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PEI/RP100-05

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Recommended Practices
for Installation of
Underground . Liquid
Storage Systems

~ PEI ~
<'fUM EQUIPMENT INS'"

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Recommended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems

FOREWORD
These Recommended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems have been prepared
as an industry service by the Petroleum Equipment Institute. This recommended practice is truly an indus-
try document, as PEL members, environmental regulators, oil company engineers, oil marketing trade asso-
ciations, etc., have had an opportunity to review and comment on the previous publication under the same
name. The text represents the consensus views of the PEL Tank Installation Committee, comprised of the fol-
lowing members:
Leland M. Freeman, Chairman Maurice J. Hubbard
Petroleum Solutions, Inc. lMP Solutions
Victoria, Texas Fort Myers, Florida

Blake Bammer Doug Mets
Guardian Fueling Technologies Western Pump, Inc.
Jacksonville, Florida San Diego, California

Jack Carmitcheal Jim O'Day
Double Check Company, Inc. O'Day Equipment, Inc.
Kansas City, Missouri Fargo, North Dakota

Michael W. Farmer, P.O.E. Greg Thomas
Farmer Company C. E. Thomas Company
South Williamsport, Pennsylvania Gardena, California

Duane Grippe Bill R White, P.O.E.
O'Day Equipment, Inc. White's Pump Service & Supply, Inc.
Duluth, Minnesota Lubbock, Texas

Serving as consultant to the committee was Marcel Moreau, P.O.E. , Marcel Moreau Associates,
77 Ocean Ave. , Portland, Maine 04103.
The PEL Tank Installation Committee acknowledges the contributions to past editions of this
document by the following people: O. L. Everett, John P. Hartmann, Frank Johnson, J. H. Prentiss,
Jr., Patrick M. Ryan, Jerry A. Thomas, Howard Upton, and George H. Watkins.
This document supersedes and replaces the previous recommended practice entitled, Recom-
mended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems, PEIIRPlOO-2000.
All questions and other communications relating to this document should be sent only to PEL
Headquarters, addressed to the attention of the PEL Tank Installation Committee.

Petroleum Equipment Institute
PO. Box 2380
Tulsa, Oklahoma 74101-2380
(918) 494-9696
Fax: (918) 491-9895
E-mail: info@pei.org
WWW: www.pei.org

© 2005 Petroleum Equipment Institute

DISCLAIMER

Every effort has been made by the PEl Tank Installation Committee to ensure the accuracy and reliability of
the information contained in this document. However, the Committee, its consultant, and the Petroleum Equip-
ment Institute make no representation, warranty or guarantee in connection with the publication of these rec-
ommended practices. The Institute hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage
resulting from the use of these recommended practices; for the violation of any federal, state or municipal
regulation with which these practices may be in conflict; or for the infringement of any patent resulting from
their use.

.. .. ........................................... ........... ................. ... .. ............... ............. 2 2.. 9 5... ..... 1 1.. ..... ......... . Preinstallation Inspection and Tank Testing 3. . .................. .. .. ....... ... .................. ........5 Use of Other PEl Recommended Practices ..... 6 3........ ...................................................................... .............. ............ ... and Backfill ... .......................... ............... ........................ ... ..3 Scope .. .. ...... ..... ........ ............. ............... ............ Backfilling 5................. .................. ... .... 1 1... ...... .... . .... 2 2....... ...... .. ................. .... . ...................... ... 1 1.... ........ ....... .....6 Importance of Competent Installers ............... ......... 3 3.1 Preinstallation Inspection ......... 5 3..2 Location of Excavation ...... .....6 Maximum Burial Depth ....... ....... ........................... ...........................5 Placement of Steel.............. ..... ... ......... ................. Bedding.... ....... .... 2 1. .. ................... . ................ Excavating 4.. ................................ ...................... ... .... ...................... ......... .................. ....... ........ 8 5............... . ... .......... .......................... .................. ....... . ........ ........... .......7 Handling of Excavated Materials ... ....................................................................... ..... ....... ................................ ................... 9 5.......... 3 3. .. .. . ... ........ ............................... ...................... .......... 1 1............ ........................................... .......................... ..............................................................4 Backfill Material for Steel........... ..... ...... .. ........................ ..... ........................... ...3 Excavation Depth............ ... ...... ..... ........................................ ............... .... ... ............ .6 Double-Walled Tank with Liquid-Filled Interstice .... 1 1.............. ........................6 Backfill Material for Fiberglass Tanks ............ ........................ ........ .......... ...8 4....... .. ......... ......... .. ...... 6 3.......... ........................ 6 4. Composite and Jacketed Tank Backfill .................. 2 2... ............ ........... .............. ...................................... .. ..... ........9 Regulations . .................. . ........................ ..... ............... 10 .............. ............... ...... ..... ............................ ...... ...... .................... ....... ..... .. ... ....... ........................... .......... ......... ....... ......................... . ...... .. 7 4....... ........ .. .... .............. .............................................. .. ........ ................... ............. ........ .. ...................................... .................................................... ......... 8 5.................................... ......... .......... ....... ............................... .......... .................8 Unexpected Conditions ... .... ..... Introduction 1... ..............4 3............ .............. ....... ............ Recommended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems CONTENTS Foreword ... .... ..................... 8 5... ...... ....................... ............. .................................. ....1 Excavating .............. ... ... ............................. .... ........ ................. ..... .. .... ..... .. ..... ...... ..... ..7 Double-Walled Tank with Vacuum on Interstice ... ....... .................... .................... ...... ............... ..... ... .................. ... 7 4.......... .. . . ............................... ........... ...... ......... ..........................................7 Placement of Fiberglass Tank Backfill ........... 9 5................... ............. ............... .................... .... ............... .......... ......1 General ................ ......1 Background ...... .............. ...... .......2 Unloading............................ ................... .. ..... ............ .................... .......................1 Care in Handling Tanks ...................4 Sources . ................... ... ...........4 Piping and Equipment Storage ... ........ . ....... ... ..................... .....................7 Written Plans .. Composite (Fiberglass-Clad Steel) and Jacketed Tanks . ........................... ........ ...................... .........iii SECTIONS Page 1......... ..... .............. ........................ .............. ............ ... ............. ........... and Lowering .... 3 3............8 Work Area Safety ..................... ..... ....... 7 4................................... .................. ....... ...... ..... ....... ........... .............. ...........'............................... . ......................... .. .................. ...... ........ .. 9 5... ...... .. .. .. ......9 Excavation of Used Tanks ........ .................. . .......................... . ..... ......... ........ 2 1................... ...... .............................. 7 4. ..........5 Cover in Areas Not Subject to Traffic .... ............. ...... ..4 Preinstallation Testing of Compartmented Tanks ........ Lifting........ ....... ........... .......... ...... ......... .................3 Water Management ...... ............... ......... ... ........ ........................................................................... .. ............... ........ ..... ....................... ...... 7 4......... ....................... ........ . ..... ...... .... .... .................3 Tank Storage .... ........ ........ .................... ......... .............. .................................. ..... ... ..... . ...... . ....... ....2 Preinstallation Tank Testing' ....... ........ 6 4............. ....... ........4 Cover in Areas Subject to Traffic ........... .. ........................................................................... ...................2 Ballasting .. ... ........... ......... 1 l. ........3 Preinstallation Testing of Double-Walled Tanks ...... ....... ..2 Purpose .......... ................. . ........ ......... ..... ............. ...... 7 4....................... 3 2..... .....5 Alternative Interstice Tests ............. ... ........................ .... Material Handling 2............................................. .. .................. ..... ........................ .................................................. .... .... ... ...... .........

... 10 5.................. ........... ...................2............. ..... ..... ....... .. ... ...... ........................... ..... 12 6. ............ ...........3.... ...... ....................PEl Recommended Practices 100-05 5... ....... . ............. .. ......... .... .. ........... ..... ... .. ............... ..... . .................................................................. ..... 17 8....... ...1 Automatic Tank Gauging . ... ......................... ............... ......... ......... ......... ..... .... ................ ... .......................10 Filter Fabric . ............. .. ..................... . ... . ............... .. 15 7............ .......1 General .. . ............. Anchoring 6............ .. . ....~~ ........... ....................... ..... ....... ... ............ .. ......... .... .... 16 8.... .. ...... .. .......... ...... .. .......... ...... . . . ........... ..... .............. ...... ............6 Containing Releases from Dispensers ................... 19 9....... ...... ...................... ...... ..... ..... ...... ............. ... .. ...........2 Double-Walled Tanks . ........... ......... ......................... .........................4 Interstitial Monitoring .. .................. ....... ............ . ............ . ......... ... ...2 Groundwater Monitoring ....... ............................. .......... .. ... .. .. .......... 14 7.. ... ........... 17 8... ..... .... ............. ............. ... .................. .....3..... ......... ......... .................3 Wet-Hole Conditions .... .............. ... . ...... ... .. ..... ........ ... .... ..... .................. .. ..... .... ......... ...................... .......... 12 6............................. .... ................... . ..... ............. ........... . ...................3.... ........................... ................4 Installation of Overfill Devices ..... ....... ....... ................... .... ... .....11 Supporting Equipment During Construction .......... . ........................ .................. . .............. .......7 Satellite-Dispenser Piping . ........ ........ ......... .................. ...................... ..... ....... .... .......... ........3.......... . ......5 Containing Releases from Submersible-Pump Heads ........3.. ...7 Methods of Attachment ........ .... . .................................................... ............... ..... . ... ..... . .. ..... ............... ........ .... ............ ..... ..... ............ . ........................ ... . . ............... ....... ... ....... .... ....... :...... ........ ........ ............8 Safety Considerations ... ........................... ... .. .... ... .......... ... . ...........3. ..... .. ... 16 8...... ......... ..... ............ ...... ... ......... .... ... ..........8 Compaction . 19 9... .... .. ....... 14 7... ...... .. ...... ....... . .................. ......... . ........ .................. ....... ......... .......... ........... ......... ... ................... . ...... ....... ....3..... .................... .. . ... .. .... . . .. ..... 17 9........ ... ....... . ............ ........................ .......... .. ...... ............. ............. ... Prevention 7..... ... .... ..1 Automatic Line-Leak Detectors .................... .....2............ ..... ... .... .............. ...........6 Electrical Isolation ............ . ...... ....... ...... ..... ........ ........3................ ............. .. . ..................8 Under-Pump Check Valve ............... .......... ........ . . ........ ................ .................... ... ......... ................................ ........ . .......4 Tank-Top Sumps .................. ... .. .. 11 6.... ..... ......... .... .......................................... 13 7... ... . ............................. ...... . ......... .... 10 5................ ............ ... ...................... .. ......... ....... ........ .... ..... . ........ ........... ..... 18 9..... .... ............... .. ............ .................. .. Secondary Containment 8....... ......... ....... . ........ ........ ......... .... .............. ................ ....... .... ... ... . ........ 14 7.......4 Interstitial Monitoring ..... 17 9.. .............. . .. ... ........ ...5 Straps ............ ................ . ........ .... .. ....... . ....... .......1 Purpose .. ..... .......... ..... ....... ... 19 9...... .2............ .. ... ......... ................ .....4 Types of Anchorage .. ...2 Leak-Detection Methods for Tanks . .............................1 Alarms . ......... ....... 14 7. ...... ............................... ...... . .. .... 10 5........ .................................... ......... .... ..... . ...2...... .. .............. 13 6. ..................... ................ 19 9......... ......................... .......5 Dispenser Sumps ................... ....... ....... . .. .................. .. ...:... . . ................................ .......... ..... ....2 Groun'dwater and Soil-Vapor Monitoring . 20 9.. 17 9........... ... .... .................. ............. ............... ..... .......... ...... .......................... .. ........ .. ...... ... ............. .... ........... ............ ........... .... ......... ... ....... .. ..... ..... . .. ..............3. .................. . ....... .................. ............... .............. 20 9.... .......3 Overfill Prevention . ............ ... .. ................... ..... .......................... ....... ......... .... ...6 Sensing Devices ... ........... ....... .. . 17 8....... ............................. ............. . 20 vi ..... .. ..... 11 6... 12 6...... ...... ...... .......... ..... ......... ..... ..... ...... . .......................3........... .... .......... . ........................... 19 9..... .. . ........... .............. .........................3 Inventory Control Plus Tightness Testing ..5 Soil-Vapor Monitoring .. .. ........ ....................... . 18 9.................... ...................... .. ... ................... ............ 15 8.. 20 9.... ..1 Purpose ................ ...3 Vent-Restriction Devices .. .......... ....2.......... . .. .......... 13 6. .. ......... ... ........................................ .. . 14 7....... ... ..... ............ ........... .................. .. ............ 19 9..... 16 8....... . .... ........... ... ...... ..... ........... ...... .............. .. ......................................................... ............ ................... . ...... ........ ...9 Measuring Tank Deflection ...........2 Excavating Requirements .. .. . ............ . ......3 Double-Walled Piping .. Spill Containment and Overfill ...... .... ...... . .... ...3 Periodic Piping Tightness Testing ...... .. Release Detection 9.. .. .... ....... . ..............2 Spill Containment.......... ........3 _Leak-Detection Methods for Piping ............. ..... ........... ..... ..1 Purpose ..... . ....... ............ .............. ..... 19 9..................... .. ..... ... ....... . .............. ....... .... .... ............. ..... ........................... .................. .. ................................ 18 9.... .......................... ..................... .. . ..... .. ..................... ............................. ....... .......3... ...... ........... ............... ........ .......... ............ ...... .. .. .. ..... .................. .............. .... ........ . .... ....... .......... ........7 Other Technologies .. .. . . ....... ...... ........... .............. ..2 Flow Shut-Off Devices .... .............. . .... ...... ............. 15 8.............. . ..... .... .....

....... ........ .............. . ... .. ....26 12. ........ ...... .......... 27 12..... ... .... .....3 Leak-Detection and Cathodic-Protection Systems ..................... ... .............. 25 11 ..... . .. ............. 26 12....... ... ........ .. ........ ... ............. ..... .............. .. ..................... ..... ............ .. ....... ........ ......................... .. ...... ... ....... ............ ....... ............ . :........... .... .. ............. ......... .......... .......................................................................... ...... .... ...... .. ...... . .............................. ......... ...... .. .20 10... . .... .................. .... ................. ... ..... ..... ...... ........... ... ..... ....... ..........2 General Requirements .......... ........ ... .... ...... .... ........ ... ...... .... ... ...... . .. ........ ..... ...................... .................. ........... ......23 10.... .. .......... .. ......... .. 28 12..................... ......... ....... .............. ..... . .............. ....... .......... ............. .... ..... .... . ... .. ......... . ... ........... ............................ ..... ....... .............. .............. ... 24 10.......... ... .......... ................ .............. ..12 Field-Applied Coatings . ... .. ............ .... ............. ... .. ......... ...2....... ........................... .. ......... .................. .. ......... .... ...... ............ .. ....6 Galvanic Anodes for Piping . ........ .. . .......................26 12...... ....... ....... ......... .......1 Testing of Product Piping . ....... .... .... ... ... . ...................... ........ ... ....... ... ................. .. . ..... ....... .. ....... . ........ ... ............................................ . ..... ....... ........ ... ............ ... .......1.... ............... ... ....... ...... ......... ... ........ ... ..............1 Initial Piping Test for Single-Walled Piping . . ................ .. ..... . . .. 20 10.....1..... ........ ............................. .. .............................. ....... ..... ..................... ............ ............... .. ........... .. ............... ......... ............................ ............... ........ ..... .. ...... .. .. ............ ............ ..................... . .......2 Initial Piping Test for Coaxial Piping ........ ... ... ............... . .... ..... ..... ................ ............. ....... ....... :. ...... .......... .............................. ......13 Fill Piping ...... .................3 Factory-Installed Systems for Tanks ... .. . ......... .... ................. ... ..... . ...... .....29 13.. ................. .. ..... .. ...... .13 Other Components .... ........... ....... .... ... ....... ..... ................... ..... ..... ............... ... ..1 General Requirements ................ . ........ . ... . ... Cathodic-Protection Systems 12. ................ 27 12............. . .. 24 10. ............. 22 10..... ..... . ... ............ .......... . .. ...... ......... .... . 23 10. . ..................... ... ............... . ......... ........... ..2 Applicability .... .... ..... Piping and Fittings 10.... .... Electrical Installation 13... ... Recommended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems 10............... ... ..................... ..... ........ .. ................ .... ............ .... ......... ........ 30 13.. .. ............. . ......... ............... .. .......10 Piping ...... .......... ...........9 Wiring and Electrical Connections .... ....... ...... ........................... .......................... ..... . ...... ........ ...... 22 10..... .....................29 12........ . ... . ................ ..... ... ....... .... ....... 20 10..7 Impressed-Current Systems ..... .. ....... .... ........... 26 12...1. 29 12.... .... ............ ...... .. .............. ... ..... 25 11 . 24 10............. ...... ... ......... .... .................... ............. ..2 Monitoring During Construction ...... ............. ...... ..14 Submersible Pump ...............5 Electrical Isolation ... ......... ...7 Threaded Joints ......... ....... .. . .... ......... ....... .. ....... .... ...... 25 11.......... ..................... . .. ....... .... .. . . ... . . .... ...11 Containment Sumps ......... ..... 23 10... ....... ...... ..... . ... : ..4 Piping Layout and Trenches ............. . . .. . ...... ........... ........... .... ........... ... ...................................... .... .... ...... ............. ............. .......... ... .... ......... ..............1 Initial Test for Sec~ndary Piping ..... ..... . .. ........... ...... 26 12............. ........ ........ .... . 21 10....... ........ ........12 Vent Piping .. ... . .. .....1 General Requirements for Product Piping .......... ... ............8 Metallic Piping ................. .. . .................. ... .................. ......... .... ..... . ...... .... ........ ........ ... ..2............ .......... ... .... .....16 Manifolded Tanks and Siphon Piping ........... ............ ...... . ... .10 Flexible Piping ...... ........ ......... .......... ...... . ............................................ .. ... . ........ ........ 30 vii ......... ....... ........... ..... . . . .......... ... ............ ...... ......2 Testing of Secondary Containment Piping ..... ....... . ...... .... .......... ................ ...... ..... ..... ......... ..... ....................... ... . ... ... .. .................. ........ .... . ...... ....... .2 Piping Materials . ........... 26 11... .6 Flexible Connectors .... .... ..... ....... ...... .. . .3 Monitoring During Construction ....... ..... ............... ......... . .... . Testing Piping 11.. . .................. ............ ....... ................... ... ... ...28 12.... . .... .......... ........ .. ... . ..................... 25 10......... ..... ............ ............... ......... .. .................... ............ ..... ........4 Dielectric Coatings . ... .. ....... 21 10... ...3 Final Integrity Test for Secondary Piping .......17 Vapor-Recovery Piping ..14 Inspection and Testing ................. ...... . .. ........ ...... .......... 25 11....... ............ ... ................ ..... ....................... ..................................... . ....... ................. .. ........... ....2.. .................... ... ........................ .......... . .... ..9 Fiberglass Piping ....... ............ ................. .. ...... ........ .. ........ ........ ... ................ ............ ...... 28 12................. ............15 Suction Stub ...... ... ............... ..... . . .............. .. .................................... .............. .............. ... ...... ....... ..... ........................... ............ .... .......... .. ................ .......... ... ........ ..................... .......... ..27 12................ ............ ...... .. ... .. ..... ........ .. .......... ...... .. ..... ................ ....... .... ..... .............. ......... 25 11... ................. ...................... . ........... .......4 Post-Construction Testing ...... ............ .......... ........ ....... .. .. ..... .... ..... ............. .... ......... 21 10.. ...... .. ................. ...18 Water-Gauging Port. .. . ... ...... ... ................... ......... ............................. ....... ........... ............... ..5 Piping Backfill and Compaction ......... ................ . ... 21 10.... ........ ..............8 Test Stations ...... ..... . 29 12.... .... ....... .. ... ... ..... ............ ...... ... . ..... ............ . .. ... .. ............ ........ ... ........25 11... ... ......... ... 25 11.......... ........... ..... ...........1...... . .......... 25 11......... 30 13. ............. ............... ......... ... ... ... . .............. ... .......3 Piping Practices .............. ... ....... ................ ...... ..... .................... ....... ...... ....... ........ ...... . . .... ........ ..... ...... . .... ... ............... ... .......... .. ................. ......... .. .... ........ ...... ....... 24 10....1 i Protecting Piping ......... .. ... ...............1 Importance of Electrical Work . ... .....

. . ........... .. . .... ...... ....8 Adequacy of Restraining Forces . 37 B........... ............................. ................ .......4 Other Testing . .............. ...... .. .................. ........... ............ ............. ..... ..........4 Coatings .... ...... .. ........................... 37 B................. ............. .... .. . .......... 32 15........... ......... .... .... ......... ..... ... . .... ..... ...... ....... ...... ....5 Reinforced-Concrete Pad at Finished Grade ..... .......................... ................... ............................ ......... ................. ..... ....... .. ......... .. .......... ... 32 15..... . . ....... ... . 35 A....... ................. ................ .. .9 Magnesium Anode Selection ...2 Component Documentation . 32 14................ . ............. 36 B........ .. .... . . ..... ....... ............... .........PEl Recommended Practices 100-05 14............ ........ ...6 Impressed-Current Systems ........7 Galvanic Anodes ................................ ...... ............. ........ .................. ........ . ....................... ............ ..... ................ ............................................ .. .. . ................. ......... ......... .. .... ...... .......... . ... .....6 Depth of Burial to Top of Tank .. ... 36 B..... . ....... ........ . ........................ .................... ................. .... ....................... . .............. ..........11 Applicability ... ....... 32 15....... .. ....... ............... .......... ... :...... ... .......... .. ....................... .. ..... .......... .... ... ......... .. .......................4 Tank Displacement ..................................................... . ........ 31 14. .... . . .... ..... ........ ... .. .......... ........................ ................ ........... .. 35 A....... ..1 Purpose ............. ......1 Galvanic Corrosion ...... ........ 33 A........ ... ....................... ............... ..... .......... .. .... ............ 36 B...... . ............................................................ ...... ....... ................. . . . ... .......... ......... ......... ..... ....... .. ..... .. ..12 Adjusting Factors for Anodes Installed in Parallel ............ ............4 Scheduled Inspections and Maintenance .....1 "As-Built" Drawings .......... ............. ...... ........ .................... .... .... ..........ll Number of Feet of Well-Coated Steel Pipe That Can Be Protected with One Galvanic Anode .... .... ......... ....... .... ...... .. .. ............. .. 34 A.... ............................................. .... . ............ ....... ............ . .............. ......................... ....... ........... ...... ....... .... ......................... ... .......... .... ... 36 B......... .... .....2 Cathodic-Protection Systems .. .. ... .... .. ... . ...... ........... .. .. ............ 32 15.........5 Cathodic Protection ... ........... ... ........... . ... ....... 33 A.....37 B.. ..... .. 32 Appendix A: Floatout and Anchorage Calculation A. ............... ............32 14..... ...... .......... ............ ....... .... . 39 .. .............2 Weight of Materials ........ 38 B......... ....... .......... ............ 36 B.............................. .............. ....... ................. ...... ................ . ... ... ................ ..... Documentation and Training 15......... ....... .... ....... ..... . ........ .. ............. .... .... .... .. .. .. ......... .. ..... ..................... .... .... ... ...... ...... ....... . . .3 Reflected-Tank Area .. ....... ..... .... ..................................... .......................................... . ....... ........................... .................. ............ Testing 14......... .. ................. ... . ....... 33 A......... .........................................3 Rate of Corrosion ......... .... .......................... .. .. ............... ......... ...... ... ......................................... .. ... ........ ........... .............. ......... . ...... ........... ..... ................................ ........................... ......... .5 Training ... ..... ......... ...... .. ................. .. ...... ........... ...... ..... .......... .... ........7 Volume and Weight of Overburden ..... . ....... ........ ......... .. ....... .. ................... ...1 System Tests . . ....3 Installation Checklists ........................ .................................. .................. .....................9 Calculation of Safety Factor ..... 33 A... .......... .. ... ......................................... ... 33 A........... ............. ......... ......................... ....................... ... ... . ............... .... .................... .. ............ .......... .......... ..... ..... ............. . .......... ......... ...3 Test Results ...... ............. .. ......... ........................ . ......... ........................ 35 Appendix B: Background: Cathodic Protection B....... .......... ...... ................ ..... .................... .. .... .... ............... . ..... 33 A......... ..8 Anode Backfill Material ... . . ......2 Stray-Current Corrosion ........ ....... ..... .. .......... ...... ............. .. .. ............................. .. 36 B............ ..... ................... ............. . ........................... ................. ........1O Effect of Adding 1 Foot to the Burial Depth .. ...... .. ............10 Calculation of Anode Life .......... ..... ............... . ......................................... . .............. . ......... ........... ...... ........... ....... . .... ............ ..... .... ............ ...... 33 A. .... ... ......... ................ ......... ... ........... ......... .. ............. ............... ....................... . ................ .. ........ ........... ........... 37 B... .................... ................... ......................... . ....... . 32 15...... .... .......... .... ................ 38 Appendix C: Publication Reference ....... . ............... ......... ........ ............

professional tank-system installers is an regulatory or legislative requirements related to under. 1 . The specifications and procedures out. Installation and Testing of Vapor-Reco very Systems at Vehicle-Fueling Sites for additional guidance in the This document does not address practices associated installation of vapor-recovery systems. The ground storage systems. to avoid recommendations that will needlessly increase cedures for pipefitting. is far less mend particular materials. ciously submitted by state environmental officials. Manufacturers' instruction should be electrical installation. ed to installation procedures. for example.6 Importance of Competent Installers. and equipment intended to dispense gasoline. associ. environmental agencies and trade organizations reveal procedures are derived from instruction manuals issued that one of the significant causes of leaks in underground by manufacturers of tanks. 1. nor does it endorse or recom. opment and implementation of new installation methods and procedures. and related equipment. the vide a concise reference that describes recommended committee has had the benefit of reasoned comments gra- practices for the installation of underground liquid stor. ery piping and equipment. Proper instal- material available from the above sources. Similarly. liquid storage systems is improper installation. improper pipe dope. Practices for Inspection and Maintenance of Motor Fuel Dispensing Equipment for information concerning the The practices recommended in this publication are limit. These recommended practices apply to underground. oil age systems. lessly left in tank and piping excavations.3 Scope. it is assumed that persons tions that will minimize the possibility of storage-system using this publication for reference purposes will have a failure. This document is not intended to serve as a basic instruc- tion manual. with the installation of storage systems for liquefied petroleum gases. Fiberglass Petroleum Tank & Pipe Institute. and Western Fire Chiefs :1. installation costs. National Association of Cor- 1. Recommended Practices for ing facilities. should refer to PEIIRP300.ystem failures can be caused by debris and other foreign material that are care- 1. some of the specifications and . and installation contractors. equipment. suppliers. 1. In addition. the Under- lation requires practical experience. The purpose of this document is to pro. National Fire Protection Association. INTRODUCTION ro ion Engineers International. considered as the minimum acceptable standard to pro- tect product warranties. ated piping. incompatible pipe fittings. recommendations based on the practical experience of :1. piping. equipment manufacturers.1 Background. manship. In addition. The user of this document cles at retail. Equipment Institute (PEl) has included its own consensus cedures. excavating. inadequately compacted backfill material. Installa- In instances where there were differences or omissions in tion of such systems is a specialized craft.2 Purpose. and a variety of other improper installation techniques. and government vehicle-fuel.4 Sources. high incidence of leaks in piping. commercial. and related petroleum products into motor vehi. combined with ground Tank Installation Committee of the Petroleum careful adherence to recognized good practices and pro. liquefied natural gases. Recommended natural gases. concrete placement. Studies conducted by a variety of Association. atmospheric. premature storage.5 Use of Other PEl Recommended Practices. Underground storage systems may include vapor-recov- diesel. 1. Institute. or attributable to the failure of pipe and fittings than to poor manufacturers. and related construction techniques. or compressed The user should also refer to PEI!RP500. the use of such equipment or devices should always be used. Steel Tank Institute. company engineers. The inclusion of procedures for the instal. Failure can also lined here constitute a synthesis of recommendations pub. important factor in avoiding storage-system failures. the committee has endeavored fundamental comprehension of the basics of essential pro. Noth. shop-fabqcated tanks. At the same time. result from improperly connected cathodic-protection lished by such organizations as the American Petroleum components. committee members with these systems. installation practices. inspection and maintenance of motor fuel dispensers. Recommended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems International Code Council. Reliance This document is not meant to provide interpretation of on skilled. inadequate testing. and poor work- ing in this document is intended to discourage the devel. Because installation of underground storage The intent of the committee i to provide recommenda- systems is a specialized craft. such as abrasion resulting from lation of equipment or devices is not meant to imply that crossed lines.

the regulations are similar. as well as skill. ed in the tank-system design. before storage-system plans are finalized or construction is initiated. Consult the local authority having jurisdiction related equipment. the use 1 . tions. way to move a tank is by lifting it. during installation. While the general requirements of against ultimate storage-system failure and liability expo.7 Written Plans. (See Figure 2-1. and lation. using the lifting lugs Selection of compatible equipment and materials is nec. they can be damaged during If hold-down pads or other anchoring devices are includ- transportation or installation.2 Unloading. undertaking. Installation checklists provide a convenient length. the plans should show cathodic-protection. piping dimensions. an installation plan may call turers or regulatory agencies will serve to make an incom. Storage systems discussed in this of tank installers who have the experience and integrity to recommended practice are usually regulated by federal.the quality of instal. petent or under-supervised installer a competent As the excavation progresses. Again. Participation in training programs is essential to vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Tanks must not be dropped. deterioration may craftsman. If tanks must be relocated on a jobsite construction. their dimensions and con- dragged. The ability to recognize and react to unex- pected or abnormal conditions encountered during a tank Experienced installation personnel can anticipate. Although steel tanks and tems. detect.) Use a spreader bar where nec- 1. fire marshals. establish that hoisting table that will require anchoring of the tanks.1 Care in Handling Tanks.PEl Recommended Practices 100-05 No amount of written instruction provided by manufac. Tanks should be carefully essary to help ensure long-term system operation and lifted and lowered using cables or chains of adequate integrity. Maneuver tanks with guidelines attached to each underground storage system may require revision during end of the tank. indicate the liq- uids to be stored. by way of example. . Approvals may also be required from build- 1. zoning obtain permits. For example. manway positioning. the angle between method of planning and documenting work. vapor-recovery sys. and other components of the system. insist on doing the job correctly is the greatest protection state. or local agencies. Through equipment has sufficient capacity and reach to lift and consultation with experienced installers. monitoring able regulatory requirements before beginning an instal- devices. the specific requirements may sure. The proper configurati_on. however. installation requires experience. and provide precise guidance boards. anticipate the range of contingencies that might occur. identify the size and location of the tanks. Plans should ~\ also specify the materials of construction. cathodic protection. Before any the installer may encounter an unexpectedly high water attempt is made to move tanks. or handled with sharp objects and. making it advisable to replace other tanks contain flammable and combustible liquids is a unique in the same field. installed by the manufacturer. location of 2. In addition to proper system design and operation. attempted to describe or interpret specific regulations in lations. repaired in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- component locations. and gauges or monitoring systems. solicit bids. if soil tests are not available. the owner can lower tanks without dragging or dropping. this document. tank-hole-lining specifications. 2. fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) tanks are designed to withstand normal handling. it must be If appropriate. observation wells. electronic release-monitoring-device 2.8 Unexpected Conditions. Written plans are required to ing-code officials. and Lowering. should not be rolled. If the tank is damaged. and adapt to these unexpected conditions. except for struction details should also be included in the written minimal movement necessary for inspection and testing. plans. secondary containment. and the dimensions and locations of vents. Lifting. MATERIAL HANDLING electrical-service components. or similar authorities. environmental agencies. When two lifting lugs are used.9 Regulations. Ensure that the equipment to be installed meets all applic- lished for the installers of storage systems. We have not improving the skills of installers and. for replacement of only one of several tanks at a jobsite. Installation of storage systems designed to be discovered. The plans should describe the property. Even a well-planned essary. the lifting cable and vertical should be no more than 30 degrees. for installers. and provide the location of the dis- pensers and piping. A certification process should be developed and estab. lift rather than roll them.

and. seams. Free the area from rocks and foreign objects that might cause damage. test unattended. Pres- sure test single-walled tanks with 3 to 5 psig air pressure. PREINSTALLATION INSPECTION AND TANK TESTING 3. Take care to prevent any damage that could result in leakage or accelerated corrosion after installation. Do not leave tanks that are under to minimize relocation of tanks and equipment as work progresses. in a manner approved by the manufacturer. if high winds are expected and tanks could move. and fittings while the tank is ject management includes the assignment of storage areas under pressure. tie them down with at least I/2-inch diame- ter nylon or other suitable rope secured to stakes of a size and number adequate for restraint. Place warning barricades at the ends of tanks being tested. acciden. before disconnecting any gauges or test fittings. if applicable.2 Preinstallation Tank Testing. NEVER PLACE CHAINS OR 3. away from excavations. reinstall factory-installed steel or cast-iron plugs. dope. avoid the FIGURE 2-2. Recommended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems WARNING: Never place chains or cables around the shell of the tank. Tanks require protection from rolling. repair damages to control movement of the tank. Equipment used for han. Remove. 2. 2. Do not air test a tank that has previously contained flammable or com- bustible liquids. and fittings while inspecting for bubbles. and walkways.3 Tank Storage. Storage and handling of tanks. 3 . dling tanks must have sufficient capacity to lift and lower the tank without dragging. work areas. Confirm adherence to specifications. Chock tanks until ready for installation and. manways. Replace metal or plastic thread protectors with liquid-tight steel or cast-iron plugs. and CABLES AROUND THE SHELL OF THE TANK. equipment. 3. soaping all surfaces. and vandalism. and guidelines should be used corrosion to the owner. Handling tanks. WARNING: Air testing with over 5 psig (3 psig for 12-ft. Good pro- tank ends. and piping materials before installa- tion. Cables and chains should detected damage that could result in leakage or premature be attached to lifting lugs. Locate tanks in a secure area where the chance of accidental damage or vandalism will be minimized. Visually inspect tanks. Stockpile piping materials and equipment in a secure area on the jobsite. Release pressure in the tank tal contact damage. diameter FRP tanks) is hazardous and may damage the tank.4 Piping and Equipment Storage. Except to apply the soap solution and inspect for bubbles. taking care not to cross thread. report any FIGURE 2-1.1 Preinstallation Inspection.

1. • Use a pressure-relief device to prevent over-pres- surization that may result from temperature changes. Field repairs. Since the best accuracy of gauges is at mid-range. and test pressures must not exceed 5 psig. use. this square inch gauge (psig). TEST AT PRESSURES OVER 5 PSIG. Preinstallation inspectiQ. methods employed should comply with a spe- cific manufacturer's instructions. FIGURE 3-2. • Use two gauges to reduce the chance of over-pres- surizing the tank due to gauge failure.PEl Recommended Practices 100-05 Comments Because manufacturers' field-test requirements vary. detected damage should be brought to the attention of the Check gauges for operation and accuracy before owner and repaired or replaced. • Care in selecting the proper gauge for air testing is essential. The device should have sufficient capaci- ty to relieve the total output of the air source at a pressure of not more than 6 psig. Soap all surfaces. . and step is recommended to detect a very large leak in fittings while carefully inspecting for bubbles. NEVER the inner tank and to prepare for the next step.n. Noncompliance with the specifications or gauge with a maximum limit of 10 or 15 psig. • Air tests are inconclusive without soaping and care- ful inspection for bubbles. use the following procedure. and components must be inspected before installation. 3. The accidental use of vacuum gauges on pres- sure tests has caused serious accidents. To prevent damage from over-pressurization of the inter- stitial space between the tank walls. Seal the inner tank and disconnect the external air supply.3 Preinstallation Testing of Double-Walled Tanks. use a materials. as appropriate. Field repairs are permitted by some manufacturers. Pressurize the inner tank to a maximum of 5 psig. Preinstallation pressure test.. Pressure test While air tests are generally inconclusive without conventional single-walled tanks at 3 to 5 pounds per soaping and careful inspection for bubbles. Apply the soap solution uniformly with a mop or spray. Monitor the pressure for a period of one hour. Gauges must have a scale that will permit detection of small changes in pressure that might go undetected on gauges with a broader range. • Be aware that some tank manufacturers do not tighten fittings to allow for temperature changes during shipping and storage. provided the person making the repairs has been trained and qualified and does the work in accordance with the instructions of the manufacturer. FIGURE 3-1. A FIGURE 3-3. All equipment. 2. seams.

(See Figure 3-4.. At a minimum. Secondary (outer) tank wall ---l1-H FIGURE 3-4. -.4 Preinstallation Testing of Compartmented Comments Tanks. test the compartments on different sides of the tion to the capacity of the primary tank. 3 . before disconnecting any gauges or test fittings. compartments may be the space in seconds. ment vessel is referred to as the "inner tank. Use a third gauge for measuring pressure in occur when the interstice is pressurized." and "interstice." "Inter- stice" appears to be the most accurate term.) drop of 0. If a compartmented tank has single-walled bulk- • The capacity of the interstice is very 'small in rela. ." WARNING: Pressurization of the interstice directly from an outside air source is dangerous WARNING: Manufacturers' field-test re- and is strictly prohibited. First release pressure in the interstice. If the compartmented sors commonly used for testing can over-pressurize tank has double-walled bulkheads. Never enter the inner quirements vary.- Tank Interstice -----." "interstitial space. • The space between the inner and outer tank walls is bles while continuing to monitor the gauges to variously referred to as the "annular space. The manifold illustrated above is a useful method for accomplishing this." "annu- detect any pressure drop. Pressurizing the interstice with air pressure from the inner tank.. A pressure the interstice. same bulkhead at different times. Soap the exterior of the tank and inspect for bub. tank. causing serious damage to the tested at the same time. Air testing double-walled tanks. Pressurize the interstice with air from the inner • A slight decrease in pressure in the inner tank may tank. after disconnecting the outside air sou. Recommended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems 3.. employed should comply with specific manufac- Release pressure in the tank and the interstice turer's instructions.3 psig or less is typical. Quick coi)pler Valve (typical) Air source 6 psig pressure / rel ief device o to 15 Ibs." and the exterior of the tank as the "outer tank. then release is used throughout this text. heads. Compres. 4. methods tank while the interstice is under pressure.rce. prevents over-pressurization. The primary contain- pressure in the primary tank. lus. 6 psig pressure relief device Primary (inner) tank wall . and it S.

provided alternative test or inspection methods pre- scribed by the manufacturer are employed. because fallen materials cannot usually be uum level within limits designated by the manufacturer. adjacent backfilled areas. The slope of excavation walls is .paving. Part 1926. 3. electrical. and Comments vibration. and equipment installation an earthen berm or other means. and for the placement and compaction of backfill . space for components. Factors that aggravate excavation problems include groundwater and surface water. voir. requirements for compacting bedding and back- fill . Carefully inspect interior and exterior surfaces of and safety considerations. and depth of the excavation: are already set in order to clear fallen materials. . 4. safety considerations. need not be subjected to the preinstallation air/soap test described in Sections 3. Check the level of liquid in the interstice reser.652.space for placing associated equipment depth of cover. The excavation should provide ade- layout quate space for the tanks.. A tank shipped with a liquid-filled interstice. pro. . Typical excavation considera- 3.preparation of the base for the tanks tank shell and ends. . EXCAVATING • Minimize problems by tightly scheduling critical phases of the work. tions include the stability of the soil.paving removal and excavation materials.PEl Recommended Practices 100-05 3. tank bedding and A double-walled tank shipped with a vacuum on the backfill requirements. . Cave-ins require vided the tank arrives at the installation site with the vac. If the manufacturer's recommended test procedure for a liquid-filled interstice includes air testing of the inner tank. unstable soil.1 Excavating. stability of the soil sult the tank manufacturer.6 Double-Walled Tank with Liquid-Filled Inter. Excavation. Slope of excavation wall determined by condition of soil . and associated equip- ment. manways.backfilling and compaction to the top of the shoring requirements. These should be tested at some point during the installation. bles as the air test proceeds. If the vacuum level has changed significantly. if workers are required to tanks enter the excavation. WARNING: Determine the location of overhead and underground utilities before excavating. or to . frost. Prevent sur- face water from entering the excavation by constructing . con. manufac- interstice need not be subjected to an air/soap test.. Comment Alternative test procedures may not test primary-tank openings.3. ' piping. stice. and. a tank shipped with a liquid-filled interstice for signs of See 29 CFR leakage.piping. FIGURE 4-1. more backfill. reused as backfill. including: 4. depth of excavation .2 and 3. and safety. . shape.5 Alternative Interstice Tests. Problems resulting from unstable soil or the • Consider the following factors in determining the infiltration of water may require the removal of tanks that size. . and the manufacturer's installation instructions specify that the vacuum reading may be us\d instead of an air tank manufacturer's installation instructions test. monitor the reservoir for the presence of bub. . or with an interstice on which a vacuum is drawn.setting the tanks and other system components determined by soil conditions. presence of released product. particularly under the circumference of the .7 Double-Walled Tank with Vacuum on Interstice. turers ' recommendations.completion of backfilling . depth of the excavation. and risers.

present to be dissipated uniformly over a large area. At least 2 feet of backfill is should be safely stockpiled at least 2 feet away from the required between adjacent tanks and between tanks and edge of the tank excavation. must be exercised to avoid undermining nearby struc. FIGURE 4-2. While some authorities require a minimum of 6 inches of reinforced concrete paving. Additional dis- tances may be required to ensure that downward forces 4. Care 4. property lines depicted in Figure 4-2. the tank. depth of cover. measured from the top of the tank. consult the tank manufacturer. Recommended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems correct tank movement caused by settlement or flotation. Comment At most facilities. 4. keep excavated materials separate from approved backfill materials and remove as soon as practical. Bedding. hold-down pad (if maximum burial depth for each steel tank is marked on required). In areas that from loads carried by the foundations and supports are are subject to vehicle traffic. or on intermediate supports (saddles) undermining foundations of existing structures. set the tank on a bed of back. which permits the downward forces turer's recommendation. The 45 °factor illustrated will accomplish this in most cases. Much of the tank's support is derived from compacted The planned burial depth should not exceed the manufac- backfill material. Cover in non-traffic areas should be at least 2-feet thick and con- sist of a minimum of 1 foot of backfill covered by filter fabric to prevent migration and a minimum of 1 foot of earth. fully loaded transports can be expect- ed to pass over the tank area. hold-down pad. fer offoundation loads onto the tank. Excavated fill material I-foot thick that extends 1 foot beyond the material that cannot be immediately removed from the site ends and sides of the tank. The tank diameter. hold-down pad is used under a steel tank. 4. and Backfill.4 Cover in Areas Subject to Traffic. permitting trans. The total depth of the tank excavation is determined by the Five feet is the typical burial depth for teel tanks. In the will cause uneven distribution of loads. the thickness of bedding material between the tank and the pad can be An excavation that has caved-in will require additional reduced to 6 inches. backfill because the materials that have fallen into the excavation typically cannot be used as backfill. An acceptable alternative is 1 foot of backfill mate- rial and at least 4 inches of reinforced concrete or 6 inch- es of asphalt paving. . cover may consist of at least not transmitted to the tanks . use the contribute to structural failure and is never per- minimum distance to the base of adjacent structures or mitted.5 Cover in Areas Not Subject to Traffic. on a pad smaller than the total ground tanks should be made with due care to avoid tank area. and slope and length of piping.6 Maximum Burial Depth. are established by tank tures during construction or afterwards.7 Handling of Excavated Materials. Paving over tanks in traffic areas should extend at least 1 foot beyond the perimeter of the tank. To provide a firm foundation. manufacturers and independent testing laboratories. backfill. Clearance from existing structures. Consult with the fiberglass tank manu- facturer if a deeper burial depth is required. or 18 inches of compacted backfill and 6 to 8 inches of reinforced concrete.3 Excavation Depth. WARNING: Placement of a tank directly on a 4. we recommend at least 8 inches. Seven feet is the standard maximum burial depth for fiberglass tanks . bedding thickness. Maximum burial depths. Steel tank manufacturers specify that when a bottom If such an event occurs. 30 inches of compacted backfill and 6 inches of asphaltic concrete.2 Location of Excavation. 4. This may absence of local building codes or regulations. Excavation for under. Unless approved for use as excavation walls.

traffic. subpart P.PEl Recommended Practices 100-05 excavation walls. Barricade work areas to protect both the public and installation personnel and to prevent acciden- tal damage from vehicles and equipment. Monitor tanks frequently during removal because. BACKFILLING 5. ly. In areas that are not subject to traffic. Third Edition.S . do not fill the tank above 95 percent of tank capacity.2 Ballasting. Product retained in the tank and piping as well as released prod- uct should be recovered.1 General. liquid can reenter the tank. There is sig- nifIcant danger of fire or explosion due to the existence of All dimensions in inches. March 1996. Comment ject to vehicle traffic. Careful placement and compaction of approved backfill materials is essential to protect under- ground tanks . ommended Practice 1604. if per. cover 5. Comment Excavation safety requirements are defIned in U. slope or shore 8 . If 4. Members of the installation crew should wear personal-protective equip- ment and have fIre extinguishers and fIrst-aid supplies on hand. and disposed of in an approved manner. even after the tanks have been com- pletely emptied. If product is used for ballast. FIGURE 4-3. safeguard against sonnel are required to enter the excavation. Department of Labor 29 CFR part 1926. 4. Depth of cover in areas not subject to • failure to prevent migration of backfill materials.9 Excavation of Used Tanks. The majority of tanks are located in areas that are sub. After backfill is placed to the level of requirements may be reduced. removed. Keep work areas clear of water is used for ballast. • voids under the lower quadrant of the tank FIGURE 4-4. In areas with unstable soil. Removal and Disposal of Used Underground Petroleum Storage Tanks. Non-Traffic Area\ 5. the tank may be filled complete- stockpiled materials. Used underground tanks should be made safe before removal. When product is used for ballast. BacJqill helps dissipate traffic loads These procedures are covered in detail in API's Rec- and offset buoyancy. Common deficiencies that adversely affect the structural integrity and coatings of tanks include: use of incolTect backfill material • inadequate or improper placement or compaction of backfill materials • rocks or debris left in the excavation All dimensions in inches. but this reduced depth of the top of the tank. add either the product to be stored or cover may not prevent flotation if groundwater or sur- water as ballast until the piping is in place and backfilling face water enters the excavation.8 Work Area Safety. Depth of cover in areas subject to traffic. and paving are complete. Reaffirmed November 2001. vapors or the reentry of oxygen or previously released product into the tank.

sand may be used as a back- subgrade. ~-- backfill material depth may be reduced to 6 inches . and Jacketed Tank Backfill. instructions for backfill material specifications and back- 5. Verify that backfill material is Pea Crushed Gravel Rock free of debris. If a hold-down pad is required.. Backfill fill procedures. The latter evenly snpported. Monitor product level frequently. rant of the tank to ensure that the tank is securely and including sand. and Jacketed Tanks. rock. Cover the bottom of the excavation with 1/2 1/4 --Zl-- suitably graded and properly placed backfill material to a depth of at least 1 foot. and theft. crushed rock. or organic material that could damage the tank or its coating and interfere with 3/4 proper compaction of backfill materials .4 Backfill Material for Steel. provide adequate venting for prima- ry and interstitial tank spaces. During construction. The presence of water in a storage tank can promote internal corrosion and degrade fuel quality. turers have approved several types of backfill materials. noncorrosive. Continue backfilling the excavation using tank backfill material up to at least the top of the excavation or the site the manufacturer's approval. lation. separate the two backfill materi- are followed. Secure all fill caps and pumps during unattended periods.l. Composite (Fiber- and compaction of backfill material is essential to prop- glass-Clad Steel). If material other than the tank backfill is used fill material provided that the manufacturer's instructions to reach final subgrade. Composite. In instances where tanks are to be ballasted before the backfill ' process is completed. Approved backfill material. WARNING: Some regulatory agencies prohibit ballasting with product. follow the recommendations of the tank manufacturer. snow. ice. Install tanks to facilitate water removal. debris. well-granulated. product spills. 5. With backfill materials. Recommended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems fire. Backfill mate. especially if the tank is to contain ethanol- blended fuel.3 Water Management. and crushed rock. placement. or pea gravel) . manual or mechanical compaction. Careful selection. inert material. free-flowing. Check local regulations before ballasting with product. pea graw.g.. inert material (e. Tank manufac- Carefully place backfill materials along the bottom quad. sand. reducing the need for over the tank to prevent damage to the tank or coating. FIGURE 5-2. Refer to the manufacturer's installation als with filter fabric. WARNING: Do not air test tanks that contain or have contained product. free-flowing.5 Placement of Steel. well-granulated. snow. accidents. . or organic material that could noncorrosive. Refer to the manuf"cturer's installation instructions for acceptable backfill material specifications and backfill procedures. Carefully place backfill around and two are relatively self-compacting. erly support and protect the tank and piping after instal- rial should be a clean. Standard backfill materials damage the tank and interfere with proper compaction of for fiberglass tanks are pea gravel and crushed rock. rock. 5. Backfilling. leaks. . Verify that backfill material is free of material should be a clean. FIGURE 5-1. ice.6 Backfill Material for Fiberglass Tanks. 5.

and mechanical properties of fabrics vary widely.10 Filter Fabric. underground tanks.to direct burial and. They are intended for sity. If mechanical compaction is Care in the selection of a suitable fabric is essential. separate them with filter fabric to prevent the finer sand particles from migrating into voids between the pea 5. If dissimilar backfill materials. Improper backfill. ing and tamping. However. resist deterioration 18-inch lifts and compact after each lift. if properly selected. or submersible pumps. the backfill material at the tank sides. Mechanical compaction. tion. Repeat this caused by both soil and the products commonly stored in process up to a level that is at least 60 percent of the ver. some man. imum acceptable deflection.8 Compaction. If mate. an installed tank exceeds the limits established. paction. swampy areas. separate the two backfill materials with filter fabric. Carefully place backfIll around and over the tank to protect the tank from damage. signed to prevent movement of backfill materials while ufacturers require a specified minimum-compaction den. the composition. Individual tank manufacturers establish the max- rial other than the tank backfill is used to reach final sub. and end caps of the tanks by hand shovel. Continue back.9 Measuring Tank Deflection. carefully and properly placed under the lower quadrant of such as sand and pea gravel. gravel particles. However. or landfills to prevent ing. bogs.PEl Recommended Practices] 00-05 5. to prevent voids and achieve "\ the degree of the backfill from migrating and thus diminishing the sup- compaction required. ing of an installed underground tank can distort tank FIGURE 5-3. Use filter fabric to separate mechanical compactors to prevent damage to the tank baclifill materials from surrounding soil to prevent migra- shell or coat tion and loss of support. are used in the same excava- the tank. all backfill materials should be port of the tank or paving. sides. Excessive deflec- tion indicates inadequate support or overtightening of To ensure that the bottom quadrant of the tank is fully and anchor straps. paction to subgrade. Take care in using FIGURE 5-4. When sand is used. construc- tical height of the tank.7 Placement of Fiberglass Tank Backfill. take care to protect the tank from damage. permitting water to pass through. The amount of deflection of an installed tank should be filling the excavation using tank backfill material up to at measured to confirm the quality of backfilling and com- least the top of the excavation or the site subgrade. 5. Place sand backfill into the excavation in 12. unstable soils. Cover dimensions. Filter fabric . tion. carefully place backfill materials along result in penetration of the tank bottom by suction stubs bottom. 10 . Filter fabrics are geotextiles de- movement or settlement. Deflection in the tank's vertical diameter the bottom of the excavation or hold-down pad with a may be caused by improper bedding. Some manufacturers require com. or poor compaction of backfill material. Install filter fabric between the backfill and adjacent Pea gravel and crushed rock are relatively self-compact. Compact bedding and backfill mate- rials to ensure adequate support of the tank and to prevent 5. employed. consult the tank manufacturer. voids in the backfill minimum of 1 foot of suitably graded and compacted under the tank-bottom quadrant. which can cause structural damage or evenly supported. If the measured deflection of grade.

.. During _____ ~ _ ___ ____ . •.·. ·. .. Additional subject to flooding is to increase the burial depth. the tank diameter and the tank is 8 feet in diameter . (See Section 4.:<i . tank is the most significant factor offsetting tank pacting backfill materials under the lower quadrant of the buoyancy. .. ·.~-~ -. and friction between the tank and backfill.. During installation. 5..6. -i eO. Recommended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems and paving on top of the tank provides adequate restraint if the burial depth is at least 60 percent of ... from float- ing during a rise in water level . .. .·..5 inches of compacted backfill. Where installations are located in areas subject to high water tables or flooding. When increasing burial depth. Buoyant and restraining forces.. .11 Supporting Equipment Du~ing Construction. WARNING: Filter fabrics may mask early signs • Generally. Set tanks on a bed tank.' .. exercise care not to exceed the maximum allowable burial depth for the tank.) For purposes of cal- culating burial depth. Other factors offsetting buoyancy include tank.. •..•.. normal backfill presentor flooding is anticipated. ' .. .·.. . and other components during construction. piping.e. .•. piping. ·. -4. · . ... ANCHORING 6...up to the established maximum flood stage. -'i --. In anchoring may be required when a high water table is the absence of any tank-top sumps. ... or equip- ment. Manway openings and tank-top containment of backfill material i-foot thick. or blocking. . Backfill and compaction. - ~ -. . The weight Comments of backfill and pavement over the tank is often sufficient • The primary method of restraining tanks in areas to offset buoyancy and prevent flotation . At least 2 feet of backfill sumps can also contribute to tank buoyancy forces... tank vents and other openings that are not liquid tight should be extend- ed above the maximum flood-stage water level until pip- ing is complete. Re:tca.. Traffic (live) load Provide support for manholes.focoe. -..:. mined by the conditions associated with each instal- lation.... .-~ -~ e-'. Do not use the ~ tank to support cribbing.•.. requirements for anchorage are deter- of cave-ins during construction. . . ..-~ ~~ backfilling.~ -.·.. water level at finished grade and the tank empty).R _ _ ~ __ ~ _____ _ ______ P.•• ••.---~ or less..___ ~ ________ _ __ 1>: ___ 4 __ _ .. .--.:. • Base the tank buoyancy calculation on worst-case conditions (i. ... Take special care in placilig and com. bracing. street boxes.1 Gel)eral.-<3. the weight of the empty tank and attached equip- ment.. each inch of reinforced con- crete above the tank can be considered equal to 1. Dead load ..'. provision should be made to prevent tanks.... Refer to Appendix A for an example calculation..-. • The diameter and capacity of the tank are the most significant factors that determine the buoyancy of a FIGURE 5-5.· 6.... either full or empty. ·. anchors. :. remove temporary supporting materials to prevent subsequent damage to the tank...-'-~ -. .. FIGURE 6-1. .. is required between adjacent tanks and between tanks and The weight of backfill material and paving over the excavation walls.

"~.::.:. Refer to the • In areas with impervious soil. If water ballast is used to sink a tank in a wet hole.4 Types of Anchorage. an adequate bed of backfill concrete must be removed. attached.. other- forced concrete. deadmen anchors must unknown at the time of installation.•. 3. the infiltration of sur. The weight of backfill to minimize the possibility of damage to the tank.•. used under the tank. and other end-to-end as long as there is a minimum of two anchoring materials available. beams. Deadmen anchors are convenient to use and reduce the amount of work required in the . resulting in very strong buoyancy • · • .~::::::!:~-: 6.. The additional weight is limited to the weight forcement. straps.: . 6.' . use lift- ing equipment only to keep the tank in position. Deadmen anchors. uneven stresses can develop. hoses. the tank excavation should be large enough to permit placemerit of the deadmen out. ' 1" ' . Reduce the water level in the excavation to the lowest practical level during con- struction. deadman construction. points must be calculated for each installation. a burial depth sufficient to offset buoyancy forces may not be feasible. Deadmen anchors. For long make contingency plans.:. material must separate the tank and concrete. vation with water. anchor points per deadman section. Carefully tend lifting cables FIGURE 6-2. the excavation should be deep " enough to maintain the required burial depth for the tank. Place deadmen outside of the tank diameter side the tank diameter. Buoyancy can be offset by adding foundation and offsets buoyancy by increasing the weight on top of the tank by increasing the thick.: .•.PEl Recommended Practices 100-05 • If soil conditions and the depth of the water table are excavation.•.2 Excavating Requirements. cables. precautions must be taken to WARNING: Never set a tank directly on a bot- prevent tanks from floating if any part of the tom hold-down pad. shorter than the full length of the tank.• .:. Refer to the tank manufacturer's instructions for details on bottom hold-down pad construction. • • • • d • • • t••••••• • • • • • •• •••• • •• ••••• •• •• :. However. or extreme high groundwater conditions. amount of backfill bearing down on the tank. the level of ballast in the tank should not exceed the level of water in the hole.:. The ness and reinforcement of the concrete pad over the thickness of the pad. the amount of concrete rein- tank. consider the be placed outside the tank diameter (see Figure 6- possibility that anchoring may be required and 2) and extend the full length of the tank. Do not on the deadmen anchors provides additional resistance use cradles. WARNING: When a grade slab is used for anchoring tanks.:1·: . crete and gravel.• • • • •••• • • I> ••••••• ••• •••••• forces on the tank. large-diameter tanks. leading to tom of the excavation with cables and/or straps structural failure. Such plans should include tanks. and the number and size of anchor differential between the submerged weight of con. The bottom hold-down pad should never be 2. tank manufacturer's instructions for details on face water into the tank excavation can fill the exca. soils. "\ to buoyancy forces acting on the tank. A bottom hold-down pad one of the following supplemental methods of restraint usually consists of 8 inches of reinforced concrete may be used. Bottom hold-down pad. placed alongside tanks in the bot.:. that extends at least 18 inches beyond the tank sides and 1 foot beyond each end. If deadmen anchors are used. Slab at grade. While adding ballast.•. All methods of anchoring in the deadmen in this Figure are visible for illustration tanks use the weight of the backfill and paving on top o"f purposes. To be effective. for unstable enclosed in concrete.•. Reinforcing rods 6. the tank should be free to roll slightly. wise. or timbers in the excavation. Reinforcing rods should be completely the tank to offset buoyancy forces . In these instances. bedrock. This provides a firm 1. two deadmen of equal length may be butted having pumps. Deadmen are beams of rein.3 Wet-Hole Conditions.:· . If a hold-down pad is .

Ensure that below the widest part of the tank. The weight of backfill on the portions of the hold-down pad extending beyond the tank outline provides additional resistance to buoyancy forces acting on the tank. electrically isolated after installation. 6. but be heavier than required initially to provide a corrosion overtightening can damage the tank shell or coating. or wire cable and clamps. turnbuckles. If available. use Coat anchoring hardware with dielectric material. materials provided by the tank manufacturer. Methods of attachment. cables and clamps. and test to ensure that components are that might damage the isolating material or tank coating. anchor points with anchor bolts.5 Straps. The use of wire ropes or Secure anchor points to reinforcing rods embedded in the round bar is not acceptable. compatible tions for the appropriate type and sizing of hardware used with the materials stored. Tank straps are usually furnished by the FIGURE 6-4 . Anchor points should be securely attached to reinforcing rods firmly embedded in the concrete. and suitable for use under. . Straps should fit snugly before backfilling. be either nonmetallic or flat steel. and should extend 1 foot care to prevent damage from over tightening. 6. allowance during the expected life of the storage system. or wire ed with material placed between the strap and the tank. Take thick. Straps for steel tanks should anchor bolts. 6. to connect anchor straps to anchor points embedded in the ground. turnbuckles. Tank anchor tank manufacturer and should be installed according to the straps should be firmly secured to anchor points with manufacturer's instmctions. Straps should fit snugly before backfilling. Distribute isolating the straps and the tank surface are free of debris or burrs material evenly. fully encapsulated.6 Electrical Isolation. Secure tank straps to Straps may be nonmetallic. Metallic anchor straps should concrete. Anchoring hardware should be heavier than required ini- tially to provide a corrosion allowance during the expect- WARNING: Roofing felt and expansion joint ed life of the storage system. Bottom hold-down pad. Refer to tank manufacturers' instruc- Isolating materials must be non conductive. wider than the strap. Coat exposed metallic hardware with dielectric material to retard corrosion. Electrically isolate straps for steel and composite tanks from the tank surface to ensure the proper operation of cOlTosion-protection systems. or isolat. Recommended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems FIGURE 6-3. Isolating material should be at least 1I8-inch concrete.7 Methods of Attachment. Isolating material is used to separate steel anchor straps from steel tanks. material may conduct electricity and are not acceptable as isolating material.

delivery person stands during the delivery ment manhole assembly.. flow shut. Consult the authority having jurisdiction to deter- the drain valve is a concern.... 7.. 7. in the fill pipe of underground tanks and automati- off devices. devices. In the past.. Select and install an overfill device that will be compati- ble with the anticipated delivery procedures.. . SPILL CONTAINMENT AND 4 . . proper support. ' ·z ::::i=~~' .. . Slope OVERFILL PREVENTION =-- '" Ll 'i7 f> <1t>tJ P . accumulated liquids.3. cally stop the flow of product into the tank during a 14 . take care to properly that delivery personnel will recognize the backfill beneath and around the manhole to provide device as an overfill alarm.. and vent-restriction devices. .f> t> <1 P small releases of product that may result when the deliv- ery hose is disconnected from the fill pipe after a delivery. . The rim of the spill-containment man. ment manholes contain small spills during the uncou- 1. . Three types of overfill-pre.. Flexibility... maintenance is necessary to minimize the infiltration of tom drain valve that allows accumulated liquids to surface and subsurface water.. naling device that is typically connected to an auto- 3.. Some spill-containment manholes are equipped Consult with the storage system owner to determine the with a small hand pump that can be used to remove delivery procedures that will be used to fill the tank... . Spill-containment manholes may also be used at Stage I vapor-recovery risers and at automatic tank-gauge risers. . . To prevent water from enter- ing into grade-level spill-containment manholes. To be effective. the hole is usually embedded in the concrete pad above alarm should: the_ tank. often called "flapper valves. Alarms consist of an external sig- slope concrete away from the manhole. .. be drained into the undergrqund tank.. If water entry into the tank via ly full.. • be located in close proximity to where the ibility between the fill pipe and the spill-contain. . ..... To prevent the transfer of stress to the • provide visual and audible signals to the underground tank as a result of the differential delivery person movement between the concrete pad and the tank.. . Dirt and debris commonly prevent these drain valves from prevention devices should operate when the tank is near- sealing completely.. .. Spill containment is intended to contain ~L>.. the following three factors should be considered. usually referred to as a "spill-containment manhole. Exclusion of water. the spill-containment manhole should provide flex. Spill-containment manhole. Spill-contain.6 in . . . the lack of spill-containment and overfill-prevention equipment has often resulted in environmental contamination.2 Flow Shut-Off Devices.3. The purpose of overfill prevention is to stop the delivery of fuel into an underground tank before the tank is com- pletely full so that room is available in the tank to drain fuel contained in the delivery hose. Overfill..2 Spill Containment. matic tank-gauging system. removed and replaced with a liquid-tight plug...1 Purpose. . Spill containment is usually achieved by installing a liquid-tight container. the valve can be mine the level at which the overfill device should operate.." around the underground tank fill pipe.3 Overfill Prevention. 2.. ..tJ 7." are installed vention devices are commonly used: alarms. Care in installation and ment manholes are typically equipped with a bot. When specifying and installing spill-containment man- FIGURE 7-1.1 Alarms. When installing • be clearly labeled as a "tank overfill alarm" so spill-containment manholes..1<>'".. Drainage of accumulated liquids. 7. pling of delivery hoses. Flow shut-off 7.PEl Recommended Practices 100-05 7. . .... Spill-contain- holes.

after installed at a percentage of tank capacity. regard to attaching the shut-off device to the drop tube and attaching the drop tube to the fill pipe. cally close the gauge opening is installed in the gauge riser. shut-off devices should be installed according equipped with suction pumps and air elimi- to the manufacturer's instructions. it must be installed in an double-walled tanks and the height of manway covers extractable fitting to allow access for inspection. H a trap door or equivalent device WARNING: Vent-restriction devices should is not installed in the gauge riser. In order to operate prop. Recommended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems delivery.3. WARNING: Vent-restriction devices will not work when coaxial Stage I vapor recovery is Shut-off devices that are designed for use with used unless special fittings are installed. If. above the tank primary wall must be taken into consider- maintenance. the ball float activates at a level higher in the ting (e. be installed in storage systems that are erly. the tank becomes severely over-pres. Mter the main valve closes. do not install a ball-float valve unless shut-off device unless a specially designed fit. a properly not be installed on emergency-generator or tightened. piping. product. product will pour the shut-off device closes. For this rea- son. WARNING: Do not install flow shut-off devices on tanks equipped with remote-fill WARNING: When installing flow shut-off pipes and a gauge riser directly above the flow devices. or surized and may rupture as a result.. WARNING: Vent-restriction devices must not be used on tanks equipped with remote-fill In a remote-fill installation. When installing an overfill-prevention device. refer to the 7. Secondary-containment systems pro- tank. ball-float valves are not recommended. Regulations specify that overfill devices may be ground tank just below the vent opening. a "trap door") that will automati. SECONDARY WARNING: Vent-restriction devices must not CONTAINMENT be installed in storage systems where there is any possibility of a pumped delivery into the 8. When applicable. threaded pipe cap must be installed heating-oil supply tanks. tank becomes pressurized. 7. underground tanks should only be used with gravi- ty deliveries and where there are liquid-tight con- nections between the delivery hose and the fill pipe. the thickness of float valve is installed. 8. from the gauge opening onto the ground. tank than the flow shut-off device. not a percent- considering all of the warnings listed below.3 Vent-Restriction Devices. associated equipment.1 Purpose.g. various bypass mechanisms allow the contents of the delivery hose WARNING: Vent-restriction devices must not to be drained into the tank. Install overfill devices according to the manufacturer's instructions. often referred to as "float-vent valves" mine the correct distance below the tank top for that or "ball-float valves. the the tank top to install an overfill device. When an overfill occurs in conjunction vide an additional layer of protection against released with a pumped delivery and a tight-fill con. creating a hazardous condition. a ball- age of tank diameter. in the riser above the flow shut-off device and a separate gauge riser installed to permit manual gauging of the tank. Vent-restric- gauging chart provided by the tank manufacturer to deter- tion devices. facilitate the detection of any 15 . the gauge riser above pipes and gauge openings. Secondary-containment systems should be nection. and tightness testing. The pressure is most often relieved by releasing flammable vapors at grade. H the vent-restric- the flow shut-off device must be properly sealed or tion device closes during a delivery when the else product will pour from the gauge opening when gauge opening is uncapped. designed to contain any release from tanks. ation when determining the appropriate distance below When a ball-float valve operates as designed." are installed inside the under- device. particularly with nators.4 Installation of Overfill Devices.

backfill. such as above or below the water be installed and tested in accordance with the manufac. Move them only by lifting with equipment round tank-top sumps with permeable backfill to allow of sufficient capacity. both double-walled . Double-walled tanks are fre. cathodic protection. whichever is higher.3 Double-Walled Piping. grade-level manway cover.and single-walled tanks. and to allow for drainage of runoff into the backfill. • If no leaks are visible and the water level has not changed. and they weigh significantly more than single. Secondary-containment systems typically consist of lar collars attached to the tank must be supported by plac- the following components: ing backfill beneath the bottom of the sump. Provide adequate clearance between the sump and turer's recommendations . Follow the equipment manufac- rather than flow back to the tank-top sump. Requirements the sump manufacturer's or regulatory agency's testing for trenching and testing are similar to those for conven. but before backfilling. 8. Complete sump connections to the tank top in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Recommend. manufacturer of the sump. Follow instructions and good pipefitting practices. and turer's test procedures. 16 . product may flow into the ground. for rapid drainage of surface runoff that may penetrate the ed practices for inspection. procedure.1) Vacuum or pressure-based test procedures may be used when interstitial monitoring is used for leak instead of this hydrostatic procedure if approved by the detection on double-walled pipe. WARNING: Should post-installation activities severely damage double-walled piping. Follow the vacuum or pres- sure-test procedure specified by the testing equipment manufacturer. Install double-walled pip. • double-walled tanks Ensure that tank-top sumps are liquid tight. In addition.PEl Recommended Practices 100-05 release. install a line-leak detector (see Section 9. detected _with sensors. double-walled piping systems. Clear- quently furnished with man ways that pelmit access to ance is necessary to facilitate removal of the sump cover piping. • sensing devices. and provide access for recovery of released prod. Install liquid-tight • tank-top sumps penetration fittings on all sump entries.3. Select and carefully install sump covers designed for the 8 . water level in the sump. est joint or penetration fitting. both to con- • double-walled piping tain spilled or leaked product and to prevent intrusion of groundwater or surface water runoff. The installation should facilitate detection of leakage by inspection or • Fill the sump with water to 6 inches above the high- continuous monitoring. or install a water-resistant paction. For this reason. any sealing materials have cured. where it can be observed easily or for leaks. table. If no testing instructions are specified by the tional piping. Test procedures are determined by the char. Test tank-top sumps after all joints have been assembled. the release may not be detected. both the The test time may be considerably shortened by using primary and the secondary pipe may leak. also referred moisture indicating a leak. Tank-top sumps that are not supported directly by circu- uct.2 Double-Walled Tanks. Any leakage from the pri- mary piping flows by gravity inside the secondary piping • Wait at least 4 hours and repeat the visual inspection to the tank-top sump. and testing apply equally to grade-level manway. tank-top • Mark the water level using spray paint or other suit- sumps frequently serve as the leak-detection point for able marker. use the fol- acteristics of the containment\ system and the lowing procedure: recommendation of the manufacturer. Tank-top sumps. • Visually inspect all joints and fittings for drips or 8 . corrosive underground environment. Sur- walled tanks. to as "piping sumps. Rolling is prohibited. com. the manway installed in the concrete pad at grade. including electri- • under-dispenser sumps cal conduit. the sump is considered tight. sump manufacturer or the regulatory agency." are liquid-tight containers designed to contain leaks or spills that involve tank-top fittings and • Repair any leaks observed and restore the water equipment and to isolate metallic pipe fittings from the level in the sump.4 Tank-Top Sumps. depth of burial. and all penetration fit- ing in accordance with manufacturer's installation tings have been installed. Double-walled tanks should anticipated conditions. In specialized test equipment that precisely monitor the this case.

Test dispenser sumps after all joints have been assembled. RELEASE DETECTION manufacturer or the regulatory agency. • groundwater monitoring 8. Dispenser a hazard. any sealing materials have cured.::::::::::::::. • inventory control combined with periodic tightness able to add secondary containment to existing single. Mount sensors securely in sumps. Personnel who work in and around sumps sumps should be designed and installed so that surface should be properly trained in identifying the health and water entry is minimized. Dispenser sumps are designed of the tank or constructing a tank of prefabricated fiber- to contain leaks and spills from dispensers and pumps and glass panels. double-walled piping is usual- ly connected to a dispenser sump and a tank-top sump. This section describes installation prac- that monitor for the presence of product or liquids are tices associated with commonly used release-detection typically installed in tank-top sumps. sensing devices contains product. dispenser sumps can provide a timely and more reliable warning of dispenser leaks. Recommended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems Clearance for Access and Drainage Tank-Top Sump . ~hould be fitted with bustible liquids and vapors may be present in tank top and liquid-tight penetration fittings to prevent the escape of dispenser sumps in high enough concentrations to present released liquids or the intrusion of water. To achieve full secondary containment. safety hazards posed by sumps and provided with appro- priate equipment. Although secondary-contain- tion of the underground storage system that routinely ment systems may be monitored visually. Shallow dispenser sumps are often refen"ed to as dispenser "pans. Sensors may indicate only the 9.5 Dispenser Sumps.1---+1 Liqu id Sensor Penetration Sensor Fitting (typical) Tank FIGURE 8·1. These technologies should only be installed to isolate metallic pipe fittings from the corrosive under.:: :::::::::::·::::·:·::::::::::::····::·:··::··:··~:i~·~:i'~-t. The purpose of release detection is to provide early warning of the loss of integrity of any por- 8. use the same pro- cedure described for tank-top sumps in Section 8. If no testing instructions are specified by sump 9. by specially trained personnel." All dispenser sump 8. 9. ground environment. and all peneu"ation fit- tings have been installed. Mount sensors securely and place them at the bottom of the sump.7 Other Technologies.~~:7 Liqu id --. Installing sensors in methods. Acceptable presence of a liquid or may disctiminate between product leak-detection methods for tanks include: and water. Carefully follow the manufacturer's • automatic tank gauging instructions for installation of sensing devices.:. Technologies are also avail.6 Sensing Devices. 8. Flammable or com- entries.8 Safety Considerations. These include applying a lining to the inside • manual tank gauging .:'. Follow the sump manufacturer's or regulatory agency's testing procedure.1 Purpose. Piping is usually sloped towards the tank so that leaked prod- uct will flow to the tank-top sump where it can be readily detected.4.::::::. Secondary containment of piping. including electrical conduit.2 Leak-Detection Methods for Tanks. but before backfilling. testing walled tanks.

2. install an observation well to slotted PVC or coated metallic pipe with facilitate the location of the water table when 0. 9. 3. and statistical inventory recon- ciliation. . Install the tank-gauging probe as close as pos- sible to the middle of the tank. Construct wells using factory -perforated or 3. restrict infiltration of surface water.020-inch openings and permeable backfill tightness testing is conducted.PEl Recommended Practices 100-05 • interstitial monitoring • soil-vapor monitoring • statistical inventory reconciliation. Factors to be considered include the tank volume. FIGURE 9-1.3 Inventory Control Plus Tightness Testing. 9. Avoid locating the automatic tank-gauge probe adjacent to the fill pipe or the submersible pump. Access covers and well construction should programming and calibrating the tank gauge. Observation wells located inside the tank label. While ing to the manufacturer's instructions. 5. 2. Install a drop tube in the fill pipe that extends at the site determine the suitability of the to within 6 inches of the tank bottom. location for groundwater monitoring as well 2. 2. and location of the wells . Follow the manufacturer's instructions for 4. Follow the manufacturer's instructions for tank excavations or secondary containment liners. Clearly mark wells with a black equilateral triangle on a white background and a durable" 1. warning against the accidental or inten- excavation and monitoring wells installed in tional introduction of petroleum products into native soil outside the tank excavation may be the well. Consult the manufacturer's certification of performance data to determine the applicabil- ity of the automatic tank gauge to specific installations. similar in construction. Follow the manufacturer's instructions to determine the type of wire to use to connect the tank probes and the control console. intrinsic safety rating of the tank gauge. Applicable codes and the physical conditions 1. is within 20 feet of the ground surface at all times of the year. 9. number. Observation and monitoring wells. 5. Comment To improve the effectiveness of inventory control. observation wells are installed in 4. When necessary.1 Automatic Tank Gauging. the facility throughput. and the presence of any siphon connections between tanks.2.2. the tank owner should utilize a tank chart and gauge stick calibrated in eighths of an inch. Seal all wire connections agaInst moisture accord. Calibrate dispenser meters as accurately as as the size. while grounding the tank gauge to maintain the monitoring wells are installed outside the tank excavation. 1. possible. material to allow water or released product to flow freely into the well. manual tank gauging. 3. and secure the well to prevent unau- used for leak detection only if the water table thorized access and tampering.2 Groundwater Monitoring.

installed on the pump itself. Recommended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems 9.0 gallons per hour at a line proper operation. pressure of 10 pounds per square inch within a period of one hour. • groundwater monitoring Install piping with a uniform slope to avoid creating • periodic piping tightness testing vapor pockets that can interfere with the proper • interstitial monitoring operation of tightness-testing equipment and line- leak detectors. that test fittings do not interfere with the flow may be used to meet this requirement.3. Mechanically based line-leak 3. systems only) 9. leaks can be done manually by inserting a gauge stick or other probe to the bottom of the 1.2. The use of vapor sensors in interstitial ity of line-leak detectors to specific installa- spaces is not recommended because of the tions . a solenoid valve immediately downstream of the 9. Factors to be considered include type of likelihood of false alarms . ing systems. Install piping with a uniform slope to avoid interstitial space. interstitial space is filled with a liquid. leak detection are described in the following sections. After installation testing is completed. sure in the interstitial space.2.4 Interstitial Monitoring. Monitoring can also be creating vapor pockets.3. consider hydrostatic pressure. Mount sensors according to the manufactur- er's instructions. Sensors should be easily acces- automatic line-leak detector is defined as a device sible so they can be tested periodically for that can detect a leak of 3. accomplished through the installation of liq- 2.2 Groundwater and Soil-Vapor Monitoring.5 Soil-Vapor Monitoring. and 3. ensure detectors. flow to a sump. Line-leak of any released product from the interstitial detectors are designed for use with pressurized-pip.3. consult the leak-detector manu- same as those for groundwater monitoring except facturer to determine the proper location for the that the depth to the water table requirement does line-leak detector. Hydrostatic monitoring systems.3 Periodic Piping Tightness Testing.1 Automatic Line-Leak Detectors. install the leak det~ctor as close as possible to the sub- 3. where it can be visually Installation practices associated with most methods of observed or detected by sensors.2. An of the sump. space of the piping into the sump. Install line-leak detectors on all pressurized-piping systems. fuel and the length. Consult the manufacturer's certification of uid sensors at the bottom of the interstitial performance data to determine the applicabil- space. Place sensors at the bottom 9.4 Interstitial Monitoring. and flexibility of 2. When mechanical line-leak detectors are not of the storage tank.2 and 9. as well as electronically based devices. spaces should be easy to remov~ and replace to allow for servicing and testing of the oper- WARNING: If an installation requires the use of ation of the sensor. Recommended submersible pump to prevent siphoning of the practices for vapor monitoring are generally the tank contents.2. • soil-vapor monitoring 9. volume.3 Leak-Detection Methods for Piping. When installing mechanical line-leak detec- vacuum systems that monitor a negative pres- tors. Install piping so that any released liquid will • under-pump check valve (suction systems only). • statistical inventory reconciliation 1. where the the piping.3.5 when these methods are applied to piping • automatic line-leak detector (pressurized-piping release detection. not apply. Monitoring secondarily contained tanks for ment. both have the ability to monitor the integrity of both walls 4. . Sensors that are installed in tank interstitial mersible pump. 2. including those with secondary contain- 1. leak-detection methods for piping include: Follow installation practices listed in Sections 9. Acceptable 9. '\ 9.

Verify that the satellite-dispenser piping is tions before construction begins. Exercise the same 9 . and piping and component installation 9. Product piping. • be fully compatible with the products stored 9. Correct any deviations from specifica- detector.3. o-rings. leak detector. All piping components. and facilitates testing and mainte- monitored tank-top sumps. removing the need for durability to withstand the operating pressures. fittings . The below-grade piping operates at less than • have sufficient strength to withstand the stresses atmospheric pr~ssure .2 Piping Materials. • be compatible with the underground environment tems meeting the following criteria provide suction • be resistant to damage under normal operating or line-leak detection: test pressures 1. and testing beneath dispensers. The below-grade piping is sloped so that the ation contents of the pipe drain back into the stor- • be isolated from the ground. rosive materials. Installation of the sub. valves.7 Satellite-Dispenser Piping. Follow local codes. Most methods of leak detection are not designed to contain leaks from dispensers. and the pump head from the soil. constructed of noncor- age tank if the suction is released. Inspect all piping materials prior to installation to detect damage caused by shipping and handling and to confirm compliance with specifica- . Galvanized pipe should not be used for systems storing diesel fuel.6 Containing Releases from Dispensers. refer to Field Service Bulletin. Leaks occur in various joints and fit. 10. gaskets. produced during construction and subsequent oper- 2.1 General Requirements for Product Piping. and conditions encountered during construction and subsequent operations of a facility. or coated and cathodically pro- 3. Most methods of leak detection are not designed to 10. or jet fuel either underground or aboveground.3. PIPING AND FITTINGS tings associated with submersible-pump heads.3. and related com- mersible pump within a tank-top sump also isolates ponents must have adequate capacity. strength. Refer to ing fittings. pipe dope. the piping layout. The only check valve is located directly tected. To contain releases. and other components.5 Containing Releases from Submersible- Pump Heads. with dispensers. and the piping Appendix C for information on how to obtain itself. efficient piping design minimizes the length of the piping. nance. Use of Mechanical/Electronic Leak 10. designer's plans and specifications. Strict adher- pensers are typically installed at large truck-fueling ence to the manufacturer's installation instructions is gen- facilities so that both saddle tanks on a truck can be erally required to preserve product warranties. RI- 23-51. stress. pumps. "\ In some jurisdictions. secondary containment of under- NOTE: For guidance in determining whether ground piping may be required. install monitored dispenser sumps components to be provided. requirements . monitored by the line-leak detector. An contain leaks from this portion of the piping system. includ- Detectors in Master/Satellite Systems. kerosene. Consult with local satellite-dispenser piping is monitored by a line- authorities before finalizing the piping-system design.PEl Recommended Practices 100-05 9. below and as close as practical to the suction pump. 10.8 Under-Pump Check Valve. fueled simultaneously with a single sales u'ansac- tion. Product piping linking the master and the Carefully inspect materials and components for defects satellite dispenser is usually routed underground and for consistency with specifications in the construc- and must be monitored for leaks with a line-leak tion agreement.3.3 Piping Practices. Piping sys. To Construction documents should specify the materials and contain releases. degree of care in the selection of pipe and fittings as in the Leaks occur in various joints and fittings associated selection of tanks. must: this document. hoses. install submersible pumps in enhances operations. structural corrosion protection and facilitating maintenance. Satellite dis- insu'uctions provided by the manufacturer.

10. Minimize piping runs across tank tops. backfilling.6 Flexible Connectors. Allow ble connectors. Pipe trenches must seal. Where practical. Install flexible connectors at the tank end of each product line. and between the tank area and the adversely affect leak-detection systems and/or the effi- vent risers. 10. other system components. If required to relieve stress. Separate piJ<ing runs by a dis. grade stakes. Threaded joints must be proper- ly constructed and assembled to achieve a liquid-tight FIGURE 10-1. con- traction. flexibility should also be provided where underground lines change direction. ensure that the materials during assembly. Consult the manufacturer's 10. and debris. The following guidelines will help ensure tight con- allow adequate clearance and cover to protect piping and nections . Flexible con- nectors are not required on flexible pipe. debris. vent line. Baclifilling and com- paction requirements are the same as for tank excava. caused by settlement.5 Piping Backfill and Compaction. Use clean sand instructions for the minimum clearance required for the or pea gravel (3/4-inch maximum size) or crushed rock type of piping being installed. If service. Trench dimensions. pavement.) Provide at least 6 inches clearance between piping tion distances from adjacent piping and the trench walls . crossing of lines is unavoidable. Ream and deburr pipe ends after cutting. when worn. carefully grade and compact bedding failure that can occur when pipe fittings are installed for product piping to ensure a minimum slope of 1I8-inch under stress. Piping may slope toward the tank. run piping in a single trench between the tank area and Vapor pockets created by unevenly sloped lines may the dispensing islands. and at least 18 inches of compacted backfill material and ture. a dispenser sump.4 Piping Layout and Trenches. remove any rocks. Flexible con- nectors installed in dispenser or intermediate sumps should be listed for aboveground use. Flexible connectors installed in tank-top sumps may be listed for underground or aboveground use. use 2. Thoroughly purge should follow the shortest practical route. per foot. tions.7 Threaded Joints. at least 6 inches distance between the piping and the Clearly mark trenches and protect them during construc- tion to prevent damage to piping from traffic. Piping ciency or operation of product piping. and at the base of dispensers . For other sizes. Exercise care to measure and cut pipe accurately to avoid As a general rule. Also remove any accommodate both the piping and the backfill material chocks or bracing used to support or align piping during required to provide protection from damage that might be construction. expansion. If mechanical compaction is required. mois. Avoid traps in pressurized product piping of air before it is placed into the piping and crossing piping runs whenever possible. Handle piping carefully to avoid damage to piping trench excavation walls. excavation. utilities. All dimensions in inches. exercise special and any nearby structures. (See Figure Place backfill carefully around piping to maintain separa- 10-1. or other for- Make piping trenches wide enough and deep enough to eign 'material from the piping trench. Inspect pipe-cutting dies frequently and replace twice the pipe diameter between pipes. 10. or a collection sump. Do not twist or kink flexible connectors. care when compacting over nonmetallic piping and flexi- tance of at least twice the nominal pipe diameter. Recommended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems tions. Keep trench is sufficiently deep to permit 6 inches of bedding pipe and fitting interiors and threads free from dirt. and electrical conduit. (l/2-inch maximum size) for piping backfill material. 1. or other construction work. coatings from physical damage. In traffic areas. Two -inch pipe is illustrated. and contact with foreign materials . Threaded metallic piping depends on a . and vapor- recovery line. abrasion. and testing. Before backfilling. vibration. provide adequate clear- ance to prevent contact.

Rec- metallic product piping. with comparable malleable iron ommended practices include the following or steel screw-type fittings and extra-heavy couplings.PEl Recommended Practices 100-05 FIGURE 10-2. or other metallic components that are a pipe sealant (dope or cement) that is compatible not intended to be protected by the cathodic-pro- with the piping materials and the product being tection system provided for the piping. Schedule 40 factory-wrapped! 10. considerations. temperature and moisture considerations and 2. Exercise care in joining fiberglass pipe and fitting to avoid leaks. Do not remove dielectric ground. should be carefully followed. Follow the man. When making a transition from steel to nonmetallic conductive material at any point where it passes piping. metal-to-metal seal to prevent leaks. 4. 10. facturer's application instructions. Installing unions underground is not recommend- cure according to manufacturer's instructions. 3. Piping dimensions. bushings. and 1. threading.9 Fiberglass Piping. Use a material approved tions. ed. If a female fiberglass fitting is used to . lic threads. handled. Recommended installation practices include the follow- ing considerations. especially when WARNING: Couplings furnished to protect mating fittings made of different materials such as metallic-pipe threads during handling are not steel fittings to fiberglass adapters or steel pipe to generally suitable material for use under- dielectric tank bushings. giving proper attention to temperature and for the purpose and in accordance with the manu- moisture condition limitations. check 3. Slope all lines to facilitate future testing. Prepare joints. If burying unions is unavoidable. join female steel threads to male nonmetal- through pavement and structures. submerged pumps. 2. use 250/300# These installation instructions also elaborate on ground-joint unions and provide access for service. Protect metallic-product piping that is in contact Dull dies may extrude or tear threads. or tightening. 4. installed cathodic-protection system. apply adhesives. Repair damage to coating caused by handling. Electrically isolate dispensers. ufacturer's preparation and application instruc. S. Do not bend steel pipe. making a with the ground with a properly designed and tight seal impossible.8 Metallic Piping. Protect all piping from physical damage with non. liquid-tight. tanks. Install fiberglass-piping sys- coated black steel pipe is the minimum standard for tems according to the manufacturer's instructions. use valves. Wrap ribbon dope with the threads to avoid bunching during tightening. Dimensions shown are generally accepted limits. Take care to avoid cross threading. 1. When assembling tapered thread (NPT) joints.

Be aware that flexible-piping systems may require no less than 1I8-inch per foot back to the tank.0-3. Proper piping layout minimizes crossing of lines and intelference with electrical conduit and other system components. Pipe-penetration fittings should minimize ferent manufacturers. tank connection to facilitate future testing.. 3. Construct ed bending radius specified by the manufacturer for aboveground vent risers using appropriately sized steel the specific pipe diameter being\nstalled. groundwater or rainwater infiltration into sumps. Use an extractor fitting at the within the confines of containment sumps. 2. (if req'd) Rigid Piping Layout Flexible Piping Layout FIGURE 1. "Z~~~~'.. Recommended practices include the make all sump penetrations liquid tight. relies on backfill for support. 2. Recommended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems connect fiberglass to metallic pipe. Grade the different trenching configurations than rigid piping.10 Flexible Piping. Slope piping 4. 10. stress on sump-penetration seals. Piping layout. take care not to with the manufacturer's installation instructions. traps in the line where liquid could collect.. Recom- over tighten and split the fiberglass fitting.. fiberglass. above containment sumps may be used with metallic.. product will drain into sumps. If the sump bottom buried. carefully place sion. Heed the manufacturer's warnings concerning 3. Use the following considerations. Install all sumps in strict accordance grade so that discharged vapors will not produce fire or Concrete Concrete paving paving Product . 3. Install all flexible-piping sys.12 Vent Piping. To avoid leaks into the environment and possible tems in strict accordance with the manufacturer's installa. tings. Carefully measure piping lengths to avoid 10. bedding for the vent piping carefully to avoid sags or (See Figure 10-3. and high enough above or flexible piping. Do not interchange piping and couplings from dif. . tion instructions. and. Ensure that both primary and secondary piping an intermediate sump may be needed to maintain a consist of continuous lengths between containment 1I8-inch slope per foot between connecting sumps. . Locate vent outlets away from building openings.. (if req'd) : U:k£~~jj--' Vapor recovery piping ~.11 Containment Sumps. Tank-top and dispenser.:~ . Position tank-top sumps at each tank and dispenser nect nonmetallic piping to components. """1 linesl '--_ _ _---' recovery : piping . Slope trenches 1I8-inch per foot so that leaked installation of flexible-piping materials at low tem. sumps. 10. l. cathodically protect them to prevent corro. if sumps beneath each dispenser. Make all piping connections should be adequately sized. Depending on the peratures. pipe. approved backfill material beneath the sump base. size of hole saw recommended by the manufactur- er to cut appropriate holes for pipe-penetration fit- 1. . distance between dispenser sumps and tank sumps.) Do not exceed the recommend.. . adjacent rooflines and canopies. Coat or wrap metallic pipe and fittings used to con. mended practices include the following considerations. The vent piping for all tanks stretching or kinking. .

If the fill riser or remote fill is isolated installing a foot valve or angle-check valve to hold prime from ground. Cut suction stubs to allow at least ing is used for fill-pipe risers.. If a ments of Chapter 10 and Section 12. Emergency shutoff valve.. The performance of some tank leak-detection method i Remote fills should be used only when necessary. Methods of providing flexibility.0.PEl Recommended Practices 100-05 Shea r section P" \> </p t. Do not obstruct moving 'parts. If tanks are the secure attachment of delivery adapters and clearance manifolded and Stage I vapor recovery is present.15 Suction Stub. "- <1 \> "" "" "" <1 Tank FIGURE 10-5. in the suction line. ". ~ t. Typically. Install a tight-fill adapter on all fill pipes. FIGURE 10-4. In case offire or collision. follow the manufacturer's installation instructions. <1 "" """" <1 1----.> \::> ~ t::. use an extractor fitting at the tank! uc- cal charges produced when fuel is delivered into the tank. Ensure adequate clearance between the submersible anchor the valve. Refer to Sections 7.3. set tank bottoms at the same elevation. t. Consult applicable codes for specific charge to facilitate maintenance and repair of the sub- guidance on vent height and location. pump and the grade manhole to prevent damage from set- tlement. tube. .. in tall between the fill-pipe cap and the manhole cover.16 Manifolded Tanks and Siphon Piping.> '\) <l "" '\) 1----. Install a full-port ball valve at the submersible pump dis- safety hazards. Install the shear section level with the top of the dis . Con ult Remote-fill piping should slope uniformly to the tank.> ". provide a grounding path for static electri. and manufacturer's instructions.3. Flexible connectors that are designed for the purpose may be used for nonmetallic or metallic piping. the emergency shutoff valve stops the flow of 10.3 manifolded tank systems. I> t. When Install the fill pipe so that the top of the fill cap will be manifolding tanks. to allow at least 4 to 6 inches clearance from the tank bot- penser islands...> "- t:. a vent manifold.2 and 7. tion line connection to facilitate future testing. When installed.. the manufacturer's certification of performance data for Use caution when selecting overfill prevention devices the applicability of specific leak-detection deyj e [0 for use with remote fills. I> t. 10. When ing for fill risers. 10. 4-inch diameter steel pip. affected by the presence of a siphon connection.13 Fill Piping. . 10. standard drop tubes should allow for at Siphon piping must comply with the applicable requir - least 4 to 6 inches clearance from the tank bottom. between 4 and 6 inches below the manhole lid to allow Do not manifold tanks of different diameters. 4 to 6 inches clearance from the tank bottom.14 Submersible Pump.. Install submersible pumps fuel. Do not use nonmetallic pip. Securely tom..> I> <J "" \> ". mersible pump and testing of the piping..10 of this recom- flow diffuser is to be installed at the bottom of the drop mended practice.

Refer to PEl publication RP300.2 Initial Piping Test for Coaxial Piping. Immediately 11. The Local jurisdictions or individual manufacturers may following sections describe test procedures that should be require testing at greater pressures or for longer performed on new secondary-containment piping before periods.. an inert gas such and removal. Recommended Practices for Installation and WARNING: Isolate piping from tanks and dis- Testing of Vapor-Recovery Systems at Vehicle-Fueling pensers before air testing. conduct a hydrostatic test at 150 percent of double-walled piping system where the primary the operating pressure. 11. A constant pressure-gauge manufacturers of fiberglass and flexible piping.1. A new secondary piping for a period of one hour. test at 10 psig. but not less than 50 psig.. Water bottoms that flammable. during construction. A leak is indicated by an increase in pressure • For flexible secondary piping. means of isolation is recommended. greater pressures or for longer periods. Apply a soap solution to all joints and gauge pressure should be carefully investigated.1 Initial Piping Test for Single-Walled Pip- before underground product piping is placed into ing. Local jurisdictions or that operates at atmospheric pressure and uses individual manufacturers may require testing at clamshell termination fittings . Apply a soap solution to all fittings.2. Installation of valves Sites.2 Testing of Secondary-Containment Piping. during construction. or combustible liquids or vapors remain in tanks for long periods can compromise fuel unless they are purged and made safe before- quality and tank integrity. adhere to the fol- test the primary pipe in coaxial piping systems at 50 lowing pressure-test limits and procedures. Recommended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems 10. tight locking cap at the opposite end of the tank. vide an early warning of piping damage. reading alone will not determine whether any piping is tight. Monitoring the tions describe test procedures that should be performed pressure during subsequent construction can pro- on new product piping and storage systems before back. and before placing a sys- and piping surfaces.17 Vapor-Recovery Piping. 11. Air test joints that are improperly tightened or assembled. . Testing of Product Piping. In general. but any loss in gauge pressure should be 11. psig or the manufacturer's recommended test pres- • For fiberglass secondary-containment piping sure for a period of one hour. joints backfilling. Ensure that If flexible termination fittings are used.. and before placing a system is suspected. After the initial product-piping test is completed. or a service. into operation. the piping. are indicated by the formation of bubbles created by air escaping from damaged or defective piping or 11. consider installing the ta~ fill pipe at one as nitrogen or helium may be used to pressurize end of the tank and a 2-inch diameter riser with a vapor. gauge to monitor the pressure in the piping inter- stice.1. If damage filling. If piping has contained product or vapors. test at the piping interstice is sealed and install a pressure 5 psig. test at 5 psig. 11.1. pipe can be soaped. in the piping interstice. Air test new single-walled product piping.1 Initial Test for Secondary Piping. and flexible piping. an inert gas such as nitrogen or helium may 11. constant pressure-gauge reading alone will not using the test pressure prescribed by the piping determine whether the piping is tight. If purging is not feasible. 10-psig air pressure may be maintained in the piping pro- vided the piping has not contained any product or 11.1. Follow specific instructions Expect that a slight expansion of piping may provided by individual manufacturers of fiberglass occur while the piping is under pressure. at 50 psig of\the manufacturer's recommended test pressure for a period of one hour. To facilitate water detection hand. 10.3 Monitoring During Construction.4 Post-Construction Testing. for installation and testing requirements associated or extractor fittings to provide a convenient with vapor-recovery piping at vehicle-fueling facilities . TESTING PIPING product vapors.1. retest the lines. but any loss in manufacturer. Leaks tem into operation. and inspect for bubbles. piping surfaces and inspect for bubbles that indicate Follow specific instructions provided by individual that a leak is present.18 Water-Gauging Port. The following sec- be used to pressurize the piping. Do not test lines with air that have contained· hazardous. Air carefully investigated.

and areas dam- • Some field-installed cathodic protection will be lim. ronment and reduce current demand on the cathodic-pro- cedures are recommended. Verify the electrical continuity between 12.2.2 Monitoring During Construction. 11.1 General Requirements.2. • Selection of a proper coating material. plans. and forced plastic. fiberglass-rein- • The "tank system" includes the tank. either as to the tank system to be outdoors and applied by personnel with special installed or the environment. due to a high concentration of electrochem- tanks by insulated flanges and bushings. If the cir- applied coatings should be designed for application cumstances are unusual. the relative size of the anode and cathode. CATHODIC-PROTECTION components with care to prevent damage during installa- SYSTEMS tion and backfilling. Handle all 12. Monitor the FIGURE 12-1. 12. dielectric bushings. have low and a specifically engineered cathodic-protection plan. or urethanes in liquid form. tape. moisture absorption and transfer rates. techniques. inspect anodes. Field- tions for which no specific plans are available. ited to piping and associated components that are not protected by a factory -installed cathodic-protec. Piping and other • Small exposed surfaces of coated structures corrode components may be electrically isolated from the rapidly. Corrosion. fittings. Cathodic protection is essential for pro- installations. Cathodic protection should be installed in accordance 12. Coating done under controlled conditions which could cause a release or permit a release to go improves quality control and minimizes defects. .PEl Recommended Practices 100-05 11. loosen and back off trolyte. In the absence of specific plans.3 Final Integrity Test for Secondary Pip- ing. Dielectric coatings isolate with the manufacturer's instructions. Comments tion system provided with the tank. materials do not require additional cathodic protection. Monitoring the air pressure during subsequent construction can pro- vide early warning of piping damage. Coatings must maintain high dielectric intended to take the place of a detailed corrosion survey properties over the life of the system. and care in application 12. a competent corrosion engi- training in the use of the materials and installation neer should be consulted. or related equipment. repeat the test procedure described in Section 11. contact with tions or coatings according to the manufacturer's instruc- soil must be provided with cathodic protection. If damage is suspected. The rate of corrosion is determined by many fac- test fittings as required by the system design. Metallic underground the anodes and the tank. Immediately before placing piping in service. preparation of the surface to be coated.2 . After testing is completed.3 Factory-Installed Systems for Tanks. After the initial test.4 Dielectric Coatings. At the installation site. tection system throughout the life expectancy of the liquid-storage system. by a common cathodic-protection system.p. Factory-installed dielectric coat- Comments ings may be coal-tar epoxies. the failure of any component of extrusions.1. and specifica. including the degree of difference between the electromotive potential of the metals. Do not remove dielectric bushings from tank pipe systems that are constructed of corrosion-resistant openings.2 Applicability. the external surfaces of the tank and piping from the envi- tions. A corrosion cell results when pressure for one hour and investigate any pressure two dissimilar metals are in contact with the same elec- loss. 5 psig air pressure may be main- tained in the secondary piping. field coating to exposed threads. and be These are general recommendations for routine installa- chemically resistant to the stored liquids. and coatings for shipping and handling damage. retest the piping. enamels. aged from handling and fabrication. In some ical activity. soaping any exposed joints. and the resistance to current flow. the following pro. tors. piping. Tank and tions . Repair damage to anode connec- storage tanks and product-pipe systems i. the tanks and piping may be protected tecting coating flaws (holidays). Limit undetected or uncontained. These recommendations are not are essential.

1. generic installation guidelines for impressed-current sys- tected vent risers are attached directly to a metal tems. this will 3. Maintain electrical isolation of the metallic components in the probes. if cathodically pro. . Inspect high-silicon iron. cathodic-protection system. metallic structures that are not a part of the protected sys- tric bushings and fittings. electrical conduit and reinforcing rod in the building or other defects. The following are loss of protection.7 Impressed-Current Systems. If metallic com. Install rectifiers on a dedicated electrical circuit. Use an ice pick or similar thin probe to contact the anode through the packaging. As a result. damaged insulation. which is designed to protect only the piping. or platinum nected to other building components. Impressed-current piping equipped with galvanic cathodic protection be cathodic-protection systems can influence other nearby electrically isolated from other metal structures. and backfill now also trying to protect all buried metallic com. • Do not electrically isolate components of Concrete impressed-current systems. For example.2. In most cases. must be compatible with the liquid stored and the tion on the intended storage system and to prevent operating pressure of the tank system. A galvanic cathodic- ftll the anodes with compacted native soil. Monitoring wire ~ ed metallic structures or to the facility electrical ground will nullify corrosion protection. them carefully to prevent voids. ponents: a dielectric coating to separate the steel from the environment. Proper design by a competent corrosion engineer is buried piping from aboveground piping and tanks from required to ensure effectiveness of the corrosion protec- piping. Install the anodes at locations and depths specified in the cathodic-protection design. It is essential that tanks and 1. Recommended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems 1. the piping will likely be electrically con- 1. ponents are present in the probes. Impressed-current cathodic- Comments protection systems must be designed by corrosion engi- • Take care to maintain electrical isolation to prevent neers who have expertise in this area. Establish the electrical continuity of all compo- that contain metallic components. such as buried anodes for broken lead wires. Install anodes as indicated in the plans. Magnesium or zinc anodes provide protection by galvanic action. • Exercise care when installing leak-detection probes 4. Remove the waterproof packaging and inspect the anodes for shipping and handling damage. Field- installed anodes are generally attached to the piping through a capper lead wire and packaged in low-resistiv- ity backfill. and galvanic anodes "to protect "holidays" in the lead wire. is 2. ponents of the building. Back- FIGURE 1.2-2. WARNING: Connecting structures equipped with galvanic cathodic protection to unprotect. Test the electrical continuity of the anode and attached lead wire without damaging the packaging material. foundation. nents to be protected. and soak them protection system on a steel tank typically has three com- with 3 to 5 gallons of water. dielectric bushings to isolate the tank from WARNING: Do not handle or lower anodes by the piping.6 Galvanic Anodes for Piping. Protected steel tank. building. adverse effects on adjacent aboveground tanks. there must be no 5.2. Connect the rectifier negative terminal to the struc- severely compromise the effectiveness of the ture and the positive terminal to the anodes. utilities. the cathodic-protection sys- tem.2. graphite. which are used to separate tem. Dielec. and other metallic structures. contact between the components and adjacent metal surfaces of the tank and piping.5 Electrical Isolation. the coating.

. Protect buried piping material and com- ponents from corrosion failure by using either corrosion. or with mechanical clamps. Anode wires surrounding area are made safe beforehand. . tion of the facility... 3 to 5 feet -: -: -: -: -: . and anode-current output... Some test stations are connected to a buried reference cell that .. Color code and clearly mark all lead wires and terminals. Use wiring devices that are listed by a recognized tected. 12.. current systems energize non-sacrificial anodes with an external direct-current rectifier. Carefully route wiring and allow sufficient slack to prevent pulling on .PEl Recommended PracTice 1 6. . Avoid buried splices.. The anode-current output measurement provides information about the level of pro- tection being provided and the projected life of the anode. . . 00 ° 0 Tank (Cathode) Record the coding key on the "as-built" drawings. These systems are 12. ... large areas of exposed metal can be pro- codes. are attached to tanks and piping by thermite welding. ~ · . dry. . and installed cathodic-protection system. wiring and wiring connections during backfill operations. . .. testing laboratory and install them according to the man- ufacturer's installation instructions.: -: :-: from Pipe :-::-:- vent damage during construction\ and subsequent opera. . Coat structure/wire connec- tions with insulating material that is compatible with structure coatings and wire insulation. :.:. . . ' .. allows direct access to the test leads to simplify taking tank-to-soil potential mea..10 Piping.. Test stations provide a convenient way to measure the effectiveness of cathodic protection.. . Impressed- surements. or by using pres- sure-type grounding clamps or other devices designed for this purpose.... . . . . Comment resistant piping materials or a properly designed and Repair damage to the coating from tools. . handling.... Before making connections.9 Wiring and Electrical Connections. pipe-to-soil potential. . Make connections by therrnite welding. Locate Anodes . . . . if no flammable or combustible liquids are present. Impressed-current systems. When necessary.. · .. . .. r:: l' . A test sta- tion. W. Test stations can facilitate the measurement of tank-to- soil potential. Avoid installing piping that is under stress. . . thoroughly prepare the wires and structure surfaces to verify that they are clean.ARNING: Avoid attaching wiring by thermite welding to tanks or lines that have held flamma- ble or combustible liquids unless the tank and FIGURE 12-4.-. according to the promote corrosion and should not be joined together. Dissimilar metals threading by wrapping or coating.. . FIGURE 12-3. and free of foreign matter. ~---.Anode (typical) is placed in the excavation during installation. tank-to-piping isola- tion. insu- late buried splices using materials that are specifically designed for this purpose.. do not control electrical power to the rectifier Junction box . Install direct burial wiling at least 24 inches deep to pre. .Rectifier by switches that are normally under the control of the operator.~ 12. . .. · .8 Test Stations. . . All wiring designed for specific installations.. stress can accelerate corrosion. Test the continuity of the wiring and structures before backfilling. . . provided at the surface. and because outside should conform to applicable national and local electrical power is used. . . Attachment of anode wires. coating manufacturer's instructions. . To prevent accidental loss or interruption of protec- tion..--.

and threading by wrapping or coating the damaged pipe trench with the top of the anode below the level of surface with a material intended for this purpose. in some cases. Length of well-coated metallic pipe that can be cathodically protected with standard magnesium A competent technician should test the effectiveness of anodes. and 12. electrically connected to the tank: nor protected by the tank's cathodic-pro- • current density is 1. Steel piping must be coated. wrapped.000 ft. redundancy is recommended to reduce . 3 to 5 feet from the center of the dling. if they fail. These • soil resistivity is 5. Test the electrical continuity between 4" pipe 530 ft . the number of anodes specified uating galvanic cathodic protection. bond connections must also be coated. a single anode might provide suffi.000 ohm centimeters devices are not.13 Other Components. or unions.85 volts is the commonly used criterion for eval- tected is a single long lUn. No continuity should exist Theoretical across dielectric bushings. If the length of piping to be pro. or in the interstice of a double- walled tank. structures. Refer to Appendix C protection. but the measurements should While. Repair damage to the coating from tools. The following conditions can . be repeated in 90 days. If a site-specific plan is not available. preparation of the surfaces is essential to ensure good cohesion and prevent flaws. therefore.reasonably • Gauging and monitoring devices that are mounted be expected and apply to Table 12-1: inside the tank. Bonding and anode-wire Protected piping must be electrically continuous. material designed for the purpose. Table 12-1 may be Additional anodes and bonding may be required. used to determine the lengths of well-coated piping that may be protected in mildly corro ive soil for a period of Comments 20 to 30 years. the tank and associated piping.200 ft. Isolate piping from dispensers. TABLE 12-1. dielectric the lead wire or other malfunction of a single anode. 800 ft. Also indicate the method and Nominal Pipe Two 17-Pound 32-Pound location of connections and the location of test sta- Diameter Magnesium Magnesium (inches) tions. clean and coat all exposed metal ed for most piping systems by installing at least two mag. Verify that anode life: 23 years 37 years continuity i present between stlUctures that are bonded together. unconnected pipe with #12 TW or THHN stranded or solid wire. Provide protection for the tanle Do not ground the piping to other piping sys. Cathodically protected systems are typically tested by measuring the voltage between the tank and a copper-copper ulfate reference electrode that Table 12-1 assumes that there are several parallellUns of is in contact with moist native soil. piping to ensure that the protective current is evenly dis- tributed. monitoring devices. If corrosion protection is still not cient protection. Carefully inspect cathodic-protection system components and connections 3 " pipe 680 ft. If measurements indicate inadequate protection. Criteria for deter- in Table 12-1 may need to be increased. Anodes should be equally spaced along the for more information concerning this document.12 Field-Applied Coatings. After completing fab- the absence of a specific plan.14 Inspection and Testing. a facility may be placed in operation. 1 . before backfilling. the chance of loss of protection in the event of damage to preferably with a factory-applied. surfaces.11 Protecting Piping. 620 ft.5 milliamp per square foot of tection system. or stlUctures. subject to corrosion and that. cathodic protection. 12. rication and air testing. In 12. Careful the piping. Use a site-specific cathodic-protection system design for all installations. Recommended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems 12. electrical conduit. exposed steel. at least 0. could cause a release or impair the operation of monitOling systems. han- nesium anodes vertically. Anodes (feet) Anodes (feet) 2 " pipe 1. gauges. and other systems that are tems. A negative voltage of piping in a single trench. are typically installed in tank openings • piping has less than 5 percent exposed surface that are equipped with dielectric bushings. protection may be provid. or high-potential mining the effectiveness of cathodic protection are magnesium anodes may be necessary to provide adequate described in NACE RP0285-2002. • Indicate the location of devices protected by a Length of Pipe length of Pipe cathodic-protection system on facility plans and Protected by Protected by Two "as-built" drawings. flanges.

Ensure that all electrical equipment is installed in accordance with applicable national. and other devices should also be otherwise performing their work. 13. Nor should switche required for servicing these systems be readily available • Electrical-equipment installers may damage the to unauthorized personnel. electrode in a fixed position during all of the measure. National Fire Protection Association remain operational. route electrical conduit away from piping. cal continuity.147 to prevent accidental trical work associated with under~round tank installations energizing of the circuit. Whenever possible. trolled by conventional switches. Disconnecting power to an impressed-curren leak-detection system wiring may allow a release to cathodic-protection system. the cathodic-protection system should be • Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. Performing elec. causing leak-detection systems to false alarm. Power to the annunciator pan- tank or piping while excavating. • Failure to make the entry point of electrical conduit into tank-top and dispenser sumps liquid tight can result in the release of product into the environment or the infiltration of water into the sump. or els. or to an electronic leak- remain undetected. driving stakes.1 Importance of Electrical Work. National Fire Protection Association 30 . 13. Continuity is indicated by voltage differences of 1 these documents. Equipment manufacturers may have electrical require- ings between 1 and 10 millivolts are inconclusive. controls. • Automotive and Marine Service Station Code. aiarms.PEl Recommended Practices 100-05 adequate.3 Leak-Detection and Cathodic-Protection Sys- • The defective installation of tank monitoring or tems. National Fire Protection Association nents. Read. Refer ments that are more stringent than applicable electrical to NACE TM0101-2001 for a further description of this codes. 13. stated in 29 CFR 1910.2 General Requirements. Refer to Appendix C for more information concerning ments. • Conduit or other electrical apparatus placed against power provided to leak-detection and impressed-current a surface that is protected against corrosion may cathodic-protection systems should not normally be con- cause damage to the coating or cathodic protection. During this time. before beginning electrical installation. or other structure. International Code Council. Refer to the manufacturer's electrical requirements and other procedures that can be used to evaluate electri. including: • National Electrical Code. Separate electrical conduit and piping by at least 6 inch- es to avoid interference or damage caused by abrasion. millivolt or less between structures. To test electrical continuity or isolation of buried compo. be sure that the circuit is deenergized. nullifies their effectiveness. NFPA 30A. the facility may 30. piping. state. measure and record the voltage readings between • Uniform Fire Code. and local codes. ELECTRICAL WARNING: Before working on any electrical circuit. Uniform Fire Code Association the copper-copper sulphate reference electrode and the tank. NFPA repaired or modified. INSTALLATION Follow Occupational Safety and Health Admin- istration (OSHA) lockoutltagout procedures as 13. NFPA 70. Therefore. Isolation is indicated by voltage differences of more than 10 millivolts. is critical to the prevention of environmental problems for the following reasons. protected from unauth0l1zed disconnection. • Galvanic cathodic protection of metallic tanks or -piping is impaired by grounding. keeping the reference • International Fire Code. detection device. Refer to Appendix C for more information concerning this document.

er's instructions. cathodic-protection systems. 12.1. Test Procedures that may be applied to stor. tilt) and calibra- tanks) according to manufacturer's tion. 3 .4-2. 8. impact valves.1.5-7 according to manufacturer's recom. Sec.1 System Tests. consult manufacturer's tanks. ability to detect three gallon per Tank-top sumps and Hydrostatic test or manufacturer's hour leak according to manufactur- dispenser sumps recommendations. Impact va lves Ensure that the valve is securely anchored and that the valve mecha- After Assembly But Before Backfilling nism operates freely. devices.14) Tank deflection Measure tank diameter before and Sec.4-3. Check the level of the shear section relative Component Test Procedure to the pump island surface. leak-detection systems. TESTING Component Test Procedure Single-walled Tight ness-test tank and piping.2 (3 psig for 12 ft diameter or greater gauges size.6-7).9 after installing anchor straps. 10.. components. Spi ll-containment Check the operation of the liquid Piping Careful inspection. 3. tion.. etc. ~ . construction.3 between the fill-pipe cap and the manway cover. instructions . t ank Sec. 3 . Double-walled Inspect ta nk int erstice or check Also. Test for Sec. Orirission from these instructions for al lowable variat ion . Measure structure to Sec.4-1. piping. Test procedures that may be applied to stor- age-system components prior to placing the storage system TABLE 1. ufacturer's instructions. 12. Overfill prevention Verify that device is set at the prop- Double-wa lled tank Inspect ion and 5 psig air/ soap test or devices er height and ensure proper opera- Sec. 14-2. 14. and 14-3 list typical test procedures for differ.1 Electronic line leak Verify set up parameters (e . Recommended procedures for testing during installation are summarized in Tables 14-1 and 14-2. pip- Secondary piping 5 or 10 psig air/ soap test. and 11. secondary containment storage tank vacuum or liquid level (Sec. Recommended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems Testing Before Placing the System in Service 14. Before Placing Components in the Excavation Leak detection Ensure ability to detect alarm co n- Component Test Procedure sen sors dition (e.. Test procedures that may be applied to in service. detectors ing length.1.3. Sec. Remove liquids.14 soi l potential and rectifier output (if present) . Tank shell deflection Compare before/ after backfi lling vertical diameter. mendations .2. systems. age-system components prior to placing them in the exca- vation. TABLE 1. product).g. overfill-prevention Double-walled piping Tightness test primary piping (Sec. 50 psig air/ soap test. process. Test secondary according line-leak detectors are operating satisfactorily before the to Section 11.\ manholes drain (if present) and the clearance Sec.2. New primary piping. piping. establish that tanks. type).4-5 Cathodic protection Verify continuity/ isolation of system Cathodic protection Continuity or isolation . and components. 5 . Recommended procedures er's instructions. .4).4).g. Mechanical line leak Test for ability to detect three gal- Piping must be isolated detectors Ion per hour leak according to man- from tank. 11. 11.1 .g. 11. If measureme nts Tables 14-1 .. 3 . (Sec. Tank and piping tightness should storage tank be proven at various stages during the installation Single-walled piping Tightness-test piping (Sec. trash. water. diameter. Single-walled tank Inspection and 5 psig air/ soap test Automatic tank Verify set up parameters (e . TABLE 1. instal lation aids . for system start-up testing are summarized in Table 14-3.3 or manufactur- system is placed in operation. storage-system components after assembly but before backfilling.

The owner/operator and equipment operating instructions. as required. The owner/operator should have the documents avail- 14. must remain with the owner/operator. If measurements indicate inadequate protection. and other monitoring uwner should maintain these documents on file for as systems. and operation of 15. monitoring Personnel must be trained to recognize the warnings pro- equipment. the owner may engage other properly Quality components and proper installation will not trained and certified personnel to conduct the testing. Nothing in this recommended storage system and its components that is consistent with practice is intended to limit nonprescribed testing per. instructions and/or regulatory requirements in all cases. installation process or prior to system start up. should retain a record of the persons attending the train- mended test procedures. charts that indicate liquid volume in the tank as a function of depth. If corrosion protection is still not adequate. the facility may be placed 15.2 Component Documentation. as well as recom. maintenance.PEl Recommended Practices 100-05 tables does not imply that a storage-system component operation. Provide the owner with leak-detection. The ensure that equipment will function properly without reg- owner/operator should keep a copy of all final test results ular inspection and maintenance. and industry trade associations for appropriate guidance. retain a copy for the installation contractor's records . and periodic testing of the 14. and with installation and operating instructions for all compo. 15. regulatory requirements. and automatic gauging equip- installation drawings (as-builts) or photographs showing ment before the storage system is placed in operation. 15. Tank charts and effectiveness of cathodic-protection systems by conduct. applicable.2 Cathodic-Protection Systems. The storage system owner nents of the underground tank system. the turers to document compliance with specified installation cathodic-protection system should be repaired or modi. and equip- formed by the installation contractor throughout the ment manufacturers' recommendations . but the measurements should be repeated in installation checklists produced by equipment manufac- 90 days. and other significant system components. 15. Provide the client with the checklist(s) and fied.4 Scheduled Inspections and Maintenance. " When developing written inspection and maintenance checklists. The owner should require that the vendor or installer sub- mit these documents at the time the system is placed in . The documents described are typically provided by manufacturers of all major storage-system compo- nents. shall establish and implement a wlitten program of sched- uled inspections.3 Installation Checklists. equipment manufacturers. because no one else has an ongoing interest in the facili- ty. Document the able for inspection.3 Test Results. system tightness. If tional. The vided by leak-detection. to the storage-system owner/operator. Provide the owner The owner/operator should coordinate when. DOCUMENTATION AND 15. and be prepared to take appropriate action in long as the storage system is in service. submit copies of the checklist(s) to the manu- facturer(s) to document the installation or initiate warran- 14. ity measurements as a minimum.1 "As-Built" Drawings. where. and tank ing and the topics discussed. owner/operators should consult federal and state regulatory agencies. as well as the proper operation of sys- tem components. Responsibility for maintenance of the required does not require testing. conduit. how the training will occur. during which time the facility may remain opera. practices. industry practices. Alternatively. Provide documentation of storage. Owners/operators should train their per- TRAINING sonnel in the operation and maintenance of their storage system. tion. ty coverage. inventory control procedures. Complete all relevant in operation. overfill. overfill. response to a warning signal from these devices. Follow the manufacturer's data.5 Training. maintenance schedules should be kept at the tank loca- ing structure-to-soil potential measurements and continu. the location of underground piping.4 Other Testing. maintenance schedules. however.

4 pounds per cubic foot The 8-inch thick reinforced-concrete pad extends 2 feet beyond each end of the tank and extends 1 foot beyond A.39 square feet depth must also be sufficient to allow piping to be sloped Cylindrical body + 207.000 pounds tank manufacturers should provide information on their Submersible pump tank dimensions and capacity. 350 the surface on which the overburden bears. Cylindrical tank body 1.08 ~ 1.42 ~ decreases when submerged. To do this. The purpose of the floatout and anchor.S Reinforced-Concrete Pad at Finished Grade. the top of the tank to finished grade necessary to prevent an underground tank from floating when empty and fully Method #1 Cubic Feet Gallons submerged.6 pounds per cubic foot The alternative result.12 10. The burial circular-end segments 24.89 620 Material Weight Manway volume 5. it is necessary to deduct the culating displacement. on request. The paving will be 10' x 35'.540 ment.80 9.8" = 2' 10" = 2. Method #2 Cubic Feet Gallons tions are applicable to a single tank installation only. Tank capacity 1. . The weight of material Ribs (28) 9.2 Weight of Materials. Method #1.. (3' 6" . 1.429.000-gallon nominal capacity. it is necessary that the total buoy. In this appendix. of paving and burial depth will prevent floatout. lons). depth of burial to the top of the tank. Calculate the total space occupied by the tank age calculation is to determine the depth of burial from from data provided by the manufacturer. The reflected-tank area is each side of the tank.08 ~ tank.6 pounds per cubic foot.12 cubic feet (10. come is the total tank displacement. The depth of the overburden (backfill material) over the tank constitutes Area of trapezoidal and the greatest force for counteracting flotation.654 ant force be more than offset by the combined weight of Two curved ends 113.300. The Tank and manways 5.6 Depth of Burial to Top of Tank. double-walled. the calculation is more complicated.18 114 Outer tank structure 15.429. A. the total weight of the paving curved ends.03 square feet to the tank at least 1I8-inch per foot. and riser 300 pounds Water 7.440 pounds. The buoyant force to be over. and manway.7 Volume and Weight of Overburden.28 848 the overburden (i. value we have used (231. 1O. Add the space occupied by the tank structure foot nominal diameter.730 rials: Interstice capacity 82. Inner tank structure 15.75 118 A. to the actual capacity of the tank. including the dis- placement of the structure and attached tank-top sumps. 233. Method #2. fiberglass-reinforced 'plastic (FRP) tank with the water table at grade is presented. In the case of tanks with 87.3 Reflected-Tank Area.409. To determine The following calculations illustrate two methods of cal. we can make a trial calculation to determine if this combination A. In the case of square feet.42 square feet) was provided by the tank manufacturer: A.33 cubic feet. interstice. the calculation for an empty.48 ga]]ons per cubic foot A. 1.35 302 used the following submerged weights for common mate. We have assumed that pea gravel and sand 33 .33 cubic feet. (350 square feet x 8 inch- cylindrical tanks. this is found by multiplying the actual es = 233. backfill material).e. we have Total tank structure 40.690 Sand and pea gravel 60. and associated equip.4 Tank Displacement. The is 20. paving over the Two manways 5. should be used since it is more conservative.290.690 gal- .) Using the submerged weight of tank diameter by its length.833 feet). the depth of the overburden. The method providing the larger thickness of the reinforced-concrete paving from the value is more conservative and should be used. Recommended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems APPENDIX A FLOATOUT AND ANCHORAGE CALCULATIONS A.03 10. 8. Assuming that a total Total 231.67 9. the weight of the empty tank. These calcula.0 pounds per cubic foot Reinforced concrete 87.1 Purpose.42 square feet burial depth of 3' 6" is sufficient for this purpose. For our purposes. Water 62.

56 + 41. L+4ft t ~--~~~~~~~~~~~~~====~~~~ n T1' ad 1 ~-------------------.2) + M] Total weight of overburden = 1206.3) (350.00 + 231. M = Void in overburden (4' x 4' tank-top sump).top of tank to bottom of reinforced concrete FIGURE A-l.975 = 2.802 -=. 10. Weight of overburden 72.12-=-2) + 41.2) + d = (7 . 7' 11 1/4" (7.267 (581.756.86 cubic feet x weight of backfill material Where: (60 pounds per cubic foot) D = Tank diameter.42)] -[(1429.(714.12 cubic feet) (See A4) Submersible pump and riser.833 A.-.02) .41 follows: = 1206. The weight of overburden (shaded area) provides a great deal of the force available to offset buoyancy.L--------------------~ D = Tank diameter L = Tank length t = Thickness of reinforced concrete h = Thickness of overburden d = Depth of burial .997) .412 231.PEl Recommended Practices 100-05 4 _ . The volume of the overburden can be calculated as = 1963.152 Total volume of overburden Total buoyant force to be overcome. 350 square feet (See A.85 cubic feet Total 98. 60 pounds per cubic = 2.756.-.42 of water (62. have the same weight submerged.969 + 2.267 (581. The adequacy = 3.86 cubic fe et of overburden [(h -=. in pounds 8.429.4.3) (Bl + B2 + -YBIB2)] .833 = 6.938 feet) = 72.S Adequacy of Restraining Forces.267 (866. 2' 10" (2..41 .5) Total restraining forces. _ _ " 1 "" .756. Dimensions requiredfor hold-down calculations.802 feet of restraining forces is determined as follows: B 1 = Area of the concrete slab at grade.4 pounds per cubic foot) 89.2) + 2.833 feet) h = (D -=.. in pounds B2 = Reflected-tank area.177 +~350 .42 + 284.12 cubic feet at the weight = [(6. Method #2) = [(h -=.27 .000 (1429.41 foot. from manufacturer ~ 41.3) (Bl + B2 + ~BIB2)] .412 pounds d = Depth of overburden.85] Excess of restraining forces over buoyant = 2.440 V = Tank displacement.690 gallons Tank and manway weight.[(V -=. from manufacturer 5.60) .938 -=.42 square feet (See A3) Concrete paving at grade (See A5) 20. 00 x 231.[(V -=.. in pounds Total displacement (A. .42 + ~80.85) forces..2) + M] 1.

When increasing burial depth.783 .783 .02) .152 (See A. .833 = 3.7) = 17.938 -7.l0 Effect of Adding 1 Foot to the Burial Depth.177).52 .371 pounds Total weight of restraining forces = 98. Manufacturers' instructions should always be followed.756.89.72.371 = 115. A. Factors and calculations used in our example are not intended to represent good practice for a specific tank installation. Adding 1 foot of burial depth adds significantly to the overburden. They represent a frame of reference for specific calcula- tions.14 = 2252. and equipment manufacturer. Because the densi- ty of backfill material varies.412) increases the total restraining force to 115.14 = 2.89. Factors vary by geographic location. (See Section 4.02) .756.412 (See A.) A. a safety factor of 1.6.l l Applicability.371 pounds (89. material supplier.523 pounds and the safety factor to 1.802 feet All other factors remain the same as A.t = 89.152 -7.3) (866 .7 . do not exceed the maximum allowable burial depth for the tank.756.9 Calculation of Safety Factor.833 feet h = (D -7. Total volume of overburden = (7.2) + d = (7.523 pounds Comment Adding to burial depth also provides room for pitching piping to the tank and protection from damage from traffic. The safety factor in the example is 1.2) + 3.3 (115.38 cubic foot of overburden Total weight of additional overburden = 1496. as follows : Where: d = depth of overburden = 3'10" = -3.523 -7.2 is com- monly used when calculating anchoring requirements. burial depth can be increased or supplemental restraints provided.833 = 7. Contact the tank manufacturer if any doubt exists as to whether a specific installation requires additional burial depth or supplemental restraints.38 x 60 pounds per cubic foo.802 -7. The addition of 17.601 (866.72.969 + 3. If a higher safety margin is desired.177). Recommended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems A.1 (98 .14 = 1496.8) + 17.

and care in application are essential. B. where cathodic protection is not pro- tem and more noble metals. tected from the soil. structures. cathode. the new backfill. the new tank will result. the more rapid the corro. along the criteria for ascertaining the level of protection. where the new tank is the anode and transfer rates. or between the tank sys. The differences Coatings must maintain high dielectric properties over in potential between the new and old structures may the life of the system. with a properly engineered and installed cathodic-protec- which develop into strong corrosion cells.85 machines. the faster the anodic area will corrode. In underground steel-tank installations. Impressed-current experience rapid deterioration. Various coating systems are used for sion. The exposed anodic area. Current flows from the metal of ture. Protection often requires a systems use rectified alternating current from the electri- detailed corrosion survey and a specifically designed cal utility to energize anodes. and power source. coating materials should be applied as from placing metallic piping directly on native soil at the meticulously as possible. Galvanic corrosion is the B. There are other underground. moisture. and areas damaged by han- or ion concentrations between the undisturbed soil and dling and fabrication. metal is installed under stress.4 Coatings. vided. A coated. The return circuit is provid. dielectric ally isolated structure is fre- by stray direct currents from such sources as welding quently considered protected if it has a potential of -. The rate of corrosion is deter- deterioration of a metal by direct or electTochemical reac. corrosion can result minimize defects. stresses present in contact with each other. Corrosion is also caused ings. Four elements are required for the structure. The tank system is con- cathodic-protection system. higher electromotive activity (anode) toward the metal of lower electromotive activity (cathode). Selection of a proper coating material. this purpose. producing corro. graphite. Corrosion occurs when two the anode and cathode. and the amount of current from the external corrosion to occur: an electrolyte. nected to the negative terminal. Corrosion may tion system. nearby cathodically volts in relation to a copper-copper sulfate reference elec- protected pipe lines.1 Galvanic Corrosion.2 Stray-Current Corrosion. To with different soils. Field coating should be limited bottom of a trench. Underground structures in the path of the currents can B. anode. Corrosion is also accelerated where dissimilar-metal factor could be a difference in the metal. power transmission lines. This is due to differences in oxygen to exposed threads. B.3 Rate of Corrosion. path of least resistance.5 Cathodic Protection. The smaller the anodic area in relation to return circuit. Underground storage tank Bacterial and basic metallurgical changes may also cause systems subject to external corrosion should be provided corrosion cells. ed by the conductivity of the metal structure. the resistivity of the soil. The corrosion current is concentrated on the small.6 Impressed-Current Systems. Accelerated corrosion of liquids. the pres- dissimilar-metal objects are placed in direct or electrical ence of organic chemicals and salts. and back to the power source. utilities. and electrified trode in contact with the electrolyte and located as close railroads. The primary method of corrosion pro- sion at the anode. the the cathode. Bacteria may cause changes in the soil. preparation of the Corrosion can also occur when a new steel tank is added surface to be coated. This moist soil serves as the electrolyte. become anodic relative to unstressed parts of the struc- ence of a different metal. The greater the degree of electromotive tection is to separate the underground structure to be pro- force between the two metals. Requirements for cleaning the surfaces to be coated typically include removal of oil. For example. Anodes and cathodes is why corrosion is accelerated at breaks (holidays) in develop on the tank and piping. ing the electrical potential of the metallic structure to make it cathodic (protected) in relation to its surround- B. and other foreign material. high-silicon 36 . from the external power source. Cathodic protection is the process of revers- also occur within the molecular structure of the metal.PEl Recommended Practices 100-05 APPENDIX B BACKGROUND: CATHODIC PROTECTION B. to existing tanks in the same excavation. have low moisture absorption and establish a circuit. and be chemically resistant to the stored the old tanks are the cathodes. protective coatings. mined by many factors: the relative size and potential of tion with its environment. Corrosion results from direct currents flowing as possible to the protected tank or piping. dirt. varnish applied at Corrosion cells may be formed when metal is in contact the mill. Highly stressed areas lurgical characteristics of the same structure or the pres. fittings.

contain additional manganese. ences on current output are the resistivity of the soil. and electrically neutral backfill material.) Low-resistance backfill material reduces anode-to-earth Current (amps) 37 . amp hours per pound 1. effective life for each installation. it is wasted. In calculating anode life. Galvanic (sacrificial) magnesium and 24. use less than 5 percent of the total surface useful life. Anodes generally have an tics of the native soil in a short time. based on 50 percent efficiency for magnesium and 90 per- cent for zinc.8 anodes. improper installation can have a detrimental effect on the structure or coating.8 pounds for zinc. vidually designed for each installation. usually 20 to 30 years. or platinum anodes are connected to the positive ter. Prepackaged anodes have the following potential. The utilization factor used for mag- should correspond to the estimated life of the tank nesium and zinc is 85 percent. • The more efficient the anode. and the lower the cur. Consumption rates are system. Components are Anode backfill requirements are different for impressed- located according to a specified design.55 to 1. when placed around tanks. usually within a year. The recommended minimum anode life remain unexpended. ASTM Standard High Potential (Mg-Mn alloy) anodes rent output. It will take on the electrical characteris- to structures by galvanic action. Other types of zinc anodes are . Rates used are 17 pounds per amp year for B. stabilizes the anode's potential. Magnesium or zinc anodes.7 Galvanic Anodes. will become contaminated from B. and the size of the anode.1 • Where zinc anodes are used. the surface area to be protected. migration of chemicals and organic materials from the bonded to the structure to be protected. ASTM Standard copper wire attached for field installation.73 volts.5" Packaged weight 45 pounds 68 pounds • Longer anodes and anodes made of higher-poten- Packaged dimensions 7 . For well-coated on the assumption that an anode has reached the end of its steel. Dry. B. are: Anode life = Hydrated gypsum 75% CAmp-hours Bentonite 20% per Ib x Anode weight x Efficiency x Utilization factor Sodium sulfate 5% Hours per yr. Actual consumption rate. some generalizations may be made.1. Over.9 Magnesium Anode Selection. indicating a need for more anodes or the use of high-potential Anode Data Magnesium Zinc anodes. Solution potential to a copper- copper sulfate cell -1. The greatest influ- anodes used in the protection of underground liquid stor. dri- age tank systems are frequently prepackaged with low. The most commonly used anodes are packaged in low-resistivity backfill with B.Type I anodes are used underground in moderate- (weight) and number of anodes is determined by the anode ly resistant soils. This factor is based • The surface area to be protected depends on the dielectric efficiency of the coating. ving voltage. which increases driving potential from 1. especially its resistivity (50 ohm cm) backfill material Typical contents length. The size AZ63 . the longer the anode life.000 372 Low soil resistance allows greater current flow Current efficiency 50% 90% from the anode. If the increased current is not required to protect the structure. and improves minal. and the desired characteristics: system life. Recommended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems iron.8 An ode Backfill Material.10 Calculation of Anode Life. Nominal size 4" x 4" x 17" 5" x 5"x 20. to achieve the same level of protection. inert. Theoretical cun·ent capacity.55 -1.5" x 28" tial metal produce higher current output. even though a small amount of metal may area . Type II. Overprotection or current versus galvanic cathodic-protection systems. efficiency. enabling each anode to produce more current. The number of anodes and output voltage are indi.73 magnesium designed for use in salt water and are inappropriate for use underground in fresh water. and are frequently used • High soil resistivity requires higher current output for longer distances and in high-resistivity soil. protection is virtually impossible with galvanic pounds per amp year 17 24. a "utilization factor" is included. resistance. they should be ASTM (Same) for high-potential B418-95.5" x 24" 8. provide protection surrounding soils. Although anode selection is dependent on Net weight 17 pounds 32 pounds local conditions.

5 years Mildly corrosive soil. 5 3.12.(24 hours per day x 365 2.000 ohm em soil2 2" pipe 100 180 200 20 50 50 Anode life = 3" pipe 70 120 140 10 30 40 4 " pipe 50 100 110 10 20 30 [0. Can Be Protected with One Galvanic Anode. years 10 16 17 28 50+ [0. the number of linear feet of pipe Example: One 32-pound magnesium anode will protect has been reduced by this amount). Although one anode may be sufficient.200 feet slightly.000 ohm em soil 2 " pipe 350 530 630 50 180 160 Because the tank system is designed to last at least 30 3 " pipe 230 360 420 40 120 110 4" pipe 170 280 330 30 90 80 years. Two-inch pipe protected by one 32-pound anode 630 feet IWe recommend a minimum of two anodes per installation to prevent loss of protection in the event an anode wire or connection is broken. and current density of determine the additional protection achieved by adding a 1.5 3.0424 x 30 x . l The fol. Anode life. Figures reflect a safety factor of 20-30 percent (i. 0. Times adjusting factor from table x 1. a mini- Problem B: What is the life of a 30-pound zinc anode mum of two anodes per installation is recommended to producing 0.1 4. 1. 15.1 amps? prevent loss of protection in the event an anode connection to the piping is broken.11 Number of Feet of Well-Coated Steel Pipe That of Anodes 5 ft.4 4.000+ 1. because Slightly corrosive soil. The adjustment factor is required to evenly distributed along the pipe. homogeneous back.e.9 1.5 x . years 3 50+ 50+ 50+ 50+ 50+ 50+ 0.4 2.000+ 140 450 410 3 " pipe 830 1.(24 hours per day x 365 days B.85] = 29.0 3.114 amp years per pound.197 feet approximately 50 percent.9 5.5 years Anode life.9) that can be protected with a single zinc or magnesium takes interference into consideration.1 5. 4 3. Anode life = 372 amp hours per pound -:. while decreasing the theoretical life only Rounded to 1.4 influencing factors present. use of high-potential magnesium anodes Two-inch pipe protected by two increases the number of feet of pipe that can be protected by 32-pound anodes separated by 20 feet 1.000 ohm em soil days per year) 2" pipe 1.6 3. Calculations are based 630 feet of well-coated. Type I ASTM 8418-95.85] = 15.000 ohm cm) soil.9) x .8 1.8 2.1 Anode spacing in feet Number B. and having no stray currents or other 6 4. 2 1. 38 .5 x .114 x 32 x . Interference between anodes installed in parallel in = 0.0ma per square foot of exposed steel. 3 We limited calculations to 50-year life.000+ 90 310 280 = 0.7 ment. Calculation: consideration of the effects of polarization. 20 ft.7 2. since this exceeds the esti- mated economic life expectancy of most tank installations.12 Adjusting Factors for Anodes Installed in Paral- per year) lel. Type II anode producing 0. one anode does not provide sufficient protection.2 5. less than 5 percent. without second anode 20 feet from the first. 4 " pipe 630 750 70 240 240 Anode life . Recom- mended adjusting factors are as follows: [0.PEl Recommended Practices 100-05 Problem A: What is the life of a 32-pound magnesium ASTM AZ63.9 1.9 2 In slightly corrosive soils. 15 ft..0424 amp years per pound. 10 ft. installed in evenly compacted.6 fill material. 2-inch pipe in mildly corrosive on well-coated pipe with less than 5 percent exposed steel (5. close proximity reduces the output per anode.9 lowing table is based on having the piping fully isolated 3 2.7 years 0.5ma-2.) galvanic anode when installed in soil with specific resistivity.114 x (32 x 1.000 amp hours per pound -:.1 amps at 50% efficiency? Magnesium Anode Zinc Anode Anode life = ANODE WEIGHT: 9# 17# 32# 5# 30# 50# Corrosive soil. The number offeet of well-coated steel pipe The additional factor (multiplying one anode times 1.2 4. one could fail due to a broken wire or other cause. yea rs 19 23 37 43 50+ 50+ Adding a second anode is recommended anyway.9 x .8 from the tank and from associated structures and equip.1 TABLE B-1.85] = 9.6 4. (See B.

D. 39 . Fifth NACE International. Measurement Techniques Related to Criteria for March 1996. 20005 . Fax (610) 832-9555 . First Edition. Vehicles For Product Identification at Service Stations National Fire Protection Association. Oklahoma 74101 -2380. Using the National Fire Protection Association. Terms Used in Petroleum 1999.. PO. Reaffirmed January 2000. Control Edition. Third Edition. September National Electrical Code. Houston. RP200. (202) 682-8000. Revised 1992. API Color-Symbol System To Mark Equipment and Automotive and Marine Service Station Code. Storage Systems for Motor Vehicle Fueling. Bulk Liquid Metallic Piping Systems. 2000. • National Fire Protection Association. NFPA 30A. 1995. Protection of Unde rground Petroleum Storage Tanks Massachusetts 02169-7471. RP 1604. Petroleum Equipment Institute. 5203 Leesburg Continuity of Fuel-Dispensing Hanging Hardware. American Petroleum Institute. National Fire Protection Association. of External Corrosion on Underground or Submerged American Petroleum Institute. (888) 422-7233. Pike. December 2003 . Suite 600. International Fire Recommended Practices for Inspection and Code. Cathodic 1 Batterymarch Park. 1220 L Street • NACE International. American Society for Testing and Materials. (281) 568-4100. Box 9101. West Conshohocken. and Piping Systems.org/ RP1. Petroleum Equipment Institute. PO. 2003. Recommended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems APPENDIX C PUBLICATION REFERENCE NOTE: Links to download or purchase many of these references can be found at www. Fiberglass Tank & Pipe Institute. NFPA 70. 1440 South Creek Drive. RP 1615. RP400. (281) 228-6200. RP300. March 1995 Petroleum Equipment Institute. Suite 101. Fifth Edition. NFPA 77. (610) 832-9500. 11150 South Recommended Practices for Installation of Aboveground Wilcrest Drive. 2005. Virginia 22041-3401. May 2002. 100 Barr Harbor Drive. April 1985.C. Petroleum Standard C33. Houston. Texas 77084-4906. Reaffinned Stock Control at Retail Outlets. RP500. Standard TM0101 -01 . Recommended Practice on Static Electricity. American Petroleum Institute. National Fire Protection Association. Distribution Terminals and Service Stations. Petroleum Equipment Institute. Washington. 2003. 2001. NFPA 30. Reaffirmed November 2001. Specifications for Concrete Aggregates. Recommended Procedure for Testing Electrical • International Code Council. RP 1626. RP 1632. • American Society for Testing and Materials. Equipment LEXICON. ASTM Petroleum Equipment Institute. FPTPl. Revised April 2002. ReaffIrmed June 2002. Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. Second Edition. 1995. and Distribution Terminals. 2003. 1993. Third Edition. Falls Church. NACE International. American Petroleum Institute. 2002. May 1996. 19428-2959. Underground Petroleum Storage Tanks. Fiberglass Recommended Practices for Installation and Testing of Piping System s Installation Check List for Underground Vapor Recovery Systems at Vehicle Fueling Sites. American Petroleum Institute. Reaffirmed January 2000.pei. 2004. Standard RPOI69-02. Maintenance of Motor Fuel Dispensing Equipment. Storing and Corrosion Control of Underground Storage Tank Handling Ethanol and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends at Systems by Cathodic Protection. RP 1621. NW. Pennsylvania • Petroleum Equipment Institute. Box 2380. 2005. Quincy. Reaffirmed Noyember 2001. (617) 770-3000. Tulsa. Texas 77099-4343. Inc. of Underground Petroleum Storage Systems. Cathodic Protection of Underground or Submerged American Petroleum Institute. • Fiberglass Tank & Pipe Institute.00 • AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE. Marketing Operations. RP f 637. Standard RP0285-02. Installation Metallic Tank Systems. Closure of NACE International. March 1996. (918) 494-9696. Petroleum Pipe. International Code Council.

R923-02. Nonmetallic Underground Piping for Flammable Liquids. Storage Tanks . Steel Underground Tanks for Flammable and Underwriters Laboratories. 1992. Standard 842. Pipe Underwriters' Laboratories of Canada. 7 Wall Underground Steel Storage Tanks. Standard 58. 1997. (530) 757-1456. 2000. 2003. Underwriters Laboratories. and Alcohol-Gasoline Specification for sti-P3 System of External Corrosion Mixtures. Control Equipment for Use With Flammable Liquid Dispensing Devices. Standard 1746. 570 Oakwood Road. Second Edition. Protection of Underground Steel Storage Tanks. Instructions For ACT-I 00 FRP Composite Steel Underwriters' Laboratories of Canada.PEl Recommended Practices 100-05 • Steel Tank Institute. February 1991. C107 .1. 2001. Standard 1238.9.10. Tanks . Underground Jacketed Steel Tanks. Illinois 60062-2096. Standard for the Testing of Liquid Protective Underwriters Laboratories. Uniform Fire Underwriters Laboratories. Underwriters Laboratories. (847) 272-8800. Fire-Protection Service. R821 -02.19. Und~rwriters Laboratories. C58. December 2003. Instructions for Urethane Coated C~mposite Steel Standard for Steel Underground Tanks for Flammable Underground Storage Tanks. and Combustible Liquids. 2000. Copper/Copper Sulfate Reference Electrodes. C107. Standard 1316. Secondary Containment of Underground Steel Tank Institute. Davis. Alcohols. Connectors for Petroleum Products and LP Gas. Installation Underwriters' Laboratories of Canada. Underwriters' Laboratories of Canada. Coating Materials as Required by ULC-S603. Standard 860. 2001. 1993. 1992. Steel Tank Institute. FRP Jacketed Steel Piping for Flammable and Combustible Liquids. 2003. December 2003. Standard 567. • Uniform Fire Code Association. Secondary Containment Liners for Underground Practice for Anchoring of Steel Underground Storage and Aboveground Flammable and Combustible Liquid Tanks. Second Edition. Piping Networks Associated with Liquid Storage and Underwriters' Laboratories of Canada. ULC/ORD- December 2003 . ULC/ORD- Underground Storage Tanks. 1995. Ontario M1R 3B4 Canada. Steel Tank Institute. Spill Containment Devices for Underground Steel Tank Institute. (847) 438-8265 . Underground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Underwriters' Laboratories of Canada. 2005 . for use Operated Dispensing Devices for Petroleum Products. December 2003. Underwriters Laboratories. UL Standard 971. Underground Storage Tank Installation Instructions. ULC/ORD- Practice for Corrosion Protection of Underground C58 . Recommended C58. Standardfor Dual • Underwriters' Laboratories of Canada. 1994. Steel Tank Institute. Toronto. 1992. Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Underground Storage Tanks for Steel Tank Institute. March 1997. Underwriters Road. ULC/S603. Practice for Hold Down Strap Isolation. Recommended Underwdters' Laboratories of Canada. ULC/S603. Ninth Edition. R892-91. Third Edition. Recommended (416) 757-3611. 1996. ULC/S616- Liquids.1. Installation Tanks. Underground Tanks. Steel Tank Institute Petroleum Products. Lake Underwriters Laboratories. Steel Combustible Liquids. RPO 11 -0 1.19. Underwriters' Laboratories of Canada. California 95616. 1260 Lake Blvd. Pipe Suite 250. Power. ULC/ORD- Dispensing Systems. 1992. Glass- Zurich. External Steel Tank Institute. 2001. 1991. • Underwriters Laboratories Inc. Under Dispenser Sumps. Unions for Flammable and Combustible Fluids and Fax (530) 757 -1293. Valves for Flammable Fluids. R913-02. Underwriters Laboratories. R891-91. 1997. in Connection with the Corrosion Protection of Eleventh Edition. Illinois 60047. Underwriters' Laboratories of Canada. 1992. Second Edition. 2001 .. ULC/S618. Eighth Edition. 333 Pfingsten Road. Ninth Standard for Magnesium and Zinc Anodes and Edition.21. Western Fire Chiefs Association. M1981. . Steel Tank Institute. Standard for External Corrosion Protection Systems for Northbrook. F841 -01. Standard 87. Installation Corrosion Protection Systems for Steel Underground Instructions for sti-P3 Underground Steel Storage Tanks. Code . Seventh Edition. ULC/ORD- Steel Tank Institute. R971 -02.

Frances Perkins Building. Fax (860) 651-~719. Part 1910. Technical Standards and Requirements for Own~ rs and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks. Environmental Protection Agency. (860) 651 -2700. Part 280. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Room N3647 . Washington. U. 21010. June 1996. Environmental Protection Agency. Ariel Rios Building. • U. Mechanical/Electronic Leak Detector Use in Master/Satellite Systems.O. • Veeder-Root Company. Simsbury. September 23 .C.C. (202) 272-0167. P. RJ-23-51 . . Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). 20460. Washington. NW. CT 06070-7684. Title 29. Title 40. Box 2003 . Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Occupational Safety and Health Standards. 1988. (202) 693-1999. Recommended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems • U. D. Department of Labor.S. 200 North Constitution Avenue NW. 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Red Jacket. D.S . Red Jacket Field Service Bulletin.

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