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Designation: E2126 – 11

Standard Test Methods for
Cyclic (Reversed) Load Test for Shear Resistance of Vertical
Elements of the Lateral Force Resisting Systems for
This standard is issued under the fixed designation E2126; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope E631 Terminology of Building Constructions
1.1 These test methods cover the evaluation of the shear 2.2 ISO Standard:3
stiffness, shear strength, and ductility of the vertical elements ISO 16670 Timber Structures—Joints Made with Mechani-
of lateral force resisting systems, including applicable shear cal Fasteners—Quasi-static Reversed-cyclic Test Method
connections and hold-down connections, under quasi-static 2.3 Other Standards:4
cyclic (reversed) load conditions. ANSI/AF&PA NDS National Design Specification for
1.2 These test methods are intended for specimens con- Wood Construction
structed from wood or metal framing braced with solid 3. Terminology
sheathing or other methods or structural insulated panels.
1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded 3.1 For definitions of terms used in this standard, see
as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical Terminology E631.
conversions to SI units that are provided for information only 3.2 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard:
and are not considered standard. 3.2.1 ductility ratio, cyclic (D), n—the ratio of the ultimate
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the displacement (Du) and the yield displacement (Dyield) of a
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the specimen observed in cyclic test.
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- 3.2.2 elastic shear stiffness (Ke) (see 9.1.4, Fig. 1), n—the
priate safety and health practices and determine the applica- resistance to deformation of a specimen in the elastic range
bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. before the first major event (FME) is achieved, which can be
expressed as a slope measured by the ratio of the resisted shear
2. Referenced Documents load to the corresponding displacement.
2.1 ASTM Standards:2 3.2.3 envelope curve (see Fig. 2), n—the locus of extremi-
D2395 Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Wood and ties of the load-displacement hysteresis loops, which contains
Wood-Based Materials the peak loads from the first cycle of each phase of the cyclic
D4442 Test Methods for Direct Moisture Content Measure- loading and neglects points on the hysteresis loops where the
ment of Wood and Wood-Base Materials absolute value of the displacement at the peak load is less than
D4444 Test Method for Laboratory Standardization and that in the previous phase.
Calibration of Hand-Held Moisture Meters Discussion—Specimen displacement in the positive
E564 Practice for Static Load Test for Shear Resistance of direction produces a positive envelope curve; the negative
Framed Walls for Buildings specimen displacement produces a negative envelope curve.
E575 Practice for Reporting Data from Structural Tests of The positive direction is based on outward movement of the
Building Constructions, Elements, Connections, and As- hydraulic actuator.
semblies 3.2.4 envelope curve, average (see Fig. 3), n—envelope
curve obtained by averaging the absolute values of load and
displacement of the corresponding positive and the negative
These test methods are under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E06 on
Performance of Buildings and are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E06.11
envelope points for each cycle.
on Horizontal and Vertical Structures/Structural Performance of Completed Struc- 3.2.5 equivalent energy elastic-plastic (EEEP) curve (see
tures. 9.1.4, Fig. 1), n—an ideal elastic-plastic curve circumscribing
Current edition approved May 1, 2011. Published May 2011. Originally
approved in 2001. Last previous edition approved in 2010 as E2126 – 10. DOI:
10.1520/E2126-11. Available from International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 1, ch. de
For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website,, or la Voie-Creuse, Case postale 56, CH-1211, Geneva 20, Switzerland, http://
contact ASTM Customer Service at For Annual Book of ASTM
Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on Available from American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA), 1111 19th
the ASTM website. St., NW, Suite 800, Washington, DC 20036,

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Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Wed Aug 29 09:01:51 EDT 2012
Downloaded/printed by
Universidad Nacional de Colombia pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.

state to occur (see limit state). E2126 – 11 FIG.2. Pyield) 3. n—the first significant limit is permitted to be determined using the EEEP curve (see 9. Sheathing panels that are a component of 3. the yield point (Dyield. specimens are determined by subjecting a specimen to full- 3. nonlinear ductile elastic response. This is accomplished by resisting system to be tested. n—the dis- displacement curve is used to calculate the EEEP curve. directly on the sill plate.2.2.8 Ppeak an area equal to the area enclosed by the envelope curve 3.11 stabilized response.2. racked to specified displacement increments. Wed Aug 29 09:01:51 EDT 2012 2 Downloaded/printed by Universidad Nacional de Colombia pursuant to License Agreement.2.1 The elastic shear stiffness. the Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). n—the point on the (shear) load and displacements are continuously measured (see envelope curve corresponding to the maximum absolute dis.9 limit state.) As the specimen is amplitude. For specimens with failure limit state. and the dis.2. anchoring the bottom edge of the specimen to a test base structural insulated panels.8 first major event (FME). ment corresponding to the failure limit state in cyclic test. such as most structural insulated panels. cyclic (Du). placement Dpeak at the maximum absolute load (Ppeak) resisted NOTE 1—If the end-use applications require sheathing panels bear by the specimen. The specimen is allowed to lateral force resisting system. n—the load corresponding to the the assembly decreases 5 % or more.7 failure load (Pu). portal frames. n—the point in the load- equal or greater than |0. corresponding to the last data point with the absolute load 3. 3. Summary of Test Method states. monotonic (Dm). No further reproductions authorized.4). the ultimate displacement. n—load resistance that differs a specimen shall be positioned such that they do not bear on the not more than 5 % between two successive cycles at the same test frame during testing.7). 1. placement corresponding to the failure limit state in monotonic 3. n—the point on the envelope curve test.2. as illustrated in Fig. For monotonic tests. 8. displace in its plane. the observed load.10 specimen. 1 Performance Parameters of Specimen: (A) Last Point at Pu $ 0.2. displacement relationship where the elastic shear stiffness of 3. shear strength and ductility of is altered significantly.2. the racking 3.6 failure limit state.15 yield limit state.12 strength limit state (see Fig.8 Ppeak|.13 ultimate displacement. etc. .2.14 ultimate displacement. n—the displace- between the origin. n—the vertical element of the lateral force reversal cyclic racking shear loads. Example of specimens are walls. (See Note 1. 1). placement axis. n—an event that demarks the two behavior 4. A specimen can simulating intended end-use applications and applying a force be a single element or an entire line of resistance within a parallel to the top of the specimen.1. 3. at which time some structural behavior of the specimen 4.

8 Ppeak (continued) FIG. E2126 – 11 FIG. . No further reproductions authorized. 2 Examples of Observed Hysteresis Curve and Envelope Curves for Test Method A Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). Wed Aug 29 09:01:51 EDT 2012 3 Downloaded/printed by Universidad Nacional de Colombia pursuant to License Agreement. 1 Performance Parameters of Specimen: (B) Last Point at Pu = 0.

2. tion. frame unless the purpose of the test requires bracing on both 6. For intended use requirements over a non- subjected to earthquake loads. as well as potentially shrink due to changing moisture content. provided that the design value of stress perpendicular of selected elements. When strap connections are used. It is the committee construction. The hold-down bolts the report in accordance with Section 10.2 Connections—The performance of specimens is influ. Significance and Use 6. Wed Aug 29 09:01:51 EDT 2012 4 Downloaded/printed by Universidad Nacional de Colombia pursuant to License Agreement. judgment that the maximum bolt tension should not be more than 300 lbf Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved).2. a mock-up flexible base shall be constructed loading process simulates the actions and their effects on the to simulate field conditions. connections and hold-down connectors. etc. inside/outside the sheathing. The enced by the type. which may affect the test results. E2126 – 11 FIG. spacing. Elements used to anchor bolts shall be tightened to no more than finger tight plus construct specimens may be varied to permit anticipated failure a 1⁄8 turn. pre-tension in a configuration that simulates the field applica- bracing elements. The bracing is attached on one side of the ment. Structural details.. fastener edge distance. they shall 6. 5.2 Attachment to the Test Base—Specimen shall be 5. and the gap between panels. dance with hold-down manufacturer’s recommendation. and the NOTE 2—Since solid wood and wood-based composites relax over time tightness of the fasteners holding the specimen to the test base. and fastenings. 2 Examples of Observed Hysteresis Curve and Envelope Curves for Test Method B (continued) specimen may be tested with sheathing panels that bear on the sill plate. such as fastener schedules.2. the frame in a manner to conform to 6. diagonal bracing. attached to the test base with fasteners in a manner representing mance of vertical elements of the lateral force resisting system field conditions.1 Sheathing Panel Attachments—All panel attachments of the finger tight plus a 1⁄8 turn is to avoid any significant pre-tension on shall be consistent with the types used in actual building the anchor bolts. the rigid foundation. the intent 6. Since these loads are cyclic. if applicable. The test report shall include details regarding this attach- etc.1 General—The typical specimen consists of a frame. Consideration shall be given to the specimens. Specimen be installed (that is.2.3 Anchor and Hold-Down Bolts—When the specimen sides. No further reproductions authorized. . shall be tightened consistently between replicates in accor- 6.) without 6. The elements of the specimen shall be fastened to the frame is made of solid wood or wood-based composites. shall be reported in accordance with Section 10. such as panel sheathing. and edge distance of fasteners assembly test shall not start within 10 min of the anchor bolt attaching sheathing to framing and spacing of the shear tightening to allow for stress relaxation of the anchor.1 These test methods are intended to measure the perfor. All detailing shall be clearly identified in to the grain is not exceeded (see Note 2). orientation and type of floor joists relative to the orientation of the wall assembly.

3. A torque plates or tracks.2 The bottom of the specimen shall be attached to a test operations (see Test Methods D4442.2 For steel or other metal framing members.3 Frame Requirements—The frame of the specimen shall intended use requirements in actual building construction (see consist of materials representative of those to be used in the Fig. devices. No further reproductions authorized.01 in. (0.33 kN) of bolt tension.9-mm-diameter) UNC bolts. record the the specimen by means of a loading beam or other adequate material specifications and thickness. and specific gravity of the specimen as necessary to prevent displacement from the plane framing members (see Test Methods D2395. Wed Aug 29 09:01:51 EDT 2012 5 Downloaded/printed by Universidad Nacional de Colombia pursuant to License Agreement. The connections of these mem- bers shall be consistent with those intended in actual building 7.-diameter (12.7 and 15. sentative of the published specific gravity for the product with 7. fabrication and testing. It should be noted that. which will result in a nut displacement of approximately 0. For specimens such as grade of lumber used (or the relevant product identification framed walls with sheathing on both faces of framing or information for structural composite lumber framing). Test Methods A or B.254 mm) for constructed by attaching panels together and to top and bottom 1⁄2 and 5⁄8-in. bolt thread pitch (or bolt diameter). restricted.2. A general rule of thumb is to finger-tight plus 1⁄8 turn.65 kN-mm) without bolt lubrication would normally 6. but in-plane displacement shall not be The specific gravity of the framing members shall be repre. The assembly is washer size. of about 50 lbf-in.3.3 Racking load shall be applied horizontally along the no individual member exceeding the published value by more plane of the specimen using a double-acting hydraulic actuator that 10 % (see ANSI/AF&PA NDS for example).5 in. Test Method A).1 The specimen shall be tested such that all elements and 6. The load shall be distributed along the top of 6. actual building construction. with a load cell. or base as specified in 6. record the species and sheathing surfaces are observable. The test apparatus shall support the D4444. (5. E2126 – 11 FIG. if more than 24 h passes between these 7. 7. Test Setup construction. of the specimen.4 Structural Insulated Panel—The panel is prefabricated not seated fully. moisture frameless structural insulated panels. . however.33 kN) for the purpose of ensuring the bolt is not caught on a thread or 6. 2 Examples of Observed Hysteresis Curve and Envelope Curves for Test Method C (continued) (1. The beam used to transfer loads between the hydraulic Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). (38 mm) on wood species and density. Test Methods A or B). 4). the specimens are dis- content of the framing members at the time of the specimen mantled after tests to permit observation of all elements. and plate minimum sandwiched between two facings.1 For wood framing members.5 Specimen Size—The specimen shall have a height and produce 300 lbf (1. the bolt tension depends assembly consisting of an insulating core of 1. length or aspect (height/length) ratio that is consistent with 6.

Test Method C) FIG. . No further reproductions authorized. 4 An Example of Shear Wall Specimen Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). Wed Aug 29 09:01:51 EDT 2012 6 Downloaded/printed by Universidad Nacional de Colombia pursuant to License Agreement. 3 Example of Average Envelope Curve (see Fig. 2. E2126 – 11 FIG.

for applied. NOTE 4—Examples of discontinuities include portal frame openings. less stiffness have been successfully employed. as is shown in Fig. etc. 5 An Example of Test Setup for Shear Wall Specimen cylinder and the test specimen shall be selected so that it does specimen unless justified by analysis of actual building con- not contribute to the measured racking strength and stiffness. transitions between differential bracing types. NOTE 5—The neglect of vertical loads in this standard may result in NOTE 3—The selected stiffness corresponds with an HSS 5 3 3 3 inaccurate estimates of the capacity of the specimen as an element of the 1⁄4-in. Other sections with equal or lateral force resisting system in actual building construction. When vertical loads are 7. at unless the purpose of the test includes the influence of vertical least three specimens of a given construction shall be tested. loads on the system performance (see Appendix X3). . wall perforations.3.4 Test setup shall be designed and installed so that vertical trolled to follow a cyclic displacement procedure described in (gravity) loads from test equipment applied to the specimen are either 8.1 are 7.3 (Test Method A).2 The load beam selected shall not be continuous over capacity of the element. the maximum stiffness of load be reported along with the justification.2 The cyclic displacement of the actuator shall be con- 7. struction or the objective of the testing. The lower of the two test values the load beam and actuator shall be less than 350 lbf (1. the use of continuous 8. 8. However. 8. 5. while the neglect of dead weight of the story discontinuities in the test specimen (see Note 4). beam permitted is 330 000 kips-in. Procedure Continuation of a rigid load beam over these discontinuities can add to the measured in-plane rigidity of the system. values of each specimen calculated according to 9. Other vertical loads shall not be added to the Method C). E2126 – 11 FIG.1. Otherwise.4 (Test Method B). above may underestimate the racking capacity of the element unless buckling is the predominant failure mode. No further reproductions authorized.5 (Test negligible.2 (947 kN-m2) (see Note 3).3. Wed Aug 29 09:01:51 EDT 2012 7 Downloaded/printed by Universidad Nacional de Colombia pursuant to License Agreement.1 Number of Tests—A minimum of two specimens of a load beam over discontinuities may be considered provided that the added given construction shall be tested if the shear strength (vpeak) in-plane rigidity can be justified by the end-use applications. (127 3 76 3 6.3.3 The combined gravity load applied to the specimen by within 10 % of each other. the magnitude and test setup for the vertical load shall example. For example. or 8. Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved).56 kN).1 If applied to the top of the specimen directly. shall be used to calculate the 10 % allowance. the neglect of uplift forces in testing may overestimate the racking 7.4-mm) steel section. 8.

and followed by ments of 1. and a levels. (a # 0. 2. 5 %. then levels.5. each three stabilization cycles are sufficient to obtain a stabilized phase of the loading history consists of a primary cycle with response. the load in a primary cycle has not yet dropped below 0. Wed Aug 29 09:01:51 EDT 2012 8 Downloaded/printed by Universidad Nacional de Colombia pursuant to License Agreement.3. 40 %. at displacements of 20 %. The reference deformation 8. cycles at small amplitudes (of equal amplitude). Protocol—Displacement-controlled loading procedure that in. displacement Dm.5 Test Method C (CUREE Basic Loading Protocol): containing three fully-reversing cycles of equal amplitude. it is permitted to compute EEEP curves. volves displacement cycles grouped in phases at incrementally 8. as shown in Fig. .2 The schedule of amplitude increments between the of 75 % of the primary one.8 Ppeak. 9. each 8. sequential phases is given in Table 1. The cycles shall form either a are a function of the mean value (where applicable) of the sinusoidal wave or a triangular wave. controlled loading procedure that involves displacement cycles The value of D shall not exceed 0. The amplitude incre- NOTE 6—The initiation cycles serve to check loading equipment.5) over the previous primary cycle. in accordance with 9.25 %.4 Test Method B (ISO 16670 Protocol): D shall be an estimate of the maximum displacement at which 8. The amplitude of each consecutive decay cycle amplitude expressed as a fraction (percent) of the reference decreases by 25 % of the initial displacement. The first displacement consist of a primary cycle with an increase in amplitude of a pattern consists of five single fully reversed cycles at displace.5 %. and 10 % of the ultimate two trailing cycles with amplitude of 75 % of the primary one. 8.1 Sequential Phased Displacement (SPD) Loading amplitude. which is given in Table CUREE Basic Loading Protocol—Displacement- pated FME.4. The first displacement pattern consists of three phases. ments selected for the SPD procedure are based on the FME measurement devices. D. For nailed wood-frame walls. To determine Dyield.3. and 75 % of antici. Further. No further reproductions authorized. 7. 6 Cyclic Displacement Schedule (Test Method A) Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). Each subsequent phase shall patterns and is illustrated in Fig. FIG. Table 3 and is illustrated in Fig. Each phase is associated with a respective displacement grouped in phases at incrementally increasing displacement level and contains one initial cycle. 7. The SPD loading ultimate displacement (Dm) obtained from matched specimens consists of two displacement patterns and is illustrated in Fig. specimen in accordance with Practice E564. E2126 – 11 8.2 The schedule of amplitude increments is given in 1 based on monotonic test data. 8. and the force-deformation response at small am- determined from the static monotonic load test on an identical plitudes. The second displacement pattern consists of dure): phases. The second displacement pattern is illustrated in controlled loading procedure that involves displacement cycles Fig. three decay cycles. If grouped in phases at incrementally increasing displacement the panel has not failed at the end of Phase 8 of Table 3. at displacements representing 25 %.5 %. The loading history starts with a series of (six) initiation number of stabilization cycles. each containing three fully reversed cycles of equal 8.4. 80 %. 100 %. and 120 % of the ultimate displacement D m. increasing displacement levels. 50 %.1 ISO Displacement Schedule—Displacement. in the monotonic tests in accordance with Practice E564.025 times the wall height.2 The sequence of amplitudes.5. and subsequent trailing cycles with amplitude 8. 8.3 Test Method A (Sequential-Phased Displacement Proce. 6. The ISO loading schedule consists of two displacement additional phases shall be added. 60 %. deformation.

that is.5 in./s (1.6 The actuator displacement in Test Methods A.2 between 0. The loading shall follow the corresponding constant rate of displacement. frequency shall range from 0. or C effects of the mass of the wall and test fixture hardware during shall be controlled at either constant cyclic frequency or at a cyclic loading. . The cyclic Ppeak.04 and 2. B. E2126 – 11 FIG.5 mm/s). 7 Single Phase of Pattern 2 (Test Method A) FIG.2 to 0.0 and 63. No further reproductions authorized. 8 Cyclic Displacement Schedule (Test Method B) 8. until the failure limit state occurs.5 Hz to avoid inertial Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). The rate of displacement shall be procedure until the applied load diminishes more than 0. Wed Aug 29 09:01:51 EDT 2012 9 Downloaded/printed by Universidad Nacional de Colombia pursuant to License Agreement.

005 in.5 5 1 10 2 6 3 20 7 3 40 8 3 60 9 3 80 10 3 100 11 3 Additional increments of 20 (until specimen failure) 8. 9 Cyclic Displacement Pattern (Test Method C) TABLE 1 Test Method A—Amplitudes of Initial Cycles Minimum Number Amplitude of Initial Cycle Pattern Step of CyclesA % FME 1 1 3 25 2 3 50 3 3 75 2 4 7 100 5 7 125 6 7 150 7 7 175 8 7 200 9 7 250 10 7 300 11 7 350 12 Additional increments of 50 (until specimen failure) A See 8.13 mm) or ment under cyclic loading conditions.25 2 1 2. Wed Aug 29 09:01:51 EDT 2012 10 Downloaded/printed by Universidad Nacional de Colombia pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized. (0. . at a minimum sampling Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved).1 for details. TABLE 2 Test Method B—Amplitudes of the Reversed Cycles Minimum Number Pattern Step Amplitude.7 Displacements shall be measured with displacement other suitable devices for continuously measuring displace- measuring devices with a resolution of 0.3. E2126 – 11 FIG.5 3 1 5 4 1 7. % Dm of Cycles 1 1 1 1.

in. ft (m). Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). shear forces. If the laboratory chooses to report one set greater than that at Ppeak.1. The where: reference point for this measurement shall be on or immedi. test.4 When specified by 9.4 and the calculations outlined in Section 9 shall be yield limit state and strength limit state.2. the FME and the ultimate displacement then the positive and negative envelope curves shall be shall be determined directly from the envelope curve. D. (includes shear and uplift deformation for the connec- 8. conducted for each specimen based up the average envelope 9.1 Horizontal displacement of the specimen at the top P H plate. relative to the end posts (deformation of the connectors and P = applied load measured at the top edge of the speci- fastener slip). K .85 Ppeak e Ppeak npeak 5 L (1) where: Pyield = yield load. G8 5 D 3 L (2) 8. (N/m).1 Based on the observed hysteresis response curves.7. rate of 100 readings per cycle. 9. at 0.1 Shear Strength (npeak) lbf/ft (N/m)—The maximum S Œ Pyield 5 Du 2 2A e D D2u 2 K Ke (3) load per unit specimen length resisted by the specimen in the 2A given envelope shall be calculated as follows: If D2u .1. Wed Aug 29 09:01:51 EDT 2012 11 Downloaded/printed by Universidad Nacional de Colombia pursuant to License Agreement. represents the secant shear the rigid base (lateral in-plane sliding). Calculate averaged to produce an average envelope curve according to values of displacement.7. men. and (N·m). 8. where: A = the area under envelope curve from zero to ulti- Ppeak = maximum load resisted by the specimen in the mate displacement (Du) of the specimen. ft (m). G8. lbf/in. % D 1 1 6 5 2 2 7 7.4. lbf·in. Ke. develop an EEEP curve to curve. given envelope. 1 illustrates typical EEEP NOTE 7—If the specimen behavior in the positive and negative quad- curve. If the laboratory chooses to report the positive L = length of specimen.4 Ppeak is dance with Section 9. generate the EEEP curve as described of performance parameters that characterizes both envelopes. and hold-down 9.7. in 9.2 Vertical (upward and downward) displacement of both end posts (or equivalent) relative to the rigid base. lbf (N).7.1. ft (m). If the shear stiffness (shear modulus) at 0.5 When specified. Otherwise. a reasonable approximation of the average performance The plastic portion is a horizontal line equal to Pyield deter- can be achieved by determining the parameters from positive and negative mined by the following equation: envelopes individually and then averaging them (see Appendix X4). .3 Cyclic ductility ratio. it is permitted to assume Pyield 5 0. This includes both the shear deflection of the sheathing material and its connections. as applicable.2 Secant shear modulus.5. lbf (N). envelope (positive and negative) curves are generated for each H = height of specimen.1. The elastic portion of the EEEP curve contains the rants is similar (major events occur in the same phases on the negative and origin and has a slope equal to the elastic shear stiffness. shall be (positive and negative) shall be analyzed separately in accor. shall be provided for measuring displacements. and shear modulus at the 3. No further reproductions authorized.3 Horizontal displacement of the bottom plate relative to tion system). calculated. the systems. Fig.5 3 7 10 3 4 4 20 5 4 30 4 6 3 40 7 3 70 8 3 100 9 3 100 + 100aA 10 3 Additional increments of 100a (until specimen failure) A a # 0. stiffness at specified specimen displacements times 8. lbf (N). The following instrumentation L = length of specimen. then both envelopes 9.7.2. (m). and negative performances individually.4 Vertical displacement of the hold-down connectors the aspect ratio. E2126 – 11 TABLE 3 Test Method C—Amplitude of Primary Cycles Minimum Number Amplitude of Primary Pattern Step of Cycles Cycle.3. loads on the bolts fastening the D = displacement of the top edge of the specimen based on hold-down connectors to the rigid base.1.1. positive sides).1. as described in 3.4 Ppeak and at Ppeak connector forces when required: shall be calculated as follows: 8. and tested specimen. and the 9. represent the envelope curve. Calculation contribution of the shear and hold-down connection 9. G8 = shear modulus of the specimen obtained from test ately adjacent to the outside face of the end post.

strain with Practice E575. as or otherwise describing any deviations from the test method. currently unavailable. shear strength.6.4. D and G8 at yield 10.6 Drawing showing plan.2 Details of the physical characteristics or structural change and significant events. tensile strength.4 Ppeak/De.1. thickness. yield point.6.1. 10. the report text.4).7 Description of general ambient conditions includ.2 ing. 9.1. testing. lateral-force specimen and the test setup (see 10.1. in the given envelope.9 Description of any noted defects existing in the are permitted. . 11. of the specimen. including a description of the test base and whether specifically required by test results.1.1.4 Location of load application and load cell.1 Date of the test and of report. source of supply.1 cyclic loads.5 Description of construction materials (for example. gauges.1-10. design. lbf (N). based on monotonic test results.1.1. A gener- of components used.2 Complete record (table or plot) of individual dis- 10. the procedures in this section 10.1.6 Summary of results.4.1 The report shall include the following information: placements required to be measured in 8. spacing.4.1. as appro. and other pertinent information.4 Detailed description of the specimen and the test displacements at yield limit state and failure limit state. locations. No further reproductions authorized.4. including the following: applicable (see 9.4.5 EEEP curve developed from the mean loads and 10. with Dm substituting for Du. E2126 – 11 Ppeak = maximum absolute load resisted by the specimen (1) At construction. model. including a statement that the than |0.1. resisting systems.1 Hysteresis loops (applied load versus displacement 10.3 Identification of the specimen (test number. density. illustrated in Fig. earthquake. 10. and (3) At test.4 As-tested and mean values of P.1. shear displacement.4.5 Description of the test. or both. if applicable. framed walls.4. racking loads.1.7 Description of failure modes and any behavior 10. if setup.4 Ppeak. ally accepted method for determining precision and bias is type.5). the 10.1.10 Signatures of responsible persons are in accordance 10.2 Names of the test sponsors and test agency and their mens (9.8 Ppeak| (past strength limit state). priate for materials used). including: 10.4. Ke = 0.1. Keywords section. in. dimensions. the numerous individual elements that comprise the specimen compressive strength.8 Modifications made on the specimen during test- 9. 10. (mm). 10. principal cross Wed Aug 29 09:01:51 EDT 2012 12 Downloaded/printed by Universidad Nacional de Colombia pursuant to License Agreement.3. 11. and so forth. such as failure modes and crack patterns. the failure limit state test or tests were conducted in accordance with this test method shall be determined at 0.1.1. (2) During curing or seasoning.1.6.1. portal frames.1.6. and edge distance of fasteners attaching sheath- picting conditions that cannot otherwise be easily described in ing to framing. manufacturer and the small number of replicate specimens tested.3 and 9. and other items for test as appli- cable. 10. elevation. Report at the top of the specimen) for every specimen tested. structural ing the following: insulated panels Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved).1).8 Photographs of the specimen. specimen prior to test.1.5 If the envelope curve contains data points at loads less 10. 10. 10. Include special observa- sheathing panels are directly bearing on the sill plate during tions for building code approvals. and so limit state and strength limit state in accordance with Section 9.8 Ppeak using linear interpolation.1.1. Precision and Bias 10.1. including.1.4. 10. moisture content.1.1 To generate an EEEP curve as described in 8.3 Shear strength (npeak) from tests of identical speci- 10.9 Appendix (if needed) that includes all data not fixture. rigid support.4.3 Details of attachment of the specimen in the test 10. 1. 10.1 Dimensions of the specimen. deflection gauges. 10. and other details as needed for description of the 12. shear stiffness.1. if applicable (including De = displacement of the top edge of the specimen at elapsed time from construction to test). for each test.1 No statement on the precision and bias is offered due to material type and grade. 10.4. forth).1. and 0. 10. particularly those de- type.

this standard. aspect ratio of 4:1. which was based on the statistical analysis of seismic demands on developed by the Structural Engineers Association of Southern light-frame buildings representative of California (in particular California (SEAOSC) to test wood or steel framed shear walls Los Angeles) conditions. which indicates that a unique cyclic displacement primary cycles with large amplitudes.3 Selection of Test Method A Versus Test Method B: standard permits a reduction in step size only for phases in X2. As noted in 8.2.1. Test Method B may be X2. DETERMINATION OF FIRST MAJOR EVENT X1. The reason is that the large sufficiently describe elastic and inelastic cyclic properties. If the first estimate is inappropriate. These X2. energy dissipation. the results of a monotonic test. the following guidelines were used: Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). At relatively large deforma- results of the two test methods.1 Wood-Framed Walls with Wood Structural Panel during the test. If the purpose of the experiment is acceptance tened timber joints. Test Method B the cyclic loading history. There is a considerable breadth of information and mation history to which a component of a wood structure likely vast databases on walls tested under Ref (2). or a consensus value that may prove to be 5 The boldface numbers in parentheses refer to a list of references at the end of useful for comparing tests of different details or configurations. The limit state in turn denotes an event marking Sheathing—Aspect ratios of 2:1 or less. Both test methods are intended to generate similar pattern that exhibits decay cycles between the steps in the displacement amplitudes in order to obtain similar number of loading pattern. X2. is a measure of the phase that bases the cycles on the percentage of an ultimate deformation capacity (Du) of the specimen when subjected to displacement determined through static tests.5. For the purposes of acceptance testing it would be permissible to correlate the is subjected in earthquakes (7.1 Test Method A is a sequential phased displacement preferable.25 in. (31 mm). The which the acceptance criteria are met).1.2.4 D).1 Test Method A: Dm and FME is less than three. Smaller step sizes close or loading history will always be a compromise. data obtained can be revised for the subsequent tests.1. . the FME can be determined from monotonic load tests on an X1. FME = 0. then it is permissible to reduce the step size of the in Ref (3-6).1. Test Method B is a ramped displacement X2. The following estimates offer guidance for a typical 8-ft (2. It is used to control the loading may be more applicable to systems that exhibit linear elastic history. FME = 1. These decay cycles provide information on points in the envelope curves.1.4 mm). No further reproductions authorized. with a to be chosen by the user. This X2.2.2. It was developed X2.1. E2126 – 11 APPENDIXES (Nonmandatory Information) X1. (6.1. FME = 0.1 Test Method A Versus Test Method B behavior where FME is the strength limit state. 8). The CUREE basic loading history is for earthquake resistance. (20 phase change between two behavior states.4-mm) wall. tions (primary cycles exceeding an amplitude of 0.5 An example where a lower bound displacement causing hysteretic energy dissipa. and therefore needs to be estimated prior to the test. D.1 The FME is the first significant limit state that occurs X1.2 Test Method C tion may occur would be a bolted connection through an X2. X2. Wed Aug 29 09:01:51 EDT 2012 13 Downloaded/printed by Universidad Nacional de Colombia pursuant to License Agreement.2 Wood-Framed Walls with Gypsum Sheathing— identical specimen.8 in. If the ratio of X2.1. even though they will Test Method B test protocol is intended to produce data that result in larger cumulative damage. and step sizes of the basic loading history permit evaluation of typical failure mode that is expected in earthquake loading. but one that is to failure may result in a larger capacity (largest amplitude at conservative for most practical cases should be selected. In CUREE Project (7).1 Test Method A may be applicable to systems when which the amplitude of the primary cycle exceeds D. the X2. The Ref (2) is currently not being a realistic and conservative representation of the cyclic defor- maintained. SELECTION OF CYCLING METHOD X2.2 Test Method B: amplitude of the primary cycles increases by large steps.1. The background for this standard is given testing. addition to the family of cyclic test protocols. produce hysteretic energy dissipation (1). The difference is the number of whether there is a lower bound in displacement required to cycles in each phase (step). mm).2 Test Method A is based on Ref (2).1. large steps are based on statistics of inelastic time history oped for ISO 16670. acceptance only at discrete and large amplitude intervals. responses.3.2 The reference deformation. The estimate can be based on previous experience.3.2 in. the Aspect ratios of 2:1 or less. but a # 0. a method for testing mechanically fas.1 The cyclic protocol for Test Method B was devel. In that FME is the yield limit state or for testing slack systems to regime the amplitude the primary cycle may be increased by determine a lower bound displacement causing hysteretic aD.1.1 Test Method C (CUREE protocol) is the latest over-drilled hole.

Therefore. as the reference deformation for the basic cyclic load test.2.6 Dm is suggested. In test X4.1 CUREE recommendations (9) suggest that top of wall setups where vertical load from the actuator is carried by the boundary conditions may influence wall test results.56-kN) load limit is based on committee judgment that test a wall either vertically or horizontally. which provides data on time. The 350-lbf test will exaggerate the measured response in test frames that (1. that is. On the other hand.2. Calculation of average param- analyze the positive and negative envelope curves for a eters individually from the negative and the positive envelopes specimen individually and report the corresponding response will provide a practical approximation of the average param- parameters without averaging. eters for reasonably symmetric envelopes. Using this approach reduces the non-conservatism for a specific specimen configuration.1 envelope (positive and negative) individually and then averag- may require an adjustment. negative excursion within the same cycle. the parameters should be program is intended for code acceptance. for monotonic test and a cyclic test in which cumulative damage the first time. In laboratory estimating any form of average response to characterize a practices. if the test for structural design purposes. E2126 – 11 X2. gDm. applied to the specimen. specimen shall be minimized to the extent practical.2. TEST SETUP X3. . For example.1 Performance Parameters—It is always permissible to a moderately asymmetric wall. X2. This capacity is account for the difference in deformation capacity between defined as the deformation at which the applied load drops. The test setup.2 Use a specific fraction of Dm. Wed Aug 29 09:01:51 EDT 2012 14 Downloaded/printed by Universidad Nacional de Colombia pursuant to License Agreement.2.1 Perform a monotonic test. The inertia from a heavy load beam during a cyclic not impose any vertical load on the specimen. a value of D = 0. the responses from most wall tests are asymmetrical system that is grossly asymmetric. Test frames have been constructed that do orientation. the number of tests (two) set of parameters is used to summarize the specimen response specified in 8. if the test program is ing can result in non-conservative estimates of the perfor- mance. considered a range of test frames that are successfully the mass of the load beam and any hydraulics supported by the employed. Determining the average response parameters for a specimen with dissimilar X4. it is the committee judgment that when one intended for an exploratory study. below 80 % of the maximum load that was will lead to earlier deterioration in strength. Dm. However. At this X3. For these reasons. No further reproductions authorized. the to some degree as damage created with an initial positive positive and negative envelopes should always be analyzed and excursion tends to weaken the response from the subsequent reported individually without averaging. that is. if major puting average performance parameters that characterize both events occur in the same phases on the negative and the envelopes (positive and negative) can make a difference when positive sides. In these instances.2 Number of Tests—Depending on the purpose of a positive and negative envelope curves by analyzing each testing program. three to five replica- calculated from the average envelope as the primary method of tions are typically required by the code evaluation agencies for analysis. COMMENTARY X4. Caution and judgment should be used in a specimen shows an asymmetrical response. The factor g should the monotonic deformation capacity. the impact of the actuator mass may be evidenced by weight of the load beam and actuator on a test specimen can the difference in the positive and negative response from a reduce the anchorage demand in a specimen tested in a vertical symmetrical system.1 may be sufficient. the minimum number of tests required in 8. Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). the method for com.

. 100 Barr Harbor Drive. (5) Foliente. CA.” for Earthquake Engineering.” Proceedings of (2) Structural Engineers Association of Southern California. U. Richmond. 1994. and Dolan. “Performance Tests of Timber Technical Coordinating Committee on Masonry Research. and the risk of infringement of such rights.” Proceedings of Structural Engineering World Congress. G. “Recommendations For Standards for Joints in Timber Structures under Earthquake and Wind Earthquake Resistance in the Design and Construction of Woodframe Loads. Standard Research Needs Workshop. G. and Yasumura. CA. W-30. E. PA 19428-2959. Design.” Bulletin of the New Zealand Society “Development of a Testing Protocol for Wood Frame Structures. (7) Krawinkler. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards./Japan Structural Systems Under Seismic Loads. at the address shown below. Wed Aug 29 09:01:51 EDT 2012 15 Downloaded/printed by Universidad Nacional de Colombia pursuant to License Agreement. C. M. Vol 22. San Francisco. M. (e-mail). 2000.. “Sequential Phased Displacement (SPD) Procedure for T222-6. . “International Test (9) Cobeen. H.. September 1989.. Ref Buildings...astm. K. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee. D. J. Englewood Cliffs.” Earthquake Engineering. Inc. Testing of Timber Structures Under Seismic Loads. 610-832-9555 (fax). TCCMAR Testing. are entirely their own responsibility. Japan. or service@astm. G. or through the ASTM website (www.. CUREE Publication No. Tomamu. 3. either reapproved or withdrawn. November 1995. E. F. Permission rights to photocopy the standard may also be secured from the ASTM website (www. and Coordinated Earthquake Research Program. Engineers.astm..” Proceedings of Third Meeting of the Joint (6) Foliente. COPYRIGHT/). J. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters.. Dynamics of Structures—Theory and Applications to (8) White.. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at 610-832-9585 (phone). CA. A. Sacramento.. 1997. Ayoub. This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and if not revised. 2003. Ibarra. Karacabeyli. available from University of Californi- Method of Cyclic Reverse Load Tests for Shear Resistance of Framed a–Berkeley.S.. NJ. Walls for Buildings.. Forest Products Laboratory. R. Parisi. E2126 – 11 REFERENCES (1) Porter. (3) Park. No. ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering. 1998. New York.” Prentice-Hall. C. Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). Analysis. and Dolan. J.. D. PO Box C700. ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard.. K. West Conshohocken. (4) Chopra.. W. This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International. American Society of Civil 1995.. W-02. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights. and Medina. and Zacher. L. No further reproductions authorized. which you may attend.. “Nonlinear Shear-Wall Analysis. A.” CUREE Publication No. 1987. NY. United States. Russell. “Evaluation of Ductility of Structural & Structural Assem- blages from Laboratory Testing.