectual seasonal cycles are completely different from our
criminal tendencies. Professor Huntington, of the Foundation for the Study of
Cycles, made extensive studies to discover the seasons when people read serious
books, attend scientific meetings, make the highest scores on examinations, and
propose the most changes to patents. In all instances, he found a spring peak and an
autumn peak separated by a summer low. On the other hand, Professor
Huntington's studies indicated that June is the peak month for suicides and
admissions to mental hospitals. June is also a peak month for marriages!
Possibly, soaring thermometers and high humidity bring on our strange and
terrifying summer actions, but police officials are not sure. "There is, of course, no
proof of a connection between humidity and murder," they say. "Why murder's
high time should come in the summertime we really don't know."

I -True/False/Not Given
___ 1. Violent attacks reach their high during July and August.

214
___ 2. February is the most uncriminal month of the year.
___ 3. Police officials are sure that there is a link between humidity and murder.
___ 4. Most of the murders are committed at night.
___ 5. Our intellectual seasonal cycles are very similar to our criminal tendencies.
II. Choose the correct answer.

1. July is the highest peak for -----------.


a. murders b. violent attacks
c. other criminals d. all of the above

2. Which sentence is not correct about murder?


a. Murder is not seasonal.
b. Murder is a weekend crime.
c. Murder is a night time crime.
d. A murder may be committed at 8 P.M .

3. -------- is the safest month of the year.


a. July b. June
c. May d. December

4. A good title for this article would be:


a. seasonal changes and crime pattern
b. humidity and murder
c. our intellectual seasonal cycles
d. a time for robbery

5. According to the passage which sentence is correct about summer season?


a. people read serious books in summer.
b. murder reaches its high during summer.
c. people make the highest score on examinations during summer.
d. people attend scientific meetings regularly.

III. Answer the following questions orally.


1. In which month are most murders committed?
2. What is the most uncriminal month of the year?
3. What crimes reach their peak in July?
4. What month is a peak one for marriages?
5. Why do you think that burglary is a winter crime?

215
Lesson Eighteen
Part B: Vocabulary

tragedy pedestrian glance budget

nimble manipulate reckless horrid

rave economical lubricate ingenious

1. Tragedy: a very sad or terrible happening; a sad play


a. It was a tragedy that some pioneers were killed on their way west.
b. If you had your choice between seeing a comedy or a tragedy, which play would you
choose?
c. Harry's enormous jealousy led to the tragedy in their family.

2. Pedestrian: person who goes on foot; walker


a. After driving a bus all day, Norris liked to be a pedestrian and take long, casual walks in
the evening.
b. The police say it is urgent that pedestrians stay on the sidewalk.
c. I don't doubt that a pedestrian can get places faster than a car in downtown traffic.

3. Glance: to look at quickly; a quick look


a. The observant driver glanced at the accident at the side of the road.
b. I took one glance at the wretched animal and turned away.
c. Thompson identified the burglar after a glance at the photograph in the police station.

4. Budget: estimate of the amount of money that can be spent for different purposes
in a given time
a. We had to decrease the budget this year because our club is broke.
b. The prominent executive presented her budget to the Board of Directors.
c. When my mother draws up her budget for the week, she sets aside a goodly sum for
nourishing food.

5. Nimble: active and sure-footed; quick moving; light and quick


a. Although Dusty was a miniature poodle, he was nimble enough to fight bigger dogs.
b. The nimble policeman leaped over the fence to pursue the car thief.
c. At his press conference, the commissioner was quite nimble in avoiding the difficult
questions.

6. Manipulate: handle or treat skillfully


a. Scientists must know how to manipulate their microscopes.
b. While Mr. Baird manipulated the puppets, Fran spoke to the audience.
c. The wounded pilot manipulated the radio dial until he made contact.

216
7. Reckless: careless; heedless; wild
a. We must not ignore reckless drivers; we must take them off the road.
b. After breaking his hand fighting recklessly, Arthur decided to be more cautious in the
future.
c. The reckless smoker ignited the entire forest.

8. Horrid: terrible; frightful


a. Janey avoided staring at the horrid man's face.
b. It is simply horrid the way cars pollute the air we breathe.
c. When Mary was good, she was very good, but when she was bad, she was horrid.

9. Rave: talk wildly


a. Shortly after taking the drug, the addict began to rave and foam at the mouth.
b. The man raved that his car had the capacity to reach 120 miles per hour.
c. Sadie was confident that Mr. Stebbe would rave about her essay.

10. Economical: not wasting money or time


a. I find it economical to shop in the large supermarkets.
b. Marissa was praised for her economical management of the budget.
c. The president made Congress aware of the need to be more economical.

11. Lubricate: make (machinery) smooth and easy to work by putting on oil, grease,
or a similar substance
a. The bulky wheels of a railroad train must be lubricated each week.
b. A large quantity of grease is needed to lubricate an airplane engine.
c. When a watch is lubricated, it keeps more accurate time.

12. Ingenious: having great mental ability; clever


a. Bernie devised an ingenious plan to cheat on his income tax.
b. Rube Goldberg was a journalist who won fame for his ingenious inventions.
c. The master spy had an ingenious way of passing secrets to the agent.

Place one of the new words in each of the blanks below.


1. Try not to be ---------------- when you drive a car, especially at night.
2. The brilliant investigator found an ---------------- answer to the problem.
3. I find it more ---------------- to buy a monthly train ticket than to pay for each ride each
day.
4. If you continue to ---------------- about the play, everyone will think you are a relative of
the author.
5. I took one ---------------- and I knew it was Frank Sinatra.
6. Every week Mrs. Evans made a ---------------- covering the essential sums she would
have to spend.
7. The coach knew how to ---------------- the players to do what he wanted.
8. Bobby's job at the gas station was to ---------------- all the cars after they had been
worked on.

217
9. When someone you love dies, it is a ----------------.
10. Journalists reported that the dropping of the bombs was a ---------------- act.
11. The car leaped up on the sidewalk, struck a ----------------, and then crashed into the
bakery's window.
12. Whirling across the stage, the ---------------- ballet dancer captured our hearts.

218
Unit Eighteen
Part C. Grammar
Problems with Comparatives

Nouns may be compared for exact or general similarity or difference. They may
also be compared for similar or different qualities or degree, more or less, of specific
qualities. In addition , they may be compared to estimates.

86 Exact Similarity- the Same as and the Same

Remember that the same as and the same have the same meaning, but the same
as is used between the two nouns compared, and the same is used after the two nouns or
a plural noun.

noun the same as noun


this coat is the same as that one

noun noun the same


this coat and that one are the same

noun (plural) the same


these coats are the same

Avoid using to and like instead of as. Avoid using the same between the two nouns
compared.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: That car is almost the same like mine.


CORRECT: That car is almost the same as mine.
or
That car and mine are almost the same.

INCORRECT: My briefcase is exactly the same that yours.


CORRECT: My briefcase is exactly the same as yours.
or
My briefcase and yours are exactly the same.

INCORRECT: Is your book the same to mine?


CORRECT: Is your book the same as mine?
or
Are your book and mine the same?
EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

219
Although we often use "speed" and "velocity" interchangeably, in a technical sense,
"speed" is not always _______ "velocity."
(A) alike
(B) the same as
(C) similar
(D) as

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

When two products are basically the same as, advertising can influence the
(A) (B) (C) (D)
public's choice.

87 General Similarity- Similar to and Similar

Remember the similar to and similar have the same meaning, but similar to is
used between the two nouns compared, and similar is used after the two nouns or a
plural noun.

noun similar to noun


this coat is similar to that one

noun noun similar


this coat and that one are similar

noun (plural) similar


These coats Are similar

Avoid using as instead of to. Avoid using similar to after the two nouns or a plural
noun.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: I would really like to have a stereo that is similar the one on display.
CORRECT: I would really like to have a stereo that is similar to the one on
display.
or
The stereo that I would like to have and the one on display are
similar.

INCORRECT: My roommate's values and mine are similar to in spite of our being
from different countries.
CORRECT: My roommate's values are similar to mine in spite of our being from
different countries.

220
or
My roommate's values and mine are similar in spite of our being from
different countries.

INCORRECT: Cliff's glasses are similar like yours, but his cost a lot less.
CORRECT: Cliff's glasses are similar to yours, but his cost a lot less.
or
Cliff's glasses and yours are similar, but his cost a lot less.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

The vegetation in temperate zones all around the world is _______.


(A) similar
(B) like
(C) same
(D) as

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

The medical problems of parents and their children tend to be very similar to
(A) (B) (C)
because of the hereditary nature of many diseases.
(D)

88 General Similarity- Like and Alike

Remember that like and alike have the same meaning, but like is used between
the two nouns compared, and alike is used after the two nouns or a plural noun.

Noun Like Noun


this coat is like that one

noun noun alike


this coat and that one are alike

noun (plural) alike


These coats are alike

221
Avoid using as instead of like. Avoid using like after the two nouns compared.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: The weather feels as spring.


CORRECT: The weather feels like spring.

INCORRECT: These suits are like.


CORRECT: This suit is like that suit.
or
These suits are alike.

INCORRECT: Your recipe for chicken is like to a recipe that my mother has.
CORRECT: Your recipe for chicken is like a recipe that my mother has.
or
Your recipe for chicken and a recipe that my mother has are alike.

INCORRECT: I want to buy some shoes same like the ones I have on.
CORRECT: I want to buy some shoes like the ones I have on.
or
The shoes I want to buy and the shoes I have on are alike.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

Although they are smaller, chipmunks are _______ most other ground squirrels.
(A) like to
(B) like as
(C) like
(D) alike

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

The first living structures to appear on earth thousands of years ago were alike
(A) (B) (C) (D)
viruses.

89Specific Similarity-Quality Nouns

Remember that a quality noun is used in comparisons of a specific characteristic.

The following are examples of quality nouns:

age height price style


color length size weight

222
Noun V The same Nouns (quality) As noun
she is the same age as John

Avoid using to, than or like instead of as. Avoid using a quality adjective instead of a
quality noun after the same.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: I want to buy a pair of shoes the same style like these I'm wearing.
CORRECT: I want to buy a pair of shoes the same style as these I'm wearing.

INCORRECT: This is not the same big as the rest of the apartments.
CORRECT: This is not the same size as the rest of the apartments.

INCORRECT: The gold chain that Edith saw is same weight as yours.
CORRECT: The gold chain that Edith saw is the same weight as yours.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

Some retirement communities will not sell property to new residents unless they are
about ______ the rest of the residents.
(A) the same age
(B) the same old
(C) the same age as
(D) the same old as

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

The bodies of cold-blooded animals have the same temperature their


(A) (B) (C)
surroundings, but those of warm-blooded animals to not.
(D)

90Specific Similarity-Quality Adjectives

Remember that a quality adjective is used in comparisons of a specific


characteristic.

The following are examples of quality adjectives:

big expensive light small

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cheap hard little tall
clear heavy long young
cold hot old
easy large short

noun V as adjectives (quality) as noun


she is as old as John

Avoid using to, than, or like instead of as. Avoid using a quality noun instead of a
quality adjective after as.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: Mary's job is as hard than Bill's.


CORRECT: Mary's job is as hard as Bill's.

INCORRECT: Miss Jones' English is not as clear than Dr. Baker's.


CORRECT: Miss Jones' English is not as clear as Dr. Baker's.

INCORRECT: He is not as tall like his brother.


CORRECT: He is not as tall as his brother.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

Although the name was not popularized until the Middle Ages, engineering _____
civilization.
(A) as old as
(B) is as old as
(C) that is old as
(D) as old as that

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

Dispite its smaller size, the Indian Ocean is as deep the Atlantic Ocean.
A B C D

224
Unit Nineteen
New Plants

As the population of the world increases, countries need to produce more and
more food. At the same time, however, deserts are expanding, and millions of
people are building houses on land that used to be farmland. How can we solve a
problem that seems to have no solution?

One way to increase the planet's food supply is for people to start eating
different plants. There are more than 350,000 kinds of plants in the world. Of these,
approximately 20,000 are suitable for humans to eat. But today, over 50 percent of
our food supply comes from just three kinds of plants: corn, wheat, and rice. In
fact, it is common in developing countries for people to depend on only one or two
plants for their food. A disease or bad weather can destroy these crops, leaving
people with nothing to eat.

All people, and especially children, need protein to grow and to stay healthy.
Many kinds of food contain protein, but some foods are better sources of protein
than others. For example, corn, wheat, and rice are only 8 to 14 percent protein.
Meat and fish are 20 to 30 percent protein. Soybeans, which are an important food
in China and Japan, are almost 40 percent protein. Other beans eaten widely in
Latin America have about the same amount of protein as meat.

However, there are other plants that are rich in protein. People in parts of
Papua-New Guinea and in Southeast Asia eat winged beans, which are over 30
percent protein. The marama bean, as rich in protein as the soybean, grows wild in
the Kalahari Desert in southern Africa.

The potato, an important food in Europe and North America, will not grow in
a hot climate. But the cocoyam, which is similar to the potato, is eaten in Latin
America and West Africa. This versatile plant can grow in a hot climate, and it
does not matter whether the climate is wet or dry.

Scientists are now experimenting with crops of buffalo gourds in Mexico and
Lebanon. This plant grows wild in Arizona's Sonora Desert, and it could grow in
other dry areas as well. The seeds of this plant are up to 35 percent protein. A few
years ago, a new kind of teosinte plant was discovered in the mountains of Mexico.
(Teosinte is pronounced "tay-oh-SIN-tay.") It is a relative of corn, but it can grows
in a wetter climate than corn can. Even more important, teosinte plants can produce

225
crops every year. They do not have to be replanted from seeds as corn does.

Nevertheless. there may be a problem with "new" plants. Will people be


willing to eat them? Food is an important part of our lives, and it is often difficult
to change to a new and different kind of food. However, scientists are optimistic.
They know that 500 years ago Europeans thought they were eating the best food in
the world. Then, in the 16th century, a wide assortment of new foods, such as
potatoes, tomatoes, pineapple, and chocolate, started arriving by boat from Central
and South America. At first most Europeans wouldn't touch these bizarre foods. In
fact, many people thought these foods were poisonous. Over time, however, people
accepted these foods, and now it's hard to imagine Italian food without tomatoes or
a British meal without potatoes. In the 1920s, George Washington Carver started
experimenting with the peanut, which is as rich in protein as meat. He developed
many ways to use the peanut as food, and today it is eaten all over the world.
Perhaps in a few years teosinte and the marama bean will be as widely used as the
peanut. And consider the soybean, which is now the most important plant in the
United States. Eighty years ago, the soybean wasn't even grown as an industrial
crop!

Some people feel strongly that genetically engineered food could solve the
world's food crisis. Humans have been using selective breeding for millennia to
improve food crops, but genetic engineering provides a way to greatly accelerate
the process and to introduce traits from unrelated species. Today, many crops have
been genetically modified to be resistant to some types of pests, while others have
been engineered to make them taste better or last longer. Available also are plants
that have been genetically altered to make them more nutritious. Biotechnology
companies call them "prescription" foods because they are supposed to solve health
problems. Examples of prescription foods are Vitamin A-boosted golden rice and
protein-enhanced potatoes. Other crops have been modified to make them drought
or salt-resistant, which makes it possible for them to grow in poor soil.

The production of genetically modified (GM) food is highly controversial.


Environmentalists worry that these crops could eventually become uncontrollable
weeds or that they might breed with wild plants or other crops. Some scientists
claim that genetic engineering will actually have a negative impact on crop yields
and soil quality and in the end will just deprive more farmers of land on which they
could grow their own food.

In addition to concerns about how GM crops might affect the environment,

226
there is the question of whether these crops would actually have a positive effect on
the global food shortage. Some people have suggested that biotech companies have
started promoting GM foods as a solution to the world's food problem in order to.
change the negative impression that many people have of these foods. There are
also many people who believe that prescription foods won't help the situation
because they do not address the real cause of malnutrition, which is poverty.
According to Daycha Siripatra, who works for the Alternative Agriculture Network
in Thailand, "If the poor had land, they would have better diets. The poor don't
need Vitamin A. They need Vitamin L; that's Vitamin Land. And they need
Vitamin M; that's Vitamin Money. Malnutrition is because of poverty, not [a lack
of] technology."

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises

I. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the list below.

nutritious prescription boost


biotechnology companies
enhance impact yields deprived
address poverty impression crisis

1. Children who are __________ of important nutrients may have serious health
problems.

2. He refused to _________ his financial problems until finally he was forced to.

3. To buy most medicines, you need a ________ from a doctor.

4. ________ didn't exist 50 years ago.

5. What was your ________ of the speech? Did you like it?

6. My grandfather had a big __________ on my life.

7. Apples are ___________; sugar is not.

8. If you can't get up on the horse, I can give you a __________.

9. It's difficult to believe that there can be so much _________ in such a rich country.

227
10. The loss of a year's food supply was a _________ for the country.

11. Lack of rain can have a tremendous impact on crop _________.

12. What can you put on a potato to __________ the flavor?

II. Circle the letter of the best answer.

1. Roughly half of our food supply comes from _______ kinds of food.
a. 350,000
b. 20,000
c. 3

2. Winged beans are ________.


a. from Latin America
b. as rich in protein as soybeans
c. more than 30 percent protein
3. The potato is ________.
a. a hot-weather crop
b. similar to the cocoyam
c. originally from Europe

4. The cocoyam _______.


a. can grow in a hot climate
b. is an important food in North America
c. doesn't grow in wet climates

5. Unlike corn, the teosinte plant _______.


a. prefers a dry climate
b. produces a crop every year
c. has to be planted every year

6. Scientists are optimistic that people might be willing to eat new foods, because
______.
a. they already eat roughly 20,000 different kinds of food
b. they have done it in the past
c. they like to change what they eat often

7. When Europeans first saw tomatoes, _______.


a. they wanted to try them immediately

228
b. they knew they were safe to eat
c. they thought they were poisonous

8. Selective breeding _________.


a. has been taking place for a long time
b. is a new thing
c. is impossible

9. Prescription foods are _______.


a. genetically altered to be more nutritious
b. enhanced to taste better
c. modified to grow in any type of soil

10. Some people say that GM food won't solve the food crisis because ______.
a. it doesn't provide the right nutrients
b. it doesn't address the real cause
c. the food crisis it too serious

III. Answer the following questions orally.

1. Roughly how many kinds of plants are there on Earth? How many of those can
people safely eat?

2. Why do you think so much of our food supply comes from just three kinds of plants?

3. What foods are high in protein?

4. What information about soybeans does the text on pages 186-188 provide?

5. How is the cocoyam different from the potato?

6. What is the teosinte plant?

7. In the 16th century, how did Europeans react to new foods introduced from Central
and South America?

229
8. What food did George Washington Carver get people to try? How?

9. What are genetically modified foods?

10. Why do some people oppose genetically modified foods?

230
Lesson Nineteen

Part B: Vocabulary

harvest abundant uneasy calculate


absorb estimate morsel quota
threat ban panic appropriate

1. Harvest: gathering in of grain or other food crops


a. This year's harvest was adequate to feed all our people.
b. The farmer decided to expand his fields so that he would get a bigger harvest.
c. If the harvest is poor, there is always the possibility of a famine.

2. Abundant: more than enough; very plentiful


a. It is urgent that the hospital have an abundant supply of blood.
b. An abundant harvest was predicted by the secretary of agriculture.
c. In recent years an abundant number of complaints have disturbed the telephone
company.

3. Uneasy: restless; disturbed; anxious


a. Mrs. Spinner was uneasy about letting her son play in the vicinity of the railroad tracks.
b. The treasurer was uneasy about the company's budget.
c. Arnold felt uneasy about the meeting even though he tried to act in a casual manner.

4. Calculate: find out by adding, subtracting, multiplying, or dividing; figure


a. The cook had to calculate the number of diners to see whether he could decrease his
order for meat.
b. In order to see how expensive the car was, the buyer calculated the tax and other
charges.
c. I used an abacus to calculate my average.

5. Absorb: take in or suck up (liquids); interest greatly.


a. The sponge absorbed the gasoline which had leaked from the keg.
b. Our bodies must absorb those things which will nourish them.
c. I became absorbed in what the teacher was saying and did not hear the bell ring.

6. Estimate: form a judgment or opinion about; guess


a. A.J. Foyt estimated that the auto race would commence at nine o'clock.
b. I try to avoid making estimates on things I know nothing about.
c. In your estimate, who will be victorious in this conflict?

7. Morsel: a small bite; mouthful; tiny amount


a. When Reynaldo went into the restaurant, he pledged to eat every morsel on his plate.
b. Suzanne was reluctant to try even a morsel of the lobster.
c. If you had a morsel of intelligence, you would be uneasy, too.

231
8. Quota: share of a total due from or to a particular state, district, person, etc.
a. The company revealed a quota of jobs reserved for college students.
b. There was a quota placed on the number of people who could migrate here from China.
c. Lieutenant Dugan doubted that a quota had been placed on the number of parking tickets
each police officer was supposed to give out.

9. Threat: sign or cause of possible evil or harm


a. There is always the horrid threat that my job will be abolished.
b. It is absurd to think that a tiny bug could be a threat to a person.
c. You can be arrested for making a threat against someone's life.

10. Ban: prohibit; forbid


a. The group unanimously voted to ban all people who were under six feet.
b. Health officials are trying to expand their field in order to ban cigarette advertising from
newspapers and magazines.
c. I want to ban all outsiders from our discussion on security.

11. Panic: unreasoning fear; fear spreading through a group of people so that they
lose control of themselves
a. The leader of the lost group appealed to them not to panic.
b. When the danger was exaggerated, a few people started to panic.
c. The source of panic in the crowd was a man with a gun.

12. Appropriate: fit; set apart for some special use


a. At an appropriate time, the chief promised to reveal his plan.
b. The lawn was an appropriate setting for Eileen's wedding.
c. After some appropriate prayers, the dinner was served.

Place one of the new words in each of the blanks below.


1. The committee recommended that we --------------- all dangerous foods.
2. Dave had his --------------- of cookies for the day.
3. You should always make sure that you have an --------------- supply of gasoline for a
long trip.
4. The rain was --------------- into the concrete when it was dry.
5. Is this inexpensive dress --------------- for a formal wedding?
6. How much do you --------------- that horse is worth?
7. Helen Hayes had an --------------- feeling as she went on to the stage for the first time.
8. When you are in trouble the worst thing to do is to ---------------.
9. The farmers had a good --------------- of corn this year.
10. We --------------- all the figures and came to one solid answer.
11. Every --------------- the cook prepared was tasty.
12. The --------------- of snow caused us to change our holiday plans.

Choose the Correct Word. Circle the word in parentheses that best fits the sense of
the sentence.

232
1. When the food supply is (abundant, appropriate), there is no reason for anyone to go
hungry.
2. Some people believe that the (threat, quota) of nuclear war is a very real danger of
the twentieth century.
3. If you feel (uneasy, appropriate) about being capable of doing this work, please let
me help you get started.
4. It is important not to (panic, calculate) in emergency situations.
5. Farmers hope their labors will be rewarded with a plentiful (harvest, morsel).
6. To (calculate, absorb) whether I need an A or a B on my math final, I had to first
figure my average to date.
7. It's difficult to believe that even today there are school boards that (ban, harvest)
books such as The Catcher in the Rye.
8. The dish looked so strange and smelled so foul, that I found it difficult to taste a
(morsel, quota) of the meal our host had prepared.
9. I can't possibly (absorb, ban) such an enormous amount of information in just two
hours.
10. Many countries have strict (quotas, threats) on the number of immigrants they
admit each year.
11. If my (estimate, quota) is correct, the homes presently under construction will mean
about 200 new elementary school students in the district next year.
12. The (appropriate, abundant) behavior for different situations is something we all
learn as part of growing up.

233
Unit Nineteen
Part C: Grammar
91 General Difference-Different from and Different

Remember that different from and different have the same meaning, but
different from is used between the two nouns compared, and different is used after the
two nouns or a plural noun.

noun different from noun


this coat is different from that one

noun noun Different


this coat and that one are different

noun (plural) different


These coat Are different

Avoid using to and than instead of from. Avoid using different between the two nouns
compared.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: Although they are both weekly news magazines. Time and Newsweek
are different from in several ways.
CORRECT: Although they are both weekly news magazines, time is different from
Newsweek in several ways.
or
Although they are both weekly news magazines, Time and Newsweek
are different in several ways.

INCORRECT: The watch in the window is a little different this one.


CORRECT: The watch in the window is a little different from this one.
or
The watch in the window and this one are a little different.

INCORRECT: Long distance telephone rates for daytime hours are different than
rates for nighttime hours.
CORRECT: Long distance telephone rates for daytime hours are different from
rates for nighttime hours.
or
Long distance telephone rates for daytime hours and rates for
nighttime hours are different.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

234
The works of Picasso were quite _______ during various periods of his artistic life.
(A) differ
(B) different
(C) different from
(D) different than

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

Although business practices have been applied successfully to agriculture,


(A) (B)
farming is different other industries.
(C) (D)

92 General Difference- to Differ from

Remember that differ is a verb and must change forms to agree with the subject.

DIFFER From
This one differs from the rest

Avoid using BE with differ. Avoid using than, of, or to after differ.
EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: Sharon is different of other women I know.


CORRECT: Sharon is different from other women I know.
or
Sharon differs from other women I know.

INCORRECT: Do you have anything a little different to these?


CORRECT: Do you have anything a little different from these?
or
Do you have anything that differs a little from these?

INCORRECT: The campus at State University different from that of City College.
CORRECT: The campus at State University differs from that of City College.
or
The campus at state University is different from that of City College.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

Modern blimps like the famous Goodyear blimps _______ the first ones in that they are
filled with helium instead of hydrogen.

235
(A) differ from
(B) different from
(C) is different from
(D) different

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

Crocodiles different from alligators in that they have pointed snouts and long lower
teeth that stick out when their mouths are closed.

93Comparative Estimates Multiple Numbers

Remember that the following are examples of multiple numbers:

half four times


twice five times
three times ten times
multiple as much as
many
Fresh fruit costs twice as much as canned fruit
we have half as much as we need

Avoid using so instead of as after a multiple. Avoid using more than instead of as much
s or as many as. Avoid using the multiple after as much and as many.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: This one is prettier, but is costs twice more than the other one.
CORRECT: This one is prettier, but it costs twice as much as the other one.

INCORRECT: The rent at College Apartments is only half so much as you pay here.
CORRECT: The rent at College Apartments is only half as much as you pay here.

INCORRECT: Bob found a job that paid as much twice as he made working at the
library.
CORRECT: Bob found a job that paid twice as much as he made working at the
library.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

After the purchase of the Louisiana Territory, the United States had ______ it had
previously owned.

236
(A) twice more land than
(B) two times more land than
(C) twice as much land as
(D) two times much land than

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

With American prices for sugar at three times as much the world price, manufactures
are beginning to use fructose blended with pure sugar, or sucrose.

94 Comparative Estimates- More Than and Less Than

Remember that more than or less than is used before a specific number to
express an estimate that may be a little more or a little less than the number.

more than number


Steve has more than a thousand coins in his collection

less than number


Andy has less than a dozen coins in his pocket

Avoid using more or less without than in estimates. Avoid using as instead of than.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: More one hundred people came to the meeting.


CORRECT: More than one hundred people came to the meeting.

INCORRECT: We have lived in the United States for as less than seven years.
CORRECT: We have lived in the United States for less than seven years.

INCORRECT: The main library has more as one million volumes.


CORRECT: The main library has more than one million volumes.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

In the Great Smoky Mountains, one can see _______ 150 different kinds of trees.
(A) more than

237
(B) as much as
(C) up as
(D) as many to

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

Pel scored more as 1,280 goals during his career, gaining a reputation as the
(A) (B) (C) (D)
best soccer player of all time.

95 Comparative Estimates As Many As

Remember that as many as is used before a specific number to express an


estimate that does not exceed the number.

as many as number
We should have as many as five hundred applicaitons

Avoid using as many instead of as many as. Avoid using much instead of many before
a specific number.

Note: Comparative estimates with as much as are also used before a specific number
that refers to weight, distance, or money. For example, as much as ten pounds, as much
s two miles, or as much as twenty dollars.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: We expect as much as thirty people to come.


CORRECT: We expect as many as thirty people to come.

INCORRECT: There are as many fifteen thousand students attending summer school.
CORRECT: There are as many as fifteen thousand students attending summer
school.

INCORRECT: The children can see as much as twenty-five baby animals in the
nursery at the zoo.
CORRECT: The children can see as many as twenty-five baby animals in the
nursery at the zoo.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

It has been estimated that ______ one hundred thousand men participated in the gold
rush of 1898.

238
(A) approximate
(B) until
(C) as many as
(D) more

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

It is generally accepted that the common cold is caused by as much as forty strains of
viruses that may be present in the air at all times.

239
Unit Twenty
Up in Smoke

Five hundred years ago, you wouldn't have seen anyone growing or smoking
tobacco in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, or Asia. Today, however, tobacco is
grown in roughly 120 countries, and more than 1 billion people around the world
smoke tobacco.
Five hundred years ago, the tobacco plant grew only in the Americas. It was
used for a variety of purposes, and it was highly valued. Many Native Americans
believed that the tobacco plant had medicinal properties. They smoked and chewed
tobacco and rubbed tobacco leaves on their bodies. Some people believed that the
leaves of the tobacco plant helped to reduce pain and heal wounds and burns.
Others thought tobacco leaves could cure toothaches. In many parts of the
Americas, smoking tobacco was also an important part of religious rites and
ceremonies. People believed that tobacco made it possible to communicate with the
spirits.

When the first Spanish explorers arrived in the Americas late in the 15th
century, they saw Native Americans "smoke drinking," as they called smoking, and
they eagerly tried it. When the first Portuguese explorers arrived in the Americas,
they encountered Native Americans who used tobacco as snuff rather than smoking
it. Snuff is basically finely ground tobacco, which is inhaled through the nose. The
Portuguese explorers picked up the snuff habit and exported it to Portugal and
much of the rest of the world. The Portuguese were also the first people to cultivate
the
Tobacco plant outside of the Americas. The French ambassador in Portugal,
Jean Nicot de Villemain, called tobacco a cure-all for many illnesses and in 1560,
he sent samples of the tobacco plant to France, where it was given the name
Nicotiania his honor.

Tobacco was probably taken to England by Spanish and English explorers,


who had learned to smoke it in pipes rather than use it as snuff. People in England
were at first frightened by the sight of smoke coming out of a person's mouth. The
first smokers there were followed and stared at. Before long, however, pipe
smoking was a popular activity.
Not everyone in Europe and Asia welcomed the arrival of tobacco and the
smoking habit. In Russia, possession of tobacco was forbidden. In Turkey and
India, smokers faced the death penalty. The Catholic Pope banned its use in the
early 1600s. Both the use and the cultivation of tobacco were banned in Japan in

240
1609 and in China in 1612. Despite this, smoking gained in popularity. The failure
of the bans was due in large part to the fact that governments could make money
from the sale of tobacco. For example, King James I of England strongly opposed
the use of tobacco, but he often needed money, and taxing imported tobacco was an
easy way for him to get it.
The use of tobacco in cigarettes didn't become popular until late in the 19th
century. Thanks to an effective advertising campaign in the 1880s, cigarette
smoking became widespread. Back then, most people thought that cigarettes helped
to relieve tension; they didn't believe that cigarettes were harmful to a person's
health. In the 20th century, however, doctors began seeing an increasing number of
cases of lung cancer, and in 1950 researchers in England reported the first evidence
showing a link between smoking and lung cancer. Fourteen years later, in 1964, the
U.S. Surgeon General announced that smoking causes lung cancer. Soon after that,
the first warning labels appeared on cigarette packages, and cigarette
advertisements were banned from television and radio in England and the United
States. The tobacco industry responded by paying filmmakers to show actors and
actresses smoking in their movies. Fearing that the health warnings would
encourage people to stop smoking, cigarette makers also increased the amount of
nicotine in cigarettes to make them more addictive.
Today, we know that there are about 4,000 different chemicals in the smoke
of an average cigarette. Some of these chemicals are toxic. and at least 60 of them
cause cancer. Nicotine, for example, is highly addictive and poisonous. We know
that smoking is the leading cause of lung diseases, and it has also been linked to
heart
disease and other kinds of cancer. There is evidence that smokers have more
trouble healing after surgery, and they are at greater risk for post-op complications.
In addition to harming smokers, cigarette smoke can have a negative effect
on the health of nonsmokers occupying the same environment. Researchers think
that each year secondhand smoke may be responsible for about 3,000 lung cancer
deaths and 35,000 cases of heart disease among nonsmoking adults. And not only
adults are affected by inhaling secondhand smoke. The children of parents who
smoke are more likely to develop respiratory problems than are children who grow
up in a smoke-free environment.
While people have been opposed to smoking as far back as the 16O0s, there
is now an increasing amount of pressure on smokers to kick the habit. In 1993, the
state of Vermont in the United States banned smoking in indoor places; it was the
first state to do so. Since then, many countries have banned smoking in public
places.
And in 2004, the country of Bhutan became the first country to ban the sale

241
of all tobacco products. The effectiveness of these bans varies from country to
country. In some places, the bans are virtually ignored, while in others, such as the
United States, the bans are taken very seriously.
Why do people smoke when they know it is bad for their health? According
to many researchers, smoking is one of the most difficult habits to break. Mark
Twain, the American writer, once said, "To quit smoking is the easiest thing I ever
did; I ought to know because I've done it hundreds of times."

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises

I. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the list below.

tax respiratory encountered inhale


honor failure widespread secondhand
leading post-op complication toxic

1. On her walk in the woods, she ________ a large bear.

2. The youngest child in a family often has to wear ________ clothes.

3. Which country is the ______ producer of rice?

4. The first airplane that the Wright brothers built was a __________. It couldn't get off
the ground.

5. it is a great _________ to be given an award.

6. A person with ___________ problems has trouble breathing.

7. A week after surgery, he went to his doctor for a _________ examination.

8. The only ________ we had on our trip was not being able to find our hotel.

9. Any household cleaners that are ________ must be kept out of reach of children.

10. Destruction from the storm was _________; few houses were left undamaged.

II. True/False/Not Enough Information

242
_____ 1. The tobacco plant is native to Asia.

_____ 2. Some Native Americans used tobacco in their religious rites.

_____ 3. The Spanish explorers learned to smoke tobacco, while the Portuguese used
tobacco as snuff.

_____ 4. Tobacco wasn't banned until the 1900s.

_____ 5. People have always known that smoking is bad for their health.

_____ 6. In the early 20th century, there was already evidence of a link between
smoking in their movies.

_____ 7. The tobacco industry can no longer pay filmmakers to show people smoking
in their movies.

_____ 8. You don't have to smoke yourself to be affected by cigarette smoke.

_____ 9. Parents who smoke are more likely to have children who smoke.

_____ 10. The children of smokers are more likely to have respiratory problems than
are the children of nonsmokers.

III. Answer the following questions orally.

1. What are some of the different ways in which people have used the tobacco plant?

2. What is snuff?

3. Why did the Spanish and Portuguese explorers use tobacco differently?

4. Where was smoking banned in the 17th century?

5. Why didn't governments enforce the smoking ban in the 17th century?

6. How did the U.S. government try to discourage smoking in the 1960s?

7. What did the tobacco industry do to encourage people to smoke?

243
8. What is secondhand smoke?

9. What effect can smoking have on nonsmokers?

10. In addition to causing lung cancer, what other effects can smoking have on a
person's health?

11. What has the government of Bhutan done to discourage people from smoking?

244
Unit Twenty
Part B: Vocabulary

emerge jagged linger ambush


crafty defiant vigor perish
fragile captive prosper devour

1. Emerge: come out; come up; come into view


a. When the fight was over, the underdog emerged the winner.
b. You have to be nimble to emerge from the narrow opening in five seconds.
c. What emerged from the bottle was a blend of fruit juices.

2. Jagged: with sharp points sticking out; unevenly cut or torn


a. Being reckless, Rudy didn't watch out for the jagged steel.
b. It's an enormous job to smooth the jagged edge of a fence.
c. Leslie's hair was so jagged it was scarcely possible to tell that it had just been cut.

3. Linger: stay on; go slowly as if unwilling to leave


a. The odor didn't vanish, but lingered on for weeks.
b. Some traditions linger on long after they have lost their meanings.
c. After the campus closed for the summer, some students lingered on, reluctant to go
home.

4. Ambush: a trap in which soldiers or other enemies hide to make a surprise attack
a. The ambush became a tragedy for those who attempted it because they were all killed.
b. General Taylor raved about the ingenious ambush he planned.
c. The troops lay in ambush in the dense woods all through the night.

5. Crafty: skillful in deceiving others; sly; tricky


a. His crafty mind prepared a comprehensive plan to defraud his partners.
b. Leo didn't use brutal strength against his opponents, but he used his crafty bag of tricks
to beat them.
c. The Indians did not fall for the crafty ambush.

6. Defiant: openly resisting; challenging


a. "I refuse to be manipulated," the defiant young woman told her father.
b. Professor Carlyle was defiant of any attempt to disprove his theory.
c. Defiant of everyone, the addict refused to be helped.

7. Vigor: active strength or force


a. Having a great deal of vigor, Jason was able to excel in all sports.
b. Tom Thumb made up for size by having more vigor than most people.
c. Putting all her vigor into the argument, Patsy persuaded me to let her drive.

8. Perish: be destroyed; die


a. Unless the plant gets water for its roots to absorb, it will perish.

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b. Custer and all his men perished at the Little Big Horn.
c. We are trying to make sure that democracy will never perish from this earth.

9. Fragile: easily broken, damaged, or destroyed; delicate


a. The expensive glassware is very fragile.
b. Things made out of plywood have a tendency to be fragile.
c. On the box was a label that read, "Fragile! Handle with care!"

10. Captive: prisoner


a. The major was grateful to be released after having been held captive for two years.
b. Until the sheriff got them out, the two boys were held captive in the barn.
c. Placido can hold an audience captive with his marvelous singing voice,

11. Prosper: be successful; have good fortune


a. Howard Hughes owned numerous businesses and most of them prospered.
b. No one should prosper from the misfortunes of his or her friends.
c. The annual report showed that the new business was prospering.

12. Devour: eat hungrily; absorb completely; take in greedily


a. It was a horrid sight to see the lion devour the lamb.
b. The animal doctor was pleased to see the terrier devour the dog food.
c. My aunt devours four or five mystery books each week.

Place one of the new words in each of the blanks below.


1. If we do not do something about pollution, we may --------- from this earth.
2. The ---------- edge of that sheet of metal is very dangerous.
3. We were held --------- by the sinister enemy for ten days.
4. The bank teller's ------- plan to steal a million dollars did not succeed.
5. I like to --------- on until everyone else has left the theater.
6. My parents taught me not to be ---------- of authority.
7. Did the -------- of the Lebanese soldiers fail?
8. Business persons can ------ if they are honest with their customers.
9. A new star has just ---------- from the rock music world.
10. I can ---------- a steak in two minutes when I am very hungry.
11. With a surprising show of -------- the old woman swam up and down the pool six times.
12. A lack of calcium in the student's diet caused his bones to be quite ----------.

Circle the word that most nearly expresses the meaning of the word printed in orange type.
1. Emerge
a. go back b. involve c. disturb d. ruin e. Amuse
2. Captive
a. reluctant b. free to leave c. rapidly constructed d. active e. solitary
3. Ambush
a. openly attack b. readily remove c. secretly strive
d. quickly determine e. water thoroughly

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4. Fragile
a. demanding b. sturdy c. careful d. genuine e. shrewd
5. Devour
a. charge b. figure out c. nourish d. leave untouched e. perish
6. Jagged
a. confusing b. smooth-edged c. linked together
d. microscope e. unspoiled
7. Defiant
a. ready act b. wiling to obey c. reliable
d. vulgar d. evasive
8. Linger
a. underestimate b. exclude c. wither
d. leave quickly e. neglect
9. Vigor
a. lack of strength b. lack of funds c. lack of ability
d. lack of understanding e. lack of tradition
10. Crafty
a. honest b. wretched c. vulgar
d. mystical d. absurd
11. Prosper
a. be unsuccessful b. manipulate c. penetrate
d. assemble e. license
12. Perish
a. fight b. live c. ban
d. resent d. molest

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Unit Twenty
Part C: Grammar

96 Degrees of Comparison-Comparative Adjectives

Remember that two- and three- syllable adjectives form the comparative by
using more or less before the adjective form. One-syllable adjectives form the
comparative by using er after the form. Two syllable adjectives which end in y form
the comparative by changing the y to / and adding er.

More (less) adjective (two


syllables)
Adjective er (one syllable)
Adjective er (two syllables Than
ending in y)
An essay test is Moe difficult Than An objective test
An essay test is Harder Than An objective test
An essay test is Easier Than A ojecctive test

Avoid using as or that instead of than. Avoid sing both more and an er form

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: This room is more spacious as the order one.


CORRECT: This room is more spacious than the order one.

INCORRECT: The bill which we received was more higher than the estimate.
CORRECT: The bill which we received was higher than the estimate.

INCORRECT: Ellen has been more happy lately than she was when she first came.
CORRECT: Ellen has been happier lately than she was when she first came.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

The Disney amusement park in Japan is ______ Florida or California.


(A) the largest than the ones in
(B) larger than the ones in
(C) larger the ones in
(D) the largest of the ones

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

The diesel engine that runs on oil is efficient than most other engines because
(A) (B) (C) (C)

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it converts more of the useful energy stored up in the fuel.

97 Degrees of Comparison-Superlative Adjectives

Remember that superlatives are used to compare more than two.

The more (least) adjective (two syllables)


adjective er (one syllable)
adjective est (two syllables ending in e)
An essay test is the most difficult
An essay test is the hardest
An essay test is the trickiest

Avoid using a comparative -er form when three or more are compared.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: She is more prettier than all of the girls in our class.
CORRECT: She is the prettiest of all of the girls in our class.

INCORRECT: New York is the larger of all American cities.


CORRECT: New York is the largest of all American cities.

INCORRECT: Of all of the candidates, Alex is probably the less qualified.


CORRECT: Of all of the candidates, Alex is probably the least qualified.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

The blue whale is _______ known animal, reaching a length of more than one hundred
feet.
(A) the large
(B) the larger
(C) the largest
(D) most largest

Part B: Choose the incorrect answer and correct it.

The more important theorem of all in plane geometry is the Pythagorean


(A) (B) (C) (D)
Theorem.

98 Degrees of Comparison-Irregular Adjectives

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Remember that some very common adjectives have irregular forms. Some of
them are listed here for you.

Comparative- Superlative-
Adjective to compare two to compare three or more

bad worse the worst


far farther the furthest
further the furthest
good better the best
little less the least
many more the most
much more the most

Irregular comparative than


This ice cream is better than the other brands

Irregular superlative
This ice cream is the best of all

Avoid using a regular form instead of an irregular form for these adjectives.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: The lab is more far from the bus stop than the library.
CORRECT: The lab is farther from the bus stop than the library.
or
The lab is further from the bus stop than the library.

INCORRECT: The baldest accident in the history of the city occurred last night on
the North Freeway.
CORRECT: The worst accident in the history of the city occurred last night on
the North Freeway.

INCORRECT: These photographs are very good, but that one is the better of all.
CORRECT: These photographs are very good, but that one is the best of all.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

______ apples are grown in Washington State.

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(A) Best
(B) The most good
(C) The best
(D) The better

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

Because a felony is more bad than a misdemeanor, the punishment is more server, and
often includes a jail sentence as well as a fine.

99 Degrees of Comparison-Comparative Adverbs

Remember that adverbs also have a comparative form to compare two verb
actions and a superlative form to compare three or more verb action.

More adverb (two + syllables)


Less adverb (two + syllables)
Adverb er (one syllable)
We finished the test Mark
We finished the test Mark
We finished the test mark
the most adverb (two + syllabus)
the least adverb (two syllabus)
adverb est (one syllable)
We finished the test The most rapidly of all
We finished the test The least rapidly of all
We finished the test The fastest of all

Avoid using er with adverbs of more than one syllable even when they end in
ly.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: Professor Tucker was pleased because our group approached the
project more scientifically the others.
CORRECT: Professor Tucker was pleased because our group approached the
project more scientifically than the others.

INCORRECT: This train always leaves late than the time on the schedule.
CORRECT: This train always leaves later than the time on the schedule.

INCORRECT: The students in Dr. Neal's class complained the most bitter about the
grading system.
CORRECT: The students in Dr. Neal's class complained the most bitterly about the
grading system.

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EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

Many chemicals react ______ in acid solutions.


(A) more quick
(B) more quickly
(C) quicklier
(D) as quickly more

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

Quality control studies show that employees work the most efficient when they
(A)
are involved in the total operation rather than in only one part of it.
(B) (C) (D)

100 Double Comparatives

Remember that when two comparatives are used together, the first comparative
expresses cause and the second comparative expresses result. A comparative is more or
less with an adjective, or an adjectives with er.

CAUSE RESULT
The More You Review, The Easier The patterns Will be

Avoid using as instead of the. Avoid using the incorrect form Avoid omitting the. Avoid
omitting er from the adjective.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: The more you study during the semester, the lesser you have to study
the week before exams.
CORRECT: The more we finish, the soon we can leave.

INCORRECT: The faster we finish, the soon we can leave.


CORRECT: The faster we finish, the sooner we can leave.

INCORRECT: The less one earns, the lesser one must pay in income taxes.
CORRECT: The less one earns, the less one must pay in income taxes.

EXERCISES

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Part A: Choose the correct answer.

It is generally true that the lower the stock marker falls, _______.
(A) higher the price of gold rise
(B) the price of gold rises high
(C) the higher the price of gold rises
(D) rises high the price of gold.

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

The higher the solar activity, the intense the auroras or polar light displays in
(A) (B)
the skies near the earth's geomagnetic poles.
(C) (D)

101 Illogical Comparatives- General Similarity and Difference

Remember that comparatives must be made with logically comparable nouns.


You can't compare the climate in the north with the south. You must compare the
climate in the north with the climate in the south.
Remember that that of and those of are used instead of repeating a noun to
express a logical comparative. An example with different from appears below.

noun (singular) different from that


Football in the U.S. Is Different From That In other countries

noun (plural) different from those


The rules are different from those of soccer

Avoid omitting that and those. Avoid using than instead of from with different.

EXAMPLES

INCORRECT: The food in my country is very different than that in the united States.
CORRECT: The food in my country is very different from that in the United
States.

INCORRECT: The classes at my university are very different from State University.
CORRECT: The classes at my university are very different from those at State
University.

INCORRECT: The English that is spoken in Canada is similar to the United States.

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CORRECT: The English that is spoken in Canada is similar to that of the United
States.

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer.

One's fingerprints are ________.


(A) different from those of any other person
(B) different from any other person
(C) different any other person
(D) differs from another person

Part B: Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

Perhaps the colonists were looking for a climate like England, when they
(A) (B)
decided to settle the North American continent instead of South continent.
(C) (D)

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