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Clim Dyn

DOI 10.1007/s00382-017-3702-1

The very strong coastal El Niño in 1925 in the far‑eastern Pacific
Ken Takahashi1   · Alejandra G. Martínez1 

Received: 26 May 2016 / Accepted: 20 April 2017
© The Author(s) 2017. This article is an open access publication

Abstract  The 1925 El Niño (EN) event was the third dynamics associated with the ITCZs, northerly winds, and
strongest in the twentieth century according to its impacts the north–south SST asymmetry in the FEP lead to the
in the far-eastern Pacific (FEP) associated with severe rain- enhancement of the seasonal cycle that produced this EN
fall and flooding in coastal northern Peru and Ecuador in event. We propose that the cold conditions in the western-
February–April 1925. In this study we gathered and syn- central equatorial Pacific, through its teleconnection effects
thesised a large diversity of in situ observations to provide on the FEP, helped destabilize the ITCZ and enhanced the
a new assessment of this event from a modern perspec- meridional ocean–atmosphere feedback, as well as helping
tive. In contrast to the extreme 1982–1983 and 1997–1998 produce the very strong coastal rainfall. This is indicated by
events, this very strong “coastal El Niño” in early 1925 was the nonlinear relation between the Piura river record at 5°S
characterised by warm conditions in the FEP, but cool con- and the SST difference between the FEP and the western-
ditions elsewhere in the central Pacific. Hydrographic and central equatorial Pacific, a stability proxy. In summary,
tide-gauge data indicate that downwelling equatorial Kelvin there are two types of EN events with very strong impacts
waves had little role in its initiation. Instead, ship data indi- in the FEP, both apparently associated with nonlinear con-
cate an  abrupt onset of strong northerly winds across the vective feedbacks but with very different dynamics: the
equator and the strengthening/weakening of the intertropi- very strong warm ENSO events like 1982–1983 and 1997–
cal convergence zones (ITCZ) south/north of the equator. 1998, and the very strong “coastal” EN events like 1925.
Observations indicate lack of external atmospheric forcing
by the Panama gap jet and the south Pacific anticyclone Keywords  Coastal El Niño · ENSO · Eastern Pacific ·
and suggest that the coupled ocean–atmosphere feedback Wind-evaporation-SST feedback · Peru · Ecuador

This paper is a contribution to the special collection on ENSO 1 Introduction
Diversity. The special collection aims at improving understanding
of the origin, evolution, and impacts of ENSO events that differ “El Niño” was first introduced to the scientific community
in amplitude and spatial patterns, in both observational and
modeling contexts, and in the current as well as future climate
in reference to the anomalous climatic event that took place
scenarios. This special collection is coordinated by Antonietta in 1891 along the coast of Peru, described as an abnormal
Capotondi, Eric Guilyardi, Ben Kirtman and Sang-Wook Yeh. intrusion of warm oceanic water from the north, replacing
the normally cold coastal-upwelled water and favoring the
Electronic supplementary material  The online version of this
occurrence of strong rainfall and flooding in the otherwise
article (doi:10.1007/s00382-017-3702-1) contains supplementary
material, which is available to authorized users. arid northern coast of Peru (Carranza 1891). The warm
southward ocean flow was named “Corriente del Niño”
* Ken Takahashi (Child’s current) in reference to the weaker climatological
version of this current that is normally present after Christ-
Instituto Geofísico del Perú, Calle Badajoz 169, Mayorazgo mas time (Carrillo 1893).
IV Etapa, Ate Vitarte, 15012 Lima, Peru


K. Takahashi, A. G. Martínez











We also used the annual possibly “true” distinct type of EN could consist of the tree-ring width series for an individual of Prosopis pallida extreme EN of 1982–83 and 1997– annual mean discharge (m3/s) of the Zaña (c) and d Viru Although the 1925–26 EN was relatively well docu- rivers. Woodruff et  al. the term “El Niño” (EN) is used as short. 1987. g monthly detrended sea level anomaly (cm) at Balboa. 2005). and cloudiness. This dataset consists aver- of rainfall in northern Peru (Eguiguren 1894) as a proxy. it is timely to revisit the 1925–26 EN in an inte- Nowadays. spe- as a legitimate research topic (Cushman 2004). 2015). 2005). under the light of modern theory and expanded hand for referring to the warm phase of the large-scale El datasets. 2011). wind. the relation between EN and the SO is not always strong Monthly series for Puerto Chicama SST (7. Casma (near correspond to a different dynamical regime from the rest of the coast at 9. insights on the nature of EN and its diversity. 2.washington. the definition of Quinn (1992) were obtained from the JISAO data archive “El Niño” is therefore more a matter of convenience of its (http://jisao. Aug(0)]. 1999.2 monthly summaries. 2005. the 1997–98 event was added).57°W. 1a) and by several other measures Anomalies were linearly detrended over the full period. phere phenemenon. Piura exist even without the ocean dynamics generally associated rainfall (1932–2008). although this classifica. to recover potentially valuable information and Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) coupled ocean–atmos. a proxy for annual pre- EN due to the nonlinear activation of deep convection in cipitation (Rodriguez et al. The monthly Piura dis- users than a strict scientific result (Trenberth 1997). charge data for March and April 1925 were absent. f SST anomaly in justified at the time. Woodman 1985. in this region. 1987.hawaii. we used the gridded ICOADS that “El Niño burst onto the international scientific scene” 2-degree Enhanced v.4°W. an magnitudes estimated according to its coastal manifestations (Quinn essentially coupled ocean–atmosphere phemonenon (Bjerk- et al. edu/). the only other climatology for daily anomalies was calculated using six “very strong” event in the last century was the 1925–26 EN harmonics of the annual period fitted to the daily data. largely identified (e.esrl. while the SO has been shown to 1925–2002). Neelin et al. The very strong coastal El Niño in 1925 in the far‑eastern Pacific ◂Fig. the Piura river discharge (1925–1998). due to the detailed report of this event by Murphy (1926) 2011) in two formats. America (e. For broad-scale 13 . Guayaquil (1915–2000) and mean air temperature for vidual events. characterized by anomalously high SST in the central–eastern equatorial Pacific (El Niño) and the reduction of the zonal gradient in sea level pres. e Prosopis pallida annual growth ring width (rainfall proxy) mented at the time. on the Pacific ated with intense warming in the FEP and disproportionally side of the Panama Canal. grated way. which we the discovery by Berlage in 1929 (Cushman 2004) of the obtained from the NOAA ESRL website (http://www. h the equatorial SST “cold tongue index” (°C).97°N.  1b–f). 1998). The vertical grey lines with the establishment of the ENSO paradigm in the 1970s correspond to January 1925. recent research Monthly precipitation for Milagro (1921–1981) and is focused on understanding the diversity among the indi. for Balboa (8. with no spatial interpolation. Monthly means were calculated from this data. as they appear to (locally known as “algarrobo”) in San Rafael. Wallace et al. These extreme events have been associ. updated by Quinn 1992. 1907–2012). 79. and estimated EN magnitudes of with EN (Clement et al.7°S. In practice. coastal Ecuador [Sep(−1)– nes 1969). Neelin et  al. 1  El Niño-related indices for the twentieth century: a El Niño (Walker 1924). 2 Data sources and processing sure across the basin (Southern Oscillation. using an index noaa. the cold eastern Pacific (Takahashi et  al. culminating with the concept of ENSO.ldeo. Takahashi Daily “research quality” mean sea surface height (SSH) and Dewitte 2016). was obtained from the Univer- large rainfall anomalies in the arid western coast of South sity of Hawaii Sea Level Center (http://uhslc.5°S). The From the perspective of the FEP impacts. 2011).gov/psd/data/gridded). However.columbia. b annual rainfall (cm) in Guayaquil. for 1908–2002. ages of individual observations over the corresponding 2° and the large-scale atmospheric Southern Oscillation grid boxes. (Deser and Wallace 1987). 1983. (Quinn et al. 1998). for which a popular procedure is to classify Iquique (1900–1988) from the NOAA NCDC GHCN v2 these based on whether the maximum SST anomalies are database were obtained from the IRI Data Library (http:// predominantly found in the central or eastern Pacific (see iridl. Annual precipitation values were review by Capotondi et al. CAF 2000). have been discarded in the subsequent years Southern Oscillation Index (reversed axis). Firstly. 79. but Although the essential physics of ENSO have been these values were estimated as discussed in "Appendix B". Thus. calculated based on the hydrological year from September tion is somewhat arbitrary (Takahashi et  al. 2011.g. One of the previous year to August. this EN can be considered among the three We used ship-based ocean surface data from the strongest. coastal Peru (Rodriguez et al. and i the (Schott 1931). leading to cifically the mean SST. particularly the role of northerly winds Puerto Chicama (°C). but without taking a close look at the 1925 EN. and 1998 and 1980s (Wyrtki 1975. with 1982–83 and 1997–98 (Fig.soest. SO). 1998. It was ICOADS database (Worley et  al. some of the ideas that appeared well from Casma. statistical relation between EN variability.

our base period for climatologies for all variables is 1920–1939. Since El Comercio is South America peaking in March 1925 (Figs. structed observational products. the SODA anomaly in 6°S–6°N. 3e). http://www.4).esrl. selected meteorological. 3. 180°–90°W. which were made in a broad cool conditions remained in the central-eastern Pacific. 3 Ocean–atmosphere evolution and processes cles from the Peruvian newspaper “El Comercio” for the period from January 1925 to December 1926. Four oceanographic which we later argue is also important for the convective profiles of temperature and salinity made in the upper 200 dynamics in the FEP (Sects. m by a British cruise (NODC code GB012817) along the The warming was confined to the coast in Febru- coast between Ecuador and Panama between April 17–19. Takahashi 2004. We obtained 18 temperature profiles from the Arctu. and Reparaz (2013). region between Panama and the Galapagos islands between expanding to the west. so we indicate the publication date and page by the end of the calendar year (Fig. Petersen (1935). Schaeffer wind anomalies during the 1925–26 EN from the gridded et al. with no smoothing or interpola. correspond- OC5/SELECT/dbsearch/dbsearch. Martínez mapping.  3h–i).5 (dataset ds540. The “onset phase” in Novem- the Piura region (Rojas-Rosas 2014). sis (Giese and Ray 2011. limiting the results to those grid cells that contained ENSO variability are the cold tongue index (CTI. structed monthly time-series for equatorial segments along We complemented the analysis with the following recon- four shiptracks that had good data coverage (Fig. Sheppard (1930. Zegarra Pacific in March 1925 (Fig. Bailey (1930). until June 1925 (Figs. respec. 1845–2011) from the tively (wind has stronger high frequency variability). based in Lima and communications with the northern coast Important departures from the RC82 and HL98 compos- were not in real-time.4 ocean reanaly- started after the opening of the Panama Canal in 1914.0 at NCAR CISL data: The Hadley Centre Global Sea Ice and Sea Surface RDA) to produce monthly averages every degree latitude Temperature (HadISST) v1. (1958). March 30 and June 9. Huaman and Takahashi 2016). based on Ropelewski and Jones 1987). so that it coincided with the warmest months (Taka- number for the relevant newspaper articles in footnotes. particularly from the Hipólito Unanue meteor. cated.noaa. Because of this and the onset of World War II in the Pacific. 2003) and the from 9° to 30°S along a well-transited shipping route from NOAA Extended Reconstructed SST (ERSST) v3b. K.cru.soest. 3b–e). 3. Therefore. Additionally. we constructed 3 month-mean SST and surface (1931). Peru and Chile.washington. Woodman (1985). c. filled values with the averaged ones.g. normalized pressure averaging temporally and then filling the spatial gaps with difference between Darwin and Tahiti for 1866–2013) from a first guess and 9-point smoothing ten times to merge the the CRU website (http://www. 1925 (Table S1). database of articles from the newspaper “El Tiempo” from Harrison and Larkin 1998). we con. hydrological.nodc. and the NCEP twentieth century Reanalysis v2 (hereafter there is good data availability along this track between the 20CRv2.html). 2011). ber 1924–January 1925 was characterized by anomalously logical and river discharge data was also retrieved from the cool conditions and easterly equatorial wind anomalies in newspapers. Takahashi. Numerical meteoro. 2008) SST products. A.  2a. unless explicitly indi.2. Two long-term indices used to represent the basin-scale tion. the news articles often lag the actual ites are that (1) the warming off Peru took place a couple events and date and time were seldom reported precisely of months earlier than the corresponding “peak phase” of (Chang 2014).uea. Schott the Bjerknes feedback associated with the FEP warming 13 . We used a database of approximately 2500 news arti. while (2) rus expedition (Beebe 1926). 3a). indicating the onset of (1926). years 1920 and 1942. 3b). 2b. hereafter RC82. ary–March 1925 but then spread westwards. Compo et al. ological station in Lima and the daily raingauge data from followed by strong anomalous warming near the coast of the Harvard Observatory in Arequipa. SST at least 3 and 10 observations for SST and wind. as well as a El Niño” (Rasmusson and Carpenter 1982. Zorell (1929). that et and climatology was constructed from the same data by first the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI. reaching the 1925 (Table  S1) were retrieved from the World Ocean central Pacific (~170°W) around August 1925 and peaking Database 2013 (WOD13. We also digitized ing to the “mature phase” of the canonical EN (RC82). http://www.  3b–e). Berry (1927). and oceanographic Westerly wind anomalies started developing in the central data from tables and graphs in Murphy (1926). which were trusted only We also used the individual ship observations from to the extent that they were consistent with actual in  situ ICOADS Release 2. hashi 2005) that is most favorable for deep convection (e. The JISAO data archive (http://jisao. http://apdrc. gov/psd/data/gridded). focusing The large-scale evolution of the 1925–26 EN followed particularly on mentions of meteorological or hydrological approximately the development phases of the “canonical phenomena in the coast of Peru (Chang 2014).edu/enso/).1 (Rayner et al. Smith Panama to the coasts of Ecuador. G. monthly ICOADS dataset.2. the central and eastern equatorial Pacific (Figs. (2006. 1933).

 2  Seasonal mean SST (a) (°C) from ICOADS (colors.The very strong coastal El Niño in 1925 in the far‑eastern Pacific Fig.5 °C. Also shown is the SST anomaly reconstruction HadISST 1. shown only for at least three observations per grid cell) and surface wind vectors anomalies (shown only for at least ten observations per grid cell and a minimum magnitude of 1 m/s). The averag- ing periods are indicated in each panel (c) (d) (e) (f) 13 .1 (contours. (b) slight smoothing). interval: 0.

 G. K. Martínez (a) (b) (f) (j) (c) (g) (k) (d) (h) (l) (e) (i) (m) 13 . Takahashi. A.

2 Northerly winds and the ITCZ In the ENSO paradigm. the warming pulses in August–Sep. in early 1925. However. in  situ observations of the integrated Janu- tember 1925 and December 1925–February 1926 coin. expected to have been greater than 20 cm. Thus. actual wind data does not show substantial subtropical Additional evidence of the absence of downwelling wind anomalies (Fig. 3j.1 Lack of initial Kelvin wave forcing 3. been the result of external atmospheric forcing. as downwelling Kelvin wave pulses that were able to propa. 2005. in February–March 1925. 1925). 1983 and 1998 in Fig 7b. coincides with a 20 cm sea level of the gap jets through Central America. while the 20°S (Fig. 4d. 3j. e). 8a. g). strong downwelling Kelvin waves would result in a deep (>100 m) warm layer (Cucalon 1987.4 regions indicated) and raw (thin) and 1-2-1-smoothed (colors. does not show positive anomalies to 8–9°S and fanned out to the Galapagos (Fig. the coastal warming is associated The most outstanding aspect of the atmospheric circulation with downwelling equatorial Kelvin waves (e. the Papagayo jet further west extended almost to (Fig. The equa- 1920–39 (numbered 1–4 westward from the coast.  19b  in RC82). indicate that 1925 did not have (Fig. g). the second warming peak in 1925. could have helped with the warming. the forcing could anomaly. Conversely. c). (April 17–19.  3  a Segments of the four ship tracks with the best data cover. anomalously above 27 °C near the equator. Panama. with negative anomalies data cannot resolve specific westerly wind events. Particularly.  6) and the RC82 composite for March–May 1997–98 EN (Fig.  4). >10 cm) in other EN events are associated with lies were on the order of 2–3 m/s (Figs. The enhancement of the northerly winds could have On the other hand. 1925) and the ship south Pacific does not appear to have had a key role in driv- GB012817 along the coast of Colombia and Ecuador ing the northerly wind anomalies. In the case starting in November. The northerly anoma- lies (e. The very strong coastal El Niño in 1925 in the far‑eastern Pacific ◂Fig. The onset of these northerly winds ated with a downwelling Kelvin wave sufficiently strong to from January to February was abrupt. 5b).6 m/s around 3°N in the exception of the peaks of the extreme 1982–83 and their Fig. as was their retreat account for the observed warming in early 1925 could be from March to April (Figs.  4a). 5b. wind anomalies were not forced from the south Pacific.  5b. c) but in 1925 extended data at Balboa.g. d. the sea level tor in February and March (Fig. k. 9). sharply decreas- age in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific during the period ing to 19–20 °C at the 50 m depth (Fig.  4a). (Fig. (Fig. Downwelling Kel. and in fact they are negative in February Similarly. graphic measurements from the Arcturus expedition east Therefore. indicating that a downwelling equatorial Kelvin be associated with the SLP difference between the Atlantic wave pulse was responsible (Fig.  5b). k.g.  4). standard Niño 1+2 and 3. whereas the Southern Oscillation was in a positive state (Fig. Predominantly positive sea level anomalies were although these (absolute) northerly winds were connected observed starting in May 1925 (Fig. 8b. On the other hand. the northerly anom- the positive SST anomalies extended southward to 30°S alies themselves were limited to the Pacific (Figs. sug- warming peak in March 1925 was restricted to north of gesting an enhanced South Pacific anticyclone. 2008). The ICOADS data vin waves at this time are consistent with the westerly wind shows positive SLP anomalies around Central America in anomalies in the central Pacific (Fig. 1i). 3. a sea level anomaly associ. g).  4a). S1). 6a. ment of the warm ENSO phase. which relevant to the development of this EN event. in contrast to other EN events. and the Pacific (Karnauskas et al. Fig. 5b). off Ecuador only clearly in March (Fig. sub- substantially weaker monthly SST anomalies than the one stantially stronger than in the EN composite of (Harrison observed at Puerto Chicama in March 1925 (Fig. h).  8f. providing further support to their interpretation unusually high northerly winds (Schaeffer et al. b. Furthermore. b). 5a. ary–April northerly wind at Balboa and Cristobal. at both cide with the positive sea level pulses around those times ends of the Panama Canal. 1958. 9). 2014) that depress the thermocline and raise the sea Panama wind jet. we find that large sea level anoma. torial anomalies calculated from the SODA climatology thick) monthly b–e SST (°C) and f–i zonal wind (m/s) anomalies transition from generally positive at the surface to negative along each of the ship tracks based on the gridded ICOADS data at 100 m (Fig. f). However. Garcés-Vargas et al.  3h–i). The zonal wind showed weak positive anomalies (<1 In the next subsections we address specific mechanisms m/s) in the FEP prior to the warming (Fig. the equator near 95°W (Fig. atmospheric forcing from the Caribbean or the of the Galapagos (March 30–June 9. although this both February and March 1925. with and Larkin 1998) for February (~0.  8f. see profiles for (Dewitte and Takahashi 2016) and leading to the establish. the gate the warming signal polewards into Chile. Furthermore. f.  9a. Chiodi in early 1925 was the extreme southward extension of the et al. b). after which to the northeasterlies in the Caribbean.  3f. indicating that the northerly equatorial Kelvin wave forcing is provided by the hydro. The data from both indicate SST 13 .  6b. d. which climatologically reaches the equa- level.

 Takahashi. K. G. grey lines) for Puerto Chicama for selected El Niño events 13 . colors) and monthly sea surface temperature anomaly (°C. Martínez (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Fig. 4  Daily detrended sea surface height anomaly at Balboa (cm. A.

8f. the barometric pressure measured at Chicama (7. most notably. with lower pressure than the March mean value of 1010 hPa according to the TAO buoy at 5°S. Carrillo 1893) was the first EN mechanism iden- and Takahashi 2016). Takahashi and Dewitte 2016. the 4 pm data has similar variability but with lower values) indicates a large 9–10 hPa drop from around 1017 hPa in the beginning of January to an average of 1008 hPa in the second half of March (Fig. around 7°S in March (Fig. This posi- dient in absolute SST near the coast was reversed.7°S) at 7 a. The SST anomalies presented a meridional which would imply that it would correspond to shallow dipole pattern with maxima at °S and 5°N and the northerly solar warming. the anomalously high SST south of the equator could Meridional warm advection associated with an anoma- strengthen the southern hemisphere ITCZ that climato. lously strong southward “Corriente del Niño” (El Niño logically is present in February–April around 5°S (Huaman Current. The zero meridional wind con. tified (Carranza 1891. probably an indication of the intensity of the anomalous SH ITCZ. Schott 1931). Another possible mechanism is meridional wind anomalies in-between (Fig. the report at 4. 9d). enhanced/reduced SST.6°S of a surface wind convergence off the coast of northern Peru lizard not previously found in Peru but abundant off Ecua- (Fig.  10b).2°S (Murphy 1926) and. Jáuregui and Takahashi 2017) introduces a nonlinear- ity that can explain the abruptness of the onset of the SH ITCZ and northerly wind (Xie and Philander 1994. In 1891. Johnson and Xie 2010. 1999) and. Wang and Wang 1999). This enhancement of the SH ITCZ is consistent with the at 8°S (Carranza 1891). The latter is suggested by the posi.  3. The above suggests an anoma- lous local meridional overturning cell in the FEP in Febru- ary–March 1925 with ascent/descent in the southern/north- ern hemisphere. Additionally. in addition tive cloudiness anomaly in the ICOADS data around 2°S in to warm water along the northern coast of Peru. ration and. of seeds at 4. g). 95°W for the years 2001–2003. of crocodiles and tree debris from north of 3°S were found d). contributing to reduced/enhanced surface evapo- pheric or oceanic forcing. On the other hand. in 1926. carcasses February and. the coastal EN could be described as an amplification of the seasonal cycle. perhaps more importantly. 5a. 5b). Battisti et  al. gradient could directly reinforce the northerly winds via thermally-induced pressure gradients (Lindzen and Nigam 3.The very strong coastal El Niño in 1925 in the far‑eastern Pacific (a) otherwise arid northern-central coast of Peru (Sect. which would take place ICOADS along the near-coastal track. This anomalous SST warm advection. con- sistent with the establishment of the equatorial trough off the coast of Peru. S2). hereaf- Fig. and b the anomalies (with respect to 1920–39) from ter XP94. "Appendix A").4. the meridional gra. °C) and sur- face wind (m/s). Particularly. sphere. which is discussed in the next subsection. The wind speed anomalies associated with the northerly Another possibility is that local air–sea interaction wind anomalies present a dipole pattern (not shown). consistent with the reduced cloudiness in the NH in March (Fig. with amplified and maintained the northerly wind anomalies reduced/enhanced speed in the southern/northern hemi- that could have been initiated by weak external atmos. as well as with the heavy rainfall observed in the dor at 3. (to reduce the diur- nal land heating effect.m.3 The “Corriente del Niño” 1987.6°S 13 . 9c. with the tive wind speed-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback (XP94) warmest/coolest waters found south/north of the equator probably was key in establishing this coastal EN event. The existence of an approximate threshold SST for the activation of deep convection (Graham and Barnett 1987. S2). In 1925. In this sense. (Figs.  5  a Monthly sea surface temperature (shading. more easily in the warm seasonal peak driven by insolation tour is solid white in a (Takahashi 2005). the ICOADS data shows that the fanning of the Panama jet (b) is associated with net surface wind divergence in the east- ern Pacific north of the equator in February and March (but not in the Caribbean) instead of the climatological conver- gence (Fig. therefore.

except around the Galapagos were SODA is less reliable 13 . March 30–June 9. starting on the south). f 100 m based on hydrographic measurements from the Arc. d 0 m.  6  a–c Temperature and d–f its anomalies at a. A. K. starting on the east) and ship climatology. April 17–19. Martínez (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Fig. Takahashi. G. The anomalies are calculated with respect to the SODA 1920–1939 turus (circles. 1925. GB012817 (times symbols. b. 1925. and c. e 50 m.

and negative values in the western–central equato- and anemometer heights due to increasing ship sizes (Car. This is a lower The role of local and remote forcing is verified for bound. measurements of southward flow of around 50 cm/s fur. Fig. ? ≈ 103 kg/m3 is the water den. of SST in the western Pacific warm pool connects to the sity. observational practices (i. This model provides an ther south (5 and 2°S) within the same period. On the other hand. the cool central Pacific SST is also observations by neglecting the Coriolis force near the equa. Chiang and Sobel 2002). Ramos 2014). 2000). while the ocean strati. Based on the individual ICOADS obser. Assuming an Ekman layer depth lies over South America that are also favorable for convec- of H = 30 m (Oerder et al.1). at different latitudes along the Peruvian coast (Fig. 2015). which are Additionally.4 Local and remote sea surface temperature control 1927). Murphy (1926) also reported coastal but with a threshold SST of around 26 °C (Woodman 1999. 1990) introduces further underestimation of the (155°E–175°W. 2000).2 kg m−3 ing it during basin-scale La Niña conditions (Yulaeva and the air density and CD = 2 × 10−3 the drag coefficient (Per. changing SST in the FEP (r = 0. Schott adequate qualitative explanation for the temporal evolution (1931) discussed the southward progression of warm SST of the periods of strong rainfall and river discharge events fronts in early 1925 using cruise data and coastal stations. rial southward current speeds as 18 ± 5 cm/s. where basins along the western Andes of Peru (Lavado-Casimiro rs ≈ (2 days)−1 is a frictional dissipation rate (Zebiak and and Espinoza 2014).6°S (Berry 3.69 in the Niño 1+2 region. wind stress. observed in 1891 (Schott 1931) but contrasts sharply with The high SST in Tw during the warm ENSO phases in 1926 the extreme EN conditions in April 1983 and 1998. The details of the severe impacts at various sites along Having discarded the possibility of strong downwelling western Peru and Ecuador associated with heavy rainfall Kelvin waves (Sect. and salinities typical not only find an enhanced correlation (r = 0. Fig. Thus.g. rial Pacific (r = −0. 7a–g). This is similar to what was erally a more monotonic nonlinear relationship (Fig. from which he inferred a south. ship drift data along the coastal track indicate southward flow The dependence of coastal precipitation of SST approxi- north of the equator. ?a = 1. This is explained by the connection Cane 1987.7 m2/s2 around the equator (1°S–1°N) producing easterly near-equatorial upper-air wind anoma- in February–March 1925. as observed in the 1982–83 and 1997–98 events lished from north to south and ended in the reverse order. are presented in Appendix A. are also indications of southward advection. 11d). Jáuregui and Takahashi 2017). 10c–g).  7b). with the warmest front reaching Puerto Chicama in Febru. c). with if we simply subtract Tw from Niño 1+2. 3. since the high SST implies reduced atmospheric sta. which and 2016 explain why the river discharge was not as high featured a deep fresh warm layer of around 80 m depth in those years despite the high Niño 1+2 SST. the near-coastal pseudostress had a mean northerly and Soden 2007.17 in the region we denote as Tw done et  al. which reduces the igaud et al.  11b. but gen- of the 100 m depth (Fig. 11a. (Morón 2011). providing a rough cold water extending almost to the surface. tion (Kousky and Kayano 1994. with a speed on the order of 30–50 mately follows the threshold model of XP94 (see Sect. on eastern Pacific precipitation From the end of January through February 1925. ? = ?a CD |?a |?a is the surface wind stress with |ua |ua whole tropical free troposphere via deep convection. These conditions were progressively estab- advection.The very strong coastal El Niño in 1925 in the far‑eastern Pacific of mangroves that are found to the north of 3. mate of the wind-driven surface current u based on the wind On the other hand. whereas (Fig. well as for risk management. except for a index of tropospheric stability in the eastern Pacific. which can provide important guid- most likely forcing of the warm countercurrent [e. i. the strong northerly winds are the and flooding in 1925. the northerly wind anomaly enhanced the outliers in the correlation with Tw (Fig.e. Vuille et al.72). is another possibility. we very shallow warm layer (Fig. while also component of 15.e. i) suggests a shallower H.2). We can produce a rough esti. the Piura river by the relatively high positive correla- bility. dominated by the 1982–83 and 1997–98 events. although onshore in Fig. Philan.  10a) and as far south as the local near-coastal SST [based on the ship analysis of Pisco in March 16 (14°S). cm/s (Zorell 1929). c). 11a. Additionally. larger CD and wind stress. tion between its annual mean discharge (reconstructed fication associated with the shallow fresh warm surface as described in Appendix B) with February–March mean (Fig. Beaufort scale vs anemometers) b). Callao in March 12 (Fig. 10c–g). 2012). 1925 and 2008 had high discharges due to the low SST in 13 . upwelling in the Panama bight (Alory et  al.  7h. cool- indicating the surface wind pseudo-stress. Schott (1931)] was greater than 26 °C (indicated with lines ward propagation speed of 40–50 cm/s. we calculate the equato. tropospheric stability and facilitates convection (Vecchi vations. However. 5°S–5°N. 3. Takahashi 2004.  7c). Dewitte 2000). ance for paleoclimatic and historical EN reconstructions as der and Pacanowski (1981)]. the estimated wind-driven current speed we see in the scatter plots that the two relationships are not provides a lower bound that is consistent with the other linear and that the correlation with Niño 1+2 is strongly observational estimates for the “Corriente del Niño” speed. as they approximately coincide with the periods in which ary 27.5 ± 4. Wallace 1994. known to enhance the precipitation in the mid and upper tor and considering the frictional balance rs ? = ?∕?H .

 Martínez (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) 13 . Takahashi. G. K. A.

respectively. which cools the free troposphere and produces east- Tw and high Niño 1+2 SST. d.2.5 °C. not shown). The very strong coastal El Niño in 1925 in the far‑eastern Pacific ◂Fig. g 3. Observed profiles of b. 8  ICOADS sea surface temperature (shading. In this view. e 2. We hypothesize that a similar process reduced the sta- h) temperature and c. f. 1925 (starting ing similar Niño 3. e. and year 1925 (bottom row).4 and/or enhancing the rate of the precipitation increase with SST due to basin-scale La Niña (cool ENSO) condi- tions. and h. The 2008 case is interesting erly upper-air anomalies (both of which are indicated by because it was primarily regarded as a basin-scale La Niña the 20CRv2 in 1925. The nonlinearity of coastal EN would be the result of the interannual destabili- the relation between Niño 1+2 −Tw and the discharge. g. with zation of the seasonal cycle in the FEP by the cool ENSO a sharp increase in slope above −1. and the data for April 1983 through a combination of lowering of the threshold SST (long dashed) and 1998 (dot-dashed) for the nearest grid cell from SODA 2. °C) and surface winds (m/s) for January through April for the 1920–39 climatology (top row). The surface temperature (°C) and salinity (pps) are indicated in red and blue.4 SST (L’Heureux et al. d. can also explain phase. b. why the strong EN (warm ENSO) failed to produce rainfall (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) Fig. this type of (cool ENSO) event (Bendix et al 2011). The 26 °C isotherm (solid and light purple) and the zero meridional wind contour (dashed) are included 13 . thick short dashed). f. i) salinity (solid) are shown for stations bility of the seasonal southern hemisphere ITCZ in 1925. i 4. 2016). Also included are the climatology which in the context of the XP94 model could have been for April (1920–39.  7  a Location of four oceanographic stations from in northern Peru as strong as in 1983 or 1998 despite hav- the  GB012817  ship  (labeled 1–4) in April 17–19. with station 4). c 1.

K. Figs. the low tropospheric stability esti- mated as the difference between the 700 hPa potential tem- perature from the 20CRv2 and SST in the Niño 1+2 region (not shown) also has a small albeit not significant posi- Fig. So not only is the record too sparse that the coastal winds tend to strengthen during EN (Wyrtki to identify trends that differentiate between the two types. Martínez (a) (b) and their failure was in implicitly assuming that the same mechanisms act in the same way in every event.g. despite Wyrtki’s (1975) conclusion that “El Niño certainly does not have only a single cause”. Enfield 1981. Huaman and Takahashi 2016). but weak compared to 1925. while Schott (1931) went further to pro- cal South America (e. shading) and c. Jáuregui and Takahashi 2017). Takahashi. 9  Monthly anomalies of surface wind (m/s. both the large- pose that these winds were the forcing of the coastal EN. Nevertheless. a stability proxy for the 1925. the FEP with EN had been noted by Eguiguren (1894) and If we focus on the extreme EN impacts in western tropi- Murphy (1926). ENSO diversity. Only grid cells with at least 15 observations are shown (slight FEP (see Sect. general continue to have strong biases in this region. We argue that this feedback was made more effective in 1925 by the dominant cold conditions in the rest of the equatorial Pacific. 2010). d) sea level pressure (hPa. The seasonality of these anomalies appears to be crit- ical for the strong feedback between SST. but the models in equatorial ocean dynamics and zonal winds through SST. 12a). including the extreme 1982–83 and 1997–98 events and there is a slight (but not significant) northward trend in this latitude. However. shading anomalies from ICOADS for a. 3. This suggests that perhaps longer-term changes. 1997–98) or this coastal version This hypothesis subsequently was countered by the finding have similar signatures. On the other hand. the ITCZ and the northerly wind. scale version (1982–83. This is important for long-term reconstructions of ing the magnitude of the time and space scales involved”. 1975. the association of northerly winds in ticularly the double ITCZ syndrome (Zhang et al. The interpretation of paleoclimatic and But none of this later studies explicitly analyzed the 1925 historical records of extreme EN impacts in the FEP (high 13 . strong northerly anomalies were also observed in early 1926. d March the Niño 1+2 and the Tw region. 12b). 12c). In fact. A. Rasmusson and Carpenter 1982) and but the two trends would be responding to different pro- Wooster (1980) argued that Schott failed by “underestimat- cesses. the latitude of the trade-wind confluence in these two years has been the lowest in the 1920–2012 period. c February and b. 2014). around the peak of the warm ENSO phase (Fig. could have made this mechanism more effective in the past. par- Historically. however. perhaps a response to the stabilization asso- ciated with the long-term tropical tropospheric warming (Johnson and Xie 2010. like a lower convective threshold for convection (Johnson and Xie 2010). vectors) overlayed tive trend. the RC82 and the Harrison and Larkin (1998) EN composites do show northerly wind anomalies during the coastal warming phase. Consistent with this. Anomaly vectors with magnitude larger than 1 although uncertainty in SST reconstructions is an issue m/s are darker for trends in the zonal SST gradient in the tropical Pacific (Deser et al. G.  1a–f. many climate future climate change projections with global climate models 4 Discussion indicate a joint trend in increasing rainfall and northerly wind anomalies off northern Peru similar to the proposed The ENSO paradigm is based on the interaction between for the 1925 EN (Belmadani et al. On the other hand. spatial smoothing). as the SST and the ITCZ off Peru peak cli- matologically around March (Takahashi 2005. b cloud cover (octas.4) does not show a clear trend (Fig. the SST difference between on a. 2015). which promoted convec- tion in the FEP by the destabilition of the troposphere and (c) (d) with moist easterly advection from the Amazon.

in the case of precipita- tion. 1925). respectively). ideally contrasting with proxies from other regions that help with In this study we revisited the very strong 1925 El Niño the discrimination of the two. (EN). respectively. f precipitation in Trujillo (mm. b barometric pressure in Chicama (hPa. they are assigned a value of zero (following Petersen 1935). *the accumulated value for March 7–9 was reported on March 9). Data was digitized from (d) Murphy (1926) unless explicitly indicated. after 1982–83 and 1997–98. In b–f. dashed indicates extrapolation) (f) (g) temperatures. e Virú (black) and Chicama (grey) (c) river discharge (m 3/s. open circles and dots. flooding. d Piura river (b) discharge (m 3/s. 1-2-1 smoothed). impacts on marine ecosystems) 5 Conclusions would need to carefully consider these two types. Zegarra. c precipitation in Zorritos (mm. and g precipitation in Lima (mm. Table S2). thick black lines (e) indicate when the near-coastal SST analysis of Schott (1931) exceeded 26 °C at the corre- sponding locations (for Zorritos. 1926). the third strongest. in the city of Piura. El Comercio. Petersen 1935). Days with missing data are shaded (except for the gaps in the Chicama discharge). thick circles are discharge reconstructed from water height. small and large black triangles indicate days with moderate and heavy rainfall.The very strong coastal El Niño in 1925 in the far‑eastern Pacific Fig. and. (a) ary–April 1925: a sea surface temperature in Puerto Chicama and Callao (°C. 10  Daily series for Janu. in terms of its impacts on the far-eastern Pacific (FEP) associ- ated with heavy rainfall on the coasts of southern Ecuador 13 .

A. In  situ instrumental than normal. On the other hand.e. Martínez (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig. as well as with d the difference between ISST 1. in situ hydrographic data in the ITCZ and northerly anomalies. However. ciated with the equatorial zonal dynamics that are the The abrupt onset of this coastal EN. (155°E–175°W. However. particularly in the FEP. Regard- gauge data at Balboa indicates that sea level was lower ing the former. forcing and/or strong nonlinear coupled feedbacks. with the southern essence of ENSO. suggests strong external FEP indicate that the warming was shallow and the tide. This “coastal” EN took place in Febru. reduced cloudiness. and the SST averaged over b the Niño 1+2 region. i. 5°S–5°N). which extended as far south extend to the equator near the coast. in situ ship-based wind data Pacific. c the Tw region aged for the Piura river with the February–March SST from Had. and the opposite off FEP signature was restricted to this region and coincided northern Peru. includes the ITCZ. The meridional asym- as 12°S. Scatter plots between the same discharge the two (Niño 1 + 2 minus Tw) and Peru in February–April 1925. Takahashi. indicates a reversal of the north–south asymmetry relative ary–April 1925. and net this very strong and archetypical EN event in terms of its wind divergence. the ITCZ to the north/south of the equator. which climatologically only in coastal Peru and Ecuador. metry in SST was also reversed. so downwelling Kelvin waves were unlikely records and extensive newspaper reports allowed us to to have played a significant role in producing the coastal reconstruct the ocean–atmosphere evolution in the tropical warming. The above then torial Pacific.  11  a Linear correlation between the annual discharge aver. in the transition from a cool to a warm to the equator in the coupled ocean–atmosphere system that ENSO state. Instead. meridional wind.1 (1925–2016). and SST. The ship data also indicates concept of El Niño to the scientific community. G. north of the equator. increased sea level pressure. the coastal warming was not asso. indicative of the weakening/strengthening of with anomalously cold conditions in the rest of the equa. K. the in  situ data indicates that the Panama 13 . with a warmer south- The 1925 EN event was the one that introduced the ern than northern hemisphere. as well as the large extent indicate strong northerly winds that reached 7°S on aver- of the impacts associated with heavy rainfall and flooding age in February−March 1925.

i. particularly obser- shown with ship drift data and is consistent with a calcula. Rojas-Rosas for the “El Comercio” and “El the destabilization of the seasonal SST-ITCZ-meridional Tiempo” newspaper clippings. as well as I. In  situ data in this region. e. respectively. Thus. But if we focus on those EN events that have very strong impacts on coastal Peru and Ecuador with very high SST and coastal rainfall. underlies the onset and retreat of the southern ITCZ. perhaps similar to this very strong del Niño”. the very strong coastal EN can be described as an enhancement Acknowledgements  This study was supported by the Manglares- IGP Project (IDRC 106714) and the Peruvian PP068 program. particularly the contrast between the SST in the FEP and in the western–central Pacific. the b back that enhances their growth (Takahashi and Dewitte February–March mean Niño 1+2 minus Tw SST (°C) from HadISST 2016). there- fore its static stability. which shows a strong nonlinear relation with (b) the difference in SST between the FEP and western-central Pacific. crosses) and c the annual in advance. threshold in SST for the activation of the ITCZ south of the equator was responsible for the abrupt transition. e. with dashed. (Jan–Dec) mean Piura river discharge ­(m3/s). particularly through thank A. 2016). as well as the zonal upper air mois- ture flow in the FEP that affects convection. would be very valuable for the validation erly winds. 1983. southern ITCZ. 1891 and 1925. Linear fits are shown – Very strong “coastal” EN. To the extent that a nonlinear coupled feedback of both the mechanisms and the models themselves.  12  a Latitude of zero meridional wind along the near-coastal track based on the February–March mean wind from ICOADS. The existence of this warm countercurrent was coastal EN. and A. the enhanced “Corriente strong southern ITCZ. The mechanism anisms. we can identify two major types: – Very strong warm ENSO events.5 °C colder than the latter.The very strong coastal El Niño in 1925 in the far‑eastern Pacific We propose that an important mechanism for destabiliz- (a) ing the ITCZ involves the zonal equatorial SST gradient in the Pacific. the cold conditions in the central-western Pacific and the warm eastern Pacific both contributed to high river dis- charges. Levy for their help acquiring the Arcturus (Beebe 1926) and 13 .1 (black. Chang and C. that are associated with the zonal dynamics in the equatorial Pacific and a nonlinear Bjerknes feed- Fig. but this will prove challenging as climate models for the ocean warming probably involved a combination of continue to have strong biases in this region. the climatological latitude of the southern ITCZ band. 1982–83 and 1997–98.g. Vertical lines indicate the years 1925.g. circles) and ERSST v3b (grey. as in the Further studies will be needed to verify the proposed mech- model of Xie and Philander (1994. indicating and warming south of the equator and strong northerly that the associated external forcing was not strong. and 1998 cold to neutral conditions in the rest of the equatorial Pacific and associated with meridional dynamics in the gap jet  was not anomalously stronger and that the south FEP involving the abrupt enhancement of the ITCZ Pacific anticyclone was not weaker in this period. as the latter affects the temperature in the free tropical troposphere and. This is shown to be the case using a river discharge record on the coast of Peru at 5°S. In early 1925. this type of seems more likely that the nonlinearity associated with a event is not as predictable as the warm ENSO events. We of the insolation-driven seasonal cycle. there have been sev- (c) eral studies that have classified EN events according to their spatial pattern. particularly the wind-evaporation-SST mechanism (XP94) and oceanic associated with a warm coastal bias and an excessively southward warm advection. vations of the atmospheric circulation associated with the tion of a frictional current driven by the observed north. whereas during the warm ENSO phase the effects of the two regions oppose each other as in 1926 and nota- bly during the strong 2015–16 EN (L’Heureux et al. Based on our current knowledge. XP94). which are potentially predictable several months 1. it winds. In the context of ENSO diversity. Montes wind dynamics. with more strongly enhanced discharge when the former is less than ~1.e.

S6a). this is probably slightly underes.  1b). Although hashi 2004.3 More precise infor- ticularly.1 fore cannot be compared with Zorritos. considered a non-El Niño year (Quinn et  al. Par. Woodman.50°S) and El Salto (3. 1a).2 as well as two other floods of the city of lowing the increase in absolute SST (Schott 1931). It is important to note that most of the February 1925 stantially less than in 1925. which affected railways. A. Rodríguez. 1987. mean from Zorritos (194 mm). Appendix A. as far south larly in February 1925 and March 1926 (Petersen 1935. the 1926 rainfall was only slightly highlight the important difference between rainfall in the smaller than in 1925. Fig. although 1932 was higher than 1926 but less than 1925 (Sheppard 1933). S3c). the difference between 1925 (annual value of 2830 mm) J. p. associated partly to orographic enhancement mm) and 1926 (1265 mm) were each approximately 2–3 but also to the differential influences of the FEP and central times smaller than the values from nearby coastal Puerto Pacific SST.2: Tumbes region In this section we report the manifestations of the El Niño In the Tumbes region (around 3. Timmermann. Fig. R. near the boundary along the coasts of southern Ecuador and Peru in the first between the moist tropical and arid climate regimes in third of 1925. J. we Fig. S3a). Tumbes in March and one in April 3. rainfall in Zorritos was produced in 3 days: February 16 ily by the March 1926 value (Fig. 1987) and 1997–98 El Niño 1998 (3948 and 3512 mm. and flooding. particu- with heavy rainfall in the different regions. while 1929 had average rainfall. and indicate if changes were ary–March 1926. precipitation in 1926 was also high (1588 mm). Data analysis and plots were done with GNU Octave and GrADS. the shortage of salt resulted in riots in the Andean up the valley from the city of Tumbes (Woodman 1985). S3b). Fig. At the coast. and S. B. 3 timated (see Fig. Takahashi. 2009). and telegraph lines. A. weaker than on Guayaquil and Milagro to made.0 International License (http:// 1929. Additionally. it was sub. This enhancement more than twice the long-term (1916–2000) average of has been observed in the 1982–83 (Horel and Cornejo- 1100 mm and the third largest after the years 1983 and Garrido 1986.6°S). lous period in 1925 started later in February (Fig.1: Southern coastal Ecuador respectively. C. K.45°S. were strong rain- illustrating the similarities in the severe impacts associated fall was observed in January–April 1925 and 1926. 194 mm) and rain and associated flooding around Guayaquil (2. Petersen (1935) reported intense products between the coast to the mountain region. the Zorritos annual rainfall for 1925 (1524 magnitude. creativecommons. interrupting the exchange of basic On the other hand. the east but in this case the 1926 values were substantially higher than in 1929 (Fig. provide a also had high values in February–April 1925 and Febru- link to the Creative Commons license. bridges. Pizarro (3. A. R. Watkins. and reproduction in any medium. produces orographic lifting and triggers convection (Taka- uary 1925 and lasted through April (Fig. is probably subjected to orographic enhancement and there- The annual rainfall in Guayaquil in 1925 was 2556 mm.2°S). Douglas et al.45°S) for 1983 (3204 and 4013 mm. associated with westerly flow that monthly data indicates that the heavy rainfall started in Jan. At both the precipitation in Janu- Open Access  This article is distributed under the terms of the ary–March 1926 was comparable to the same season in Creative Commons Attribution 4. S3d). rainfall in El Gurí in 1932 but. G. Appendix A: Rainfall and hydrological anomalies in coastal Peru and southern Ecuador Appendix A. we document the day-to-day variability in detail. 2 1   Due to missing data in June 1925. and 1926 (1937 mm) was more pronounced and the anoma- Apaéstegui. In Zorritos. Morera for useful discussions. we describe these by regions. S3b). in El Salto (3. Dewitte.0/). provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source. when the impacts were the strongest. In nearby Milagro. in February 1925 there were “torrential case of Peru. respectively) and 1998 (2439 and 3181 mm. Martínez Chicama data. and it was contributed primar. Espinoza. it city of Cuenca on April 28. precipitation in Ancon use. 189 mm) are similar to the 1927–1959 coastal Ecuador. both in timing and the other hand. which permits unrestricted Quinn 1992. mation is available for Zorritos (3. The (Douglas et  al. We believe that the data of these stations are comparable because the mean annual rainfall Terneus and Gioda (2006) describe the impacts of the heavy for 1962-1982 from Puerto Pizarro (3. In the northern Peru. respectively. 2009). We thank K. distribution. as Lima (12°S) in the coastal lowlands. On lowlands and in the mountain slopes. 11.   El Comercio 1925-04-18 p.   El Comercio 1925-04-03. S3b).67°S). respectively. 13 . as the timing rains” and unprecedented levels of the Tumbes river levels varied substantially as the event progressed southward fol. Goldberg et al. roads. J. 1–2. however. In par. Cole. Mosquera. since this location is 10 km ticular.50°S.

13 The arid Piura region. 6. 8. p. 1. where with rain in coastal sites such as Colán.3: Piura region rains that are happenning almost daily” next to the city of Piura. 16   El Comercio 1925-04-17. 8.   El Comercio 1925-04-17. p. 1925-02-13.15 Moderately heavy rainfall was days with moderate and  heavy rainfall are indicated with reported in Piura on February 22–23.5 returned stronger in February 28. 2. 10. city of Piura was destroyed and several neighborhoods were tion. p. p.9°S). repeatedly affecting Sullana (4. p. 8. Talara (Murphy 1926) 12   El Comercio 1925-04-17. heavy rain was again groves near the border with Ecuador (León 2014). with northerly wind Sechura further south (5. the plains of Castilla are satiated with the plentiful Appendix A.18 Rainfall in Sullana bogrande. which coin- (4. 3. Fig. 5.11 rainfall record in northern coastal Peru. from arid condi. persistingly in Piura on the 27 and 28.17 (Murphy 1926). it rained briefly in Talara (Murphy 1926) but foothills in the Piura river basin (Chulucanas. 1998.   El Comercio 1925-04-17. p. 6. Here we reconstruct the rainfall chro. 1925-03-24. 3. 10c). 1. 8. Based on the latter.14 The above indi- Table S2 for the city of Piura) but also on the detailed daily cates increasing rainfall in the foothills and.23 large algarrobos (Prosopis pallida). Eguiguren 1894).12 while on February 20. rainfall The first heavy shower was observed in the city of Piura was again strong in Sullana20 and Piura. In Piura. 3. p. sim. 6. canas and Sullana. Petersen ate rainfall were reported in Sullana10 and Talara (Murphy 1935). 18 5   El Comercio 1925-04-17.8 and 11   El Comercio 1925-04-17. 1925-03-06. Fig. as the next value On February 19. in which the three rainiest days were was reported in the city of Piura9. 1925-02-21. ropón.6 while in Talara (Murphy 1926). The February 16 rainfall is likely the largest daily 1926). 8. Fig. cided with unprecedented heavy rainfall in the desertic erly wind. The flooding of the Chira river also started ropón.   El Comercio 1925-04-17.6 °C) as a spatter of rain in January 19. Chulucanas. p. 1925-04-12 p. 13 .7 mm in February 8. Chulucanas 10   El Comercio 1925-02-17. is the birthplace of the The Piura river level started rising on February 20. 15   El Comercio 1925-03-07. and Tambogrande at the foothills. p. Piura. Sullana. Tambogrande. with strong northerly wind on The first signs of rain were reported in coastal Talara the 24 with one hour of rain (Murphy 1926).   El Comercio 1925-03-15 p. p. 20 7   El Comercio 1925-04-12 p. p. In the evenings of February 12 and 13. 13   El Comercio 1925-02-28. rainfall extended to the following noon. while heavy and moder- March 4 (190 mm). p. since 1891. 3.   El Comercio 1925-04-17. record stopped (Murphy 1926. 6. and Mor- the reliability of the 1925 values are difficult to assess.The very strong coastal El Niño in 1925 in the far‑eastern Pacific (375 mm). Tam.19 On March 2. p. in February 2. El Comercio 1925-02-27. 8. 20 (200 mm). Heavy rainfall was first reported near the On the 27.21 and intermitent (lowlands. 22 8  El Comercio 1925-02-17. and harder in January 27. 1925-04-17. In the evening of February 15. p. p. and 14 (100 mm. 8. 6. On March 5–6. p. 10d. 21 10. 17 4   El Comercio 1925-04-12 p. the Sullana area. and 8 (115 mm. 3. after which the to large interannual variability in rainfall. Tambogrande.7 The daily Piura river discharge presented its first peak of 345 ­m3 ­s−1 in February 10 (Murphy 1926. in the man.6°S). although reported in Piura. rainfall in Talara on the 23. with northeast. p. p. also affecting the port of Paita. 10d). 8. heavy rainfall flooded the 9   El Comercio 1925-04-17. 10d). 1925-03-07. albeit scattered. p. p. 14   El Comercio 1925-03-02. Mor- (Murphy 1926).16 and intermitent triangles in Fig.22 Talara (Murphy 1926). 8. between Feb- accounts of qualitative rainfall observations in Talara (Mur. around 5°S. city of Piura. 1. violent storms were reported in Chulu- phy 1926) and in Piura4 (Table  S1).2°S) in February 2 and then on the 7. 6. and El Comercio refers that “after decades. Negritos and Mán- the floods of the 1877–1878 El Niño wiped down forests of cora on March 6–7. and other locations. the first thunderstorm ilar to March 1926. 2. 8. with the water reported to have reached nology based primarily on El Comercio and El Tiempo (see higher grounds than in the 1891 El Niño. p. Chulucanas. completely flooded. with concept of El Niño and is a region particularly susceptible a discharge of 483 ­m3 s−1 in February 21. 22 (134 mm). For the Piura river swelling on February 23–24. 8. ruary 23 and 24. p. Morropón) in January 31.   El Comercio 1925-02-12. At the peak of the tions to torrential (Carrillo 1893. p. another thunderstorm was reported in was 313. p. 23 1925-04-17. 6. heavy rain was heavy rain was also reported in Talara on February 2–4 reported in Piura.   El Comercio 1925-02-12. p. the bridge of the 1925 rainy season there is substantial available informa. in El Salto. 1925-02-14. 19 6   El Comercio 1925-04-12 p.

25 In Talara. the swelling of rivers Zaña and La Leche destroyed to 6. 1925-05-11. 33   El Comercio 1925-04-15 p. Martínez Rainfall continued daily in Piura during March 8–16. there were generalized On April 1. 1925-05-11. huge swelling of the Piura river was reported. p. flooding in Eten and Pimentel (both on the coast). as well as in heavy rain was reported in March 8. p. p. 4.29 and in Chulucanas. 1925-04-17. persistent early rain flooded Piura lowlands between the La Leche/Motupe and Chancay-Lam- again. March 29–31. In Talara. Murphy 1926. p. 1925-04-03. 36 25   El Comercio 1925-02-18.   El Comercio. and again heavy rain in March 29–30 with On March 6–7. heavy rain fell in land cities (Jayanca. Fortunately the work done by the several bridges. the latter the vulnerability. in the phy 1926). 40   El Comercio 1925-03-25 p. 7. with thunder and lightning. Ferreñafe) and new swelling Piura. with between February 15 and 17. 5. creek that “flooded in 1891. 8. 4. and 1998 in terms of the climate anomalies.4. El Comercio   El Comercio 1925-03-30 p. 4. in January 3134 but starting in Feb- In Talara. torrential rain took place in Jayanca (6.   El Comercio 1925-03-30 p. 6. p. reported for a few hours in an evening somewhere in indicating strong rainfall in the foothills and above.37 and in February 21. Lambayeque. 38 27   El Comercio 1925-02-25. 1925-03-24. p. the rainfall was again very intense in Piura heavy rain.43 This was repeated on March with some drizzle (Murphy 1926). 4. On March 12. finding similarities between 1925. on March 18–20. 1925-04-17. and 21. 2. very heavy rain fell directly on the low- north wind (Murphy 1926). 4. age was severe.31 The Piura river reñafe. Etén. 4.40 Again.4°S). 4. p. Fer- y Sullana. 43   El Comercio 1925-03-27. particularly of the Zurita Piura.42 rainfall.9°S) in a single day: March 15. respectively. heavy rain was on March 19. Olmos.39 23–24 and 26. In 1925. 2. the flooding of the authorities and the population prevented serious impacts in Motupe river produced damages. 1925-03-30. 6.5°S) In Talara. 2. p.25 m in March 29 and 30. A.60 and 5. p. which was argued and the following days. with unprecedented heavy rain in Eten and Pimentel Appendix A. 1. 4. p. allowing people to use boats for transport in and possibly others). Tambogrande and Chulucanas. 1925-04-17. very heavy rainfall was reported in Chiclayo.36 In the period of February the water level reaching 6. p. 8. after April 1. strong thunderstorms were reported in March with half a meter of water. dropping 15–17. p. p. 18. 1720 (Nials et al. two with northern wind and great intensity on the 15 (Mur. 41 30  El Comercio 1925-03-27.28 Additionally.8 m on April 4. with a new peak in the level of the Piura river of Then. 13 . but not as much as in this year.38 On February 22. p. 4. no rain fell between March 17 and 20. 1925-04-30. p. 1925-03-24. 1925-04-17. with around 50 mm accumulated in March 10. 39 28   El Comercio 1925-03-14. 1983. Similar rain fell in Catacaos. Takahashi. p. continued with heavy to have been previously unseen in this region. 32   El Comercio 1925-04-12 p. 1925-03-28. 4. albeit briefly. p. 2. 1925-04-13. 1. Olmos.8°S).   El Comercio 1925-03-30 p. 4   El Comercio 1925-03-24.4: Lambayeque region In the arid region of Lambayeque. Chancay-Lambayeque and Olmos.33 Weaker rain fell in Piura on April 14. 8. producing generalized flooding of flooded parts in the city. 35 24   El Comercio 1925-05-11. El Comercio 1925-04-14. Reque.35 In the city of Chiclayo (6. on March 11. 6.5. p. G. In Piura. 1925-03-27. although further downstream in Catacaos the dam. April 2–6.2 m by March 21. p. 31   El Comercio 1925-04-12 p.  10d) although no flooding was noted.   El Comercio. 6. 1. p. but became extraordinarily strong in of several rivers (Zaña. rainfall subsided. p. the flooding of the river Zaña is known to have destroyed the city with the same 34   El Comercio 1925-05-11.32 and Reque. p. p. the first rains were reported in Ferreñafe. heavy rain fell from March 18 to 19 (Murphy ruary 17 the rain in this location was “terrible” and contin- 1926). p. Rocca (2000) does a detailed intercomparison of stronger than seen in 1891. 29 1925-04-13. p.26 bayeque valleys (6. K.24 New swelling of the Piura the impacts of the El Niño on several sectors in the Lam- river (790 ­m3s−1 was registered on March 9. 4. 42   El Comercio 1925-05-11. 4. the flooding of the one hour in either March 20 or 21. reportedly 1979). Pomalca. p. again “terrible” rainfall and 5. clayo. p. 1925-04-17. 1925-03-14.4.7 m on March 19–20. 10 and 15. 1. 6. height was 4. Fig.27 but uous. bayeque region.   El Comercio 1925-03-30. 37 26   El Comercio 1925-02-28. p. 1. 1. 8. 8.41 and on March 15.30 Motupe river covered the main square of Mórrope (6. Chiclayo. 1. 8. heavy rain fell on Piura on in which it has reached few meters of the main square” of March 21. Paita towns and cities such as Chiclayo.5°S). On March 28. p. Chi- 17. Ferreñafe. 24. name (6. Lambayeque.

4. and 6% in Ferreñafe and Chon. reduced the potential impacts (Zegarra notes that this did not reflect the intensity of the rain else- 1926). p.m.50 The raingauge in destroying 32% of the houses in Eten and Monsefú.6: Ancash region between February 15 and 20 in the nearby Andean slopes. the intense 16–18 (Fig. 10e).45 and very strong rain fell Moche. 1925-03-24 p. 5. and by March 9 the rain continued with The heavy rainfall and the flooding in 1925. indicating orographic enhancement  so these sites 1998 (23.  1d) shows similar values for 1925 (25. 13 . rain continued all day in Trujillo and other before. 2. 10e). Casma (9. 1. The total rainfall measured in Hacienda Herederos for this period was 107. 17% in Herederos registered 26 mm between March 7 and 9 Lambayeque. 47 52   El Comercio 1925-04-08.5: La Libertad region ation. to 11 p. Salaverry. 2. 3 1925-05-11. 1925-03-23. reported again inland and by March 7 the heavy rainfall 49   El Comercio 1925-03-12. as well 195 mm. 8. in the Moche (1983–2003) at the Trujillo airport (GRA La Libertad river valley about 12 km east of Trujillo (Zegarra 1926).47 coastal locations. almost 80 times the March average of 2. 44   El Comercio 1925-04-03. p.8 mm. headline “The city of Trujillo has been destroyed”.5 m3 s−1 der and lightning in Trujillo. p. the impacts of heavy rain- and destroyed bridges and roads. 1.   El Comercio 1925-03-27. As seen in Fig. Holstein 1927). while Virú had elevated discharge on March (1983–2003. Murphy (1926) incorrectly reported 226 goyape (Huertas 2001).5°S).4 and 30.48 although the Chicama fall in 1925 were severe. 1925-03-29 p. In 1925. although prevention works. 1925-03-15.51 leading to the front-page ) was near normal. 10e). [Zegarra (1926). we have continu. 1. GRA La Libertad 2010). the river Chancay-Lambayeque changed as other coastal towns such as Huanchaco. (Fig. p. 50   El Comercio 1925-03-25. that activated ravines In the coastal region of Ancash. 16% in Reque. p. the annual mean mm]. p. p. p. as well as in Chiclayo and flooded the city of Trujillo itself in one and a half hours. and 1926 (3. The total rainfall in Herederos for March 1925 was ous data for the Chicama and Virú rivers (Fig. discharge for the river Zaña in 1925 (23. 5. with thun- for 1998 (27. observed in Pacasmayo (7. much larger than in 1983 (7.46 By the end of March and early April. 1.4°S) on the 9. Particularly. 1925-03-17. particularly around the cities of discharge did not present substantial peaks in this period Chimbote (9.The very strong coastal El Niño in 1925 in the far‑eastern Pacific (73 mm in the latter). 12. but Zegarra (1926) mid-February 1925.g. rainfall and the Moche river flooding were surroundings separately. started in Herederos reported rainfall of 28. p. which in to buildings (e. 4. ical stations were destroyed by the floods.1°S). 1. The discharge of the Virú and Chicama rivers rose again on Ferreñafe.m. respectively) also at the Fig. p.1 m3 s−1) but smaller than which were particularly violent in March 14–15. Ferreñafe. the largest and last for Virú (800 m3 s−1. In 1925. larger than the one for 1983 (18. 1925-02-27. 46   El Comercio 1925-05-11. 1925-03-01.1°S) is arid.49 although intense thunderstorms were severe damage to the populated centers. p. 1925-04-13. 4. 1925-03-18 p. 10e). 1. 3. partial destruction of the town of Virú) Trujillo was violent and lasted from 3 p. 4. 1925-04-09 p. and its course towards its left margin. The The region around the city of Trujillo (8. Fig. rain and river flooding was initially reported Appendix A. some rainfall was reported in Chiclayo but less intense than In March 8. The heavy rainfall produced substantial damage to where. (Zegarra 1926.5 mm as raingauge data from Hacienda Herederos. and Huarmey (10. produced reduced strength.3 m3s−1) and airport. 45   El Comercio 1925-04-21. while the value for 1926 (8. Both the Virú and Chicama river had a peak in dis- the pre-Inca ruins of Chan-Chan and the Huaca of the Sun charge in that day. 7 51   El Comercio 1925-03-17 Mp.6 m3 s−1). 11. starting in March 6 (Fig. 1925-04-13.8 m3 s−1). 1983 and 1998 (6.52 although this was later recognized to have been an exagger- Appendix A.4 m3 s−1). 1.1°S). p. 2010) and much larger than the annual accumulation in The annual mean discharge for river Virú (Reparaz 2013. Zegarra 1926). p.   El Comercio 1925-03-18 p. 10e). p. in the Chicama and Moche valleys. 2. We describe the chronology for the three cities and their In March 6.0 m3 s−1) cannot be directly compared. 48 53   El Comercio 1925-02-25. rain and associated flooding produced substantial damage The other major rainy event was in March 24.5 m3   s−1) was Another period with heavy rain was March 11–16.8 mm (Fig. 12.9 mm. Although several hydrolog. 1. with Chicama river had its maximum discharge (530 m3s−1) on a total annual rainfall of 10.53 and agricultural land.3 2do.44 which reminded the locals of the flood of 1891. 10f.7 mm measured at the airport March 17. as well On March 28. 1925-04-13. p. 1925-03-18 p. p. p.

p. 8. like is mentioned. continued in the following days (March normal change in tree growth throughout its lifetime could 11–15). 1925-03-25. new rain and river flooding were reported in this area. the Casma port was flooded again by the Tabón S5a. 63   El Comercio 1925-03-27. 1925. 2. 4. producting severe damages in the following days. near the foothills of the Andes. whereas the climatological March value in Lima is around 13–14 g/kg (Enfield 1981). 5. p. G.   El Comercio 1925-03-30. p.54 On March 9. 69 Interestingly. p. since the and lightning.   El Comercio 1925-03-30.61 By March 17. clearly shows port city of Chimbote received rain so heavy that “the heavy rainfall in the 1925. We estimate the specific humidity to also have been The Casma region is of particular interest because a the maximum of the period. The heavy rain and floods returned in March 26. 2. bridges. p. although heavy rainfall and 13. However. p. 55   El Comercio 1925-03-25.62 It is interesting that this event was compared to on the roofs and the street. 8. 2. 61 66   El Comercio. 69   Based on a vapor pressure of 21–23 hPa from his Fig. 58   El Comercio 1925-04-02. p. 59   El Comercio 1925-04-02. 1. while in 1925 the rain had been con. river. destroying the town of Moro.60 On March 8–16. reached in some points up with the largest signal in 1925 (Fig. p. p.d) and near the minimum wind speed (≤2 m/s. Fig. no inhabitants”. unlikely to have heavy rainfall. but worse. but those Some houses have remained in ruins. p.1°S) fell on March 15. more than a week after the rainy event. above 16 g/kg. 1925-03-21. leaving it in ruins. 8. about 20 km inland along the Nepeña.63 In humidity (86%) of the January–April 1925 season (Fig. the river flooded the town.). SST offshore Callao exceeded 26 °C in March 19–21 (Schott 54   El Comercio 1925-05-02. the rain around Casma tion. the Casma river valley (Rodriguez et  al. 5. 1925-03-12. 1925-04-29. as late as February 24. p. by a factor of 10). ticularly warm. p. 1925-05-02. 1891 were considered calamitous at that time. p. but the Sechín river floods continued until rain was such. 1970). p. 1925-04-02. role in transporting moist air from the north to Lima around 57   El Comercio 1925-04-02. 1925-03-21. flooding. p. 2005). Takahashi. “horrifying” rain Heavy rain severely impacted coastal Huarmey (10. there are were only three days.7: Lima region Around Casma. 4 (corrected 64   El Comercio 1925-04-04. p. S5c). A. K.  10f). even though the rains in The final balance was that “Huarmey town has disappeared. 62   El Comercio 1925-04-02. starting on March 9 and its river starting flooding on the ple in Nepeña indicated that. much larger than the climatological Casma and Sechín rivers. p. when 12 mm of rain short breaks. 1925-03-29.1°S). 1929–1949).64 S5g). 2. affecting Chimbote and its surroundings and “caus. phenomena of this nature. 1983 and 1998 El Niño events. perhaps been seen since 1891. 5.57 Old peo. 8. 1d). 1925. 2009). 1925-04-03. 2. 1925-06-02. 1. they were March 18.”56 In Nepeña. in those days tree-ring precipitation proxy record starting 1906 has been (Fig. with thunder nitude of the signal must be interpreted with care. which was generalized. that the noise produced by the water drops March 21. ing horror among the inhabitants of that area. except for ever recorded was in March 10. 7. according to the much larger to those in 1871 and 1891”. 1931. p.m. like the blow of a great bellows” and that the rain strong” 1877–1878 El Niño (Quinn et  al. p. April 3. personal communication). p. 1925-06-02. 68   El Comercio.. and monthly total for March of 0. 13 .68 Meteorological data from the they were not as intense as in the other El Niño years men. produced a dull and continuous the “strong +” 1871 and “very strong” 1891. Fig. which had not Casma in February 1878 (Aceituno et  al. 1987) was not coincided with “a sensible increase in temperature. Unanue Observatory indicates that that day was not par- tioned. not used to Rodriguez. 4.) fell in nine hours (1:30–10:30 a. 2. but the “very hum. that destroyed roads. the mag- to one meter depth”.58 On March 24. p.5 mm (Campo de Marte sta- telegraph lines. It was reported that the “strength of the weakened.59 Appendix A. heavy rainfall was reported around obtained near San Rafael. suggesting that atmospheric dynamics played an important 56   El Comercio 1925-03-25.55 Very heavy rainfall. but that it had the maximum mean relative with very high levels in the Tabón and Sechín rivers.. 67   El Comercio 1925-04-16. it is highly destroyed agricultural land and bridges. The second largest event the rainfall in Casma was severe and sustained.65 On flooding were also observed in 1871 and 1891. 3.67 tinuous since March 7. Although newspapers mentioned flooding in seen in countries located in the tropics”. enhance the signals in the earlier part of the record (R. El Comercio reported “terrifying rainfall (. 6. p. 1.4.66 not nearly as strong as in 1925. 60 65   El Comercio 1925-02-26. 1. flooding associated with heavy rain and large river swelling In the coastal desertic city of Lima (12. 4. p. “not drops but jets Unanue Observatory (the largest was 17 mm of rain in Jan- of water falling from the sky” and the flooding of the uary 16. Martínez On March 6 and 7.

heavy rains and flooding (llapanas) were with mud and rocks. disconnecting Lima and Chosica. huaycos occurred near Yanacoto. sidering the February–March SST in the Niño 1+2 region The first report of El Comercio for the Rímac river in (1915-present. heavy rainfall was 20. the maximum value had been 152 m3 s−1. but it valleys to the east. 1987. there was plentiful rain in Santa Eulalia and Otao (7 also observed in the Ica valley in February 6 and 1379 and and 23 km upstream from Chosica. railway in 1925) that connects Lima to the Mantaro valley According to O’Connor (1988). p. 1925-03-20. p. when relatively heavy rain fell on Lima. 6. 1925-02-27 p. 1952. 1959. 4. 74 78   El Comercio 1925-03-09. but to the onset of the Andean rainfall regime that was probably enhanced by the 70   El Comercio 1925-02-09. 1926. 1939. Huaycos in the Rímac river valley.73 More than two weeks this arid region. p. 5. a probability of huaycos in Chosica. 1925-03-02. the river swelling damaged the railway at km 51. but. between March 18 and ing disabled the measurements. 3. there was again heavy rainfall in Chosica data for Chincha river (aka San Juan. p. that is highly vulnerable which we can add 1998 (CAF 2000). p.   El Comercio 1926-02-27. 1983. Ica. p. leaving Lima (14. 1925-03-02. 73 77   El Comercio 1925-02-18. but a  coastal El electricity in most of Lima. El Comercio 1925-03-24. That is. 1936. p.1 m3 s−1) for 1925 (Reparaz 2013). 1891. 1967. 1925-03-20. for six hours starting at 9 p. 6. ever. 1925-02-22.   El Comercio 1925-03-27. p. 7. 2. Particularly important are the huaycos near the town 1955. 1922–1939). 2.72 On reported in the February 1–12 near the Andean slopes and the 19. warm coastal large huayco disabled the hydroelectric generation in Yana.m.8: Ica region record for Rímac river at Chosica. within an standard deviation of the mean (12.9°S. p. on 17. heavy for without electricity and clean water. however. which in turn probably helped increase the SST. 1972. Using this and con- to them. 1. p. respectively) that the annual discharge (13. to of Chosica (11. huaycos have occurred to the east. reflect- highly unlikely.71 In the 30 year discharge Appendix A.m. 1925. as the analysis of Schott (1931) indicates val- ues below 20 °C in early February. in bridges and buildings. The early timing of the rains and floods in the Ica region in 1925 indicates that these were not associated with high coastal SST. with several huaycos affecting Chosica. on m3  s−1 . interrupting the factor of two  relative to cold conditions. it was 500 m3 s−1. The huaycos in between kilometers 60 and 93. Then. popularly known as huaycos. and Chosica in 1925. no nary. 2. In the Ica region. was observed from 3 p. On the Callao shore. 13. conditions enhance the probability of huaycos by almost a coto (3 km downstream from Chosica). On the other hand.The very strong coastal El Niño in 1925 in the far‑eastern Pacific March 10. the Rímac river rose again. Then. affecting kms March–April 1925 (Reparaz 2013). The monthly mean Rimac discharge data from Chosica Although heavy rainfall on the city of Lima itself is are missing for March–April 1925 (Reparaz 2013). 2. 1925-02-18 p. 3. 1985.75 Finally. 1954. and a bridge in km 88. and also flooding the and Rio Grande river valleys. Lima. 10a).70 On February 16. Pisco. SST increased abruptly even later. Rimac (ANA 2010) does not reflect this. rainfall in the city. Lima. on February 17.   El Comercio 1925-02-27 p.   El Comercio 1925-02-10 p. p. 1925-02-12 p.m. we find that 1925 indicated flooding of the neighborhood of Lima of the years with a positive/negative SST anomaly have 15%/8% same name between February 5 and 8. p. was not extraordi- March 10. p. 2. as well as affecting the hydroelectric generation for 1909. destroying roads. 2.74 Curiously.9°S. when data is more reliable). including the city of Ica itself hydroelectric plants in Yanacoto and Chosica.3. ~900 m asl).7 m3  s−1) was lower than in 1925.4°S) in and huaycos between Yanacoto and Chosica. 4 .0 events were reported to the east at this time. probably underes- are very important as they can interrupt the highway (the timating the actual values. 1. are com. 71   El Comercio 1925-02-18. 1.77 On February 11. missing discharge March 12 and 14. on February 18. were among the most severe on producing large landslides. 1925-02-22. the annual mean discharge of the Ica river (13. resulted in several floods and huaycos. 1950. 75 79   El Comercio 1925-03-18. as well damaging the railway Niño does not guarantee their occurrence. should be noted that statistically reconstructed data for mon in the rainy season.1°S).76 March 27–29 (Fig. 2. between km 51 and 53 (between Lima and Chosica). 13 . to 2 a. the floods affected the Chincha (aka San Juan).78 How- after (between March 7 and 9). two new record (O’Connor 1988). that supplies most of the agricultural produce to in the Chosica area in the following years: 1834. In 1926. p. 72 76   El Comercio 1925-03-21. flash floods with debris flow in the Andean ing the effect of the huaycos on the measurements. 1915. 1976. suggests that the flood- 50 and 51 of the railway.

84 Since the las et al. In this section we use the in Yura on the 12. Bailey 1930) in Jan- uary 1925 (Fig. p. source for the rain could have been the Pacific. 1.2°S. indicating that our classifications while it is only −0. 1925-02-09. 1. 28 The extreme January 1925 rains in Arequipa could have moderate and 7 weak rainy days (Fig. p. 1925-02-27. particularly great flooding the peak of the 1925 El Niño. the Andes (Falvey and Garreaud 2005). after noon. However. K. 2. 1925-02-26. we find 350 mm for the raingauge period and 760 mm for Febru- ary–April 1925 (that we consider valid for the full calendar year as well). 1925-02-17.80 In February Peru (e. origi. and 140 mm. Chili and other rivers. 2. threatening clouds appear that pushed by the wind.5 mm on the (2009) for the 1997–1998 El Niño (note that “dry” region of Arequipa where these rain occurred is on the means less rainy in this context) . p. had the largest monthly precipita.83 terms of their intensity and found a total of 10 strong. had some contribution from the coastal warming of about Woodman (1985) did a similar analysis for this same period 1 °C (Fig. Takahashi. 1925-02-26. producing floods and destroy.4°S) on the western Andes. that fell in the Arequipa. 1925-02-11.   http://research. 1925-02-25. calculation with our own list (neglecting weak rainy days).07 with E. enhanced by the tropospheric destabilization associated with the cold central Pacific (Sect. which approximately matches the average values for the nates between 3 and 4 in the afternoon the strong rain that city of Piura in the dry and rainy day composites of Doug- for days we have been routinely enduring”. 250. 80. 4. The diurnal lands of Ica and the E (eastern Pacific warming) index and moisture variability in Arequipa appears to be associated negative correlation between the Andean slopes of Ica and with the valley breeze circulation on the western slope of the C (central Pacific) index (Lavado-Casimiro and Espi. p. 13 . 370. but was most likely associated with the cold and. railways. Yura. 3. leading to the swelling of the The rainfall and river discharge records in Piura85 (5. p. tion in Arequipa record and the C index (1896–1925). p. but it is still the largest 81   El Comercio 1925-02-14. the variance were similar. which was perhaps noza 2014). January 22–31 was a period of exceptionally heavy Appendix B: Reconstruction of Piura rainfall rain. at upper-air zonal wind that modulates the moisture inflow 2412 m above sea level.82 The following year. p. However. p.81 Finally. In this case. p. Appendix A. while the latter misses key data during railways. we obtained 1280 mm. the city of Arequipa on March 5–6. 84 86   El Comercio 1925-02-09. By repeating this correlation of −0. strong rainy days correspond to amounts of 10 and 40 mm. by assigning rainfall values of 20 and 60 mm to the conditions in the central Pacific (Lavado-Casimiro and equivalent of our moderate and strong days he estimated a Espinoza 2014).   El Comercio 1925-04-17. it was reported that closer match is found if we assume that the moderate and “every day. p. 40 m  asl) are important measures of El Niño in ing roads.9: Arequipa region the main factor controlling the rainfall variability in the central Andes associated with ENSO appears to be the The city of Arequipa (16.g. 1. 8. 5b). calculation produces 580 mm for this same time period. but also affecting the Majes and Vitor information we have compiled to provide estimations to valleys. but the 1925–1926 summer was El Tiempo newspapers and classified the rainy days in reportedly “exceptionally warm and early”. S3g). heavy rain fell on complete these records. as well as the largest January–March mean. p. 8. This is consistent with the western side of the Andes. El Comercio 1925-02-04. 9. Table  S2). 83 85   El Comercio 1925-06-09. agricultural land. Inter. reaching 32.washington. 3. p. during the January 1925 rains. 8. A. On the other hand.jisao. bridges and properties. p. Martínez cold central Pacific conditions. not only in the valley but also on the surrounding mountains. this suggests that the moisture positive correlation between the annual rainfall in the low. p. 4. Deser and Wallace 1987) but the former did not 12–13. and discharge Yura. 1925-02-27. Our estimate is substantially lower 1925-02-05. p. after some drier days. This connection is supported by the linear total annual accumulation of 1200 mm. on the horizon towards the coast.38 between the January–March precipita. 2. no mention was made of between February and April 1925 in both El Comercio and heavy rain in Arequipa. a raingauge in the city of Piura explained by this correlation is not high enough to attribute measured 327 mm between March 7 and April 186 and this the 1925 rainfall exclusively to the ENSO anomalies.6°W. and Vitor districts. houses. tion in its 30 year record (1896–1925.  10d. 82   1925-03-12. 3. with a new flood of the We analyzed reports of rainfall in the city of Piura Chili river. with the corresponding monthly values of 80  El Comercio 1925-02-03. A estingly. G. than the one of Woodman (1985). from the Amazon (Garreaud and Aceituno 2001). p. new torrential rain produced further damages on have data for 1925. 3. 2.

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