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2.1 General
All steel materials used in the fabrication of penstocks, including pressure-carrying components
and non-pressure-carrying attachments such as flanges, ring girders, stiffener rings, thrust rings,
lugs, support systems, and other appurtenances must be manufactured and tested in strict
accordance with appropriate ASTM specifications and as specified in this manual.

The properties of steels are governed by their chemical composition, by the processes used to
form the base metal, and by their heat treatment. The effects of these parameters on the
properties of steels are discussed in the following sections.



silicon. BUT SOMETIMES ADDED FOR ATMOSPHERIC CORROSION RESISTANCE STRONG TENDENCY TO SEGREGATE SULFUR (S) CONSIDERED UNDESIRABLE EXCEPT FOR MACHINABILITY DECREASES DUCTILITY.1 Chemical Composition Steels are a mixture of iron and carbon with varying amounts of other elements. sulfur. Manganese increases the hardness and strength of steels but to a lesser degree than carbon. THUS INCREASING STRENGTH AND TOUGHNESS VANADIUM (V)AND COLUMBIUM (Nb) SMALL ADDITIONS INCREASE STRENGTH NICKEL (Ni) INCREASES STRENGTH AND TOUGHNESS CHROMIUM (Cr) INCREASES STRENGTH INCREASES ATMOSPHERIC CORROSION RESISTANCE COPPER (Cu) PRIMARY CONTRIBUTOR TO ATMOSPHERIC CORROSION RESISTANCE NITROGEN (N) INCREASES STRENGTH AND HARDNESS DECREASES DUCTILITY AND TOUGHNESS BORON (B) SMALL AMOUNTS (0. toughness. manganese. primarily manganese. carbon has a moderate tendency to segregate.0005%) INCREASE HARDENABILITY IN QUENCHED AND TEMPERED STEELS USED ONLY INALUMINUM-KILLED STEELS MOST EFFECTIVE AT LOW CARBON LEVELS Carbon is the principal hardening element in steel. 0 42 . sulfur. The effects of carbon.1. AND WELDABILITY ADVERSELY AFFECTS SURFACE QUALITY STRONG TENDENCY TO SEGREGATE SILICON (Si) USED TO DEOXIDIZE OR "KILL" MOLTEN STEEL ALUMINUM (AI) USED TO DEOXIDIZE OR "KILL" MOLTEN STEEL REFINES GRAIN SIZE. and silicon. The properties and uses of the commonly used chemical elements on the properties of hot-rolled and heat-treated carbon and alloy steels are presented in Table 2-1. and aluminum are of primary interest. and weldability. TOUGHNESS. However. the addition of carbon increases the steel hardness and tensile strength. and increased amounts of carbon cause a decrease in ductility. TOUGHNESS. Table 2-1 Propertiesand Uses of Alloying Elements ELEMENT PROPERTY/USE CARBON (C) PRINCIPAL HARDENING ELEMENT INSTEEL INCREASES STRENGTH AND HARDNESS DECREASES DUCTILITY. thus decreasing the harmful effects of sulfur. phosphorus. 2 Materials 2. AND WELDABILITY MODERATE TENDENCY TO SEGREGATE MANGANESE (Mn) INCREASES STRENGTH CONTROLS HARMFUL EFFECTS OF SULFUR PHOSPHORUS (P) INCREASES STRENGTH AND HARDNESS DECREASES DUCTILITY AND TOUGHNESS CONSIDERED AN IMPURITY. Manganese combines with sulfur to form manganese sulfides. These and other elements are either unavoidably present or intentionally added in various combinations to achieve specific characteristics and properties of the finished steel products.

2. This hot-rolling operation elongates the ingot and produces semi-finished products known as blooms. the liquid temperature. The remaining liquid is enriched by these elements. As the molten metal begins to solidify along the mold walls. toughness. the first crystals to form contain less carbon. Thus. which is located around the axis in the top half of the ingot. The following elements also segregate. and decreases ductility. The smaller size and higher cooling rates for the strand result in less segregation and greater uniformity in composition and properties for steel products made by the continuous casting process than for ingot products. and then rolled into products with square or rectangular cross sections.2 Casting In the traditional steelmaking process. manganese. reheated. has a strong tendency to segregate. The most severely segregated areas of the ingot are removed by cropping. and manganese. silicon. which is the cutting and discarding of sufficient material during rolling.1. and ingot size. as the rate of solidification decreases away from the mold sides. Sulfur adversely affects surface quality. However. Certain elements tend to segregate more readily than others. and weldability. molten steel is poured at a regulated rate into the top of an oscillating water-cooled mold with a cross-sectional size corresponding to the desired slab. Silicon and aluminum are the principal deoxidizers used in the manufacture of carbon and alloy steels. The first liquid steel to contact the relatively cold walls and bottom of the mold solidifies very rapidly. but to a lesser degree. The solidified strand is cut to length and then reheated and rolled into finished products as in the conventional ingot process. which is an inherent characteristic of the cooling and solidification of the molten steel in the mold. sulfur. This segregation of the chemical elements is frequently expressed as a local departure from the average chemical composition. In continuous casting. Continuous casting is the direct casting of steel from the ladle into slabs. or billets. Aluminum is used to control and refine grain size. Consequently. it forms a shell that permits the gradual withdrawal of the strand product from the bottom of the mold into a water-spray chamber where solidification is completed. which are continually being rejected by the advancing crystals. the content of an element that has a tendency to segregate is greater than average at the center of the top half of an ingot and less than average at the bottom half of an ingot. The ingots are removed from the molds. 4U3 43 . molten steel is poured (teemed) into a series of molds to form castings known as ingots. and other elements than the liquid steel from which they were formed. crystals of relatively pure iron solidify first. phosphorus. All ingots exhibit some degree of nonuniformity of chemical composition known as segregation. carbon. The degree of segregation is influenced by the composition of the liquid steel. slabs. the last liquid to solidify. 2 Materials Sulfur is generally considered an undesirable element except where machinability is an important consideration. and in descending order: phosphorus. This steelmaking development bypasses the operations between molten steel and the semi-finished product which are inherent in making steel products from ingots. In general. Sulfur segregates to the greatest extent. contains high levels of the rejected elements and has a lower melting point than the poured liquid steel.

The process relieves internal stresses induced 0I4 . which can be used to obtain certain desirable characteristics. Rapid cooling treatments. These heat treatments can be divided into slow cooling treatments and rapid cooling treatments. (3) Stress relieving Stress relieving of carbon steels consists of heating and holding the steel to between 11. increase strength.4 Heat Treatments for Steels Steels respond to a variety of heat treatments. capped. improve machinability.650°F and 1. continue to evolve during solidification. Steels that are strongly deoxidized do not evolve any gases and are called killed steels because they lie quietly in the mold. increase uniformity of microstructure. 2.000 0F to 1. and size of the steel product being treated and the desired properties. hardness. such as annealing. and stress relieving.1. The oxygen available for the reaction can be eliminated and the gaseous evolution inhibited by deoxidizing the molten steel using additions of silicon or aluminum or both. normalizing. The stress-relieving temperature for quenched and tempered steels must be maintained below the tempering temperature for the product. (2) Normalizing Normalizing consists of heating the steel to between 1. the rate of heating and cooling. produce a given microstructure. Following are some of the more common heat treatments for steels.700°F followed by slow cooling in air. Heat treatments of base metals are generally mill options or ASTM requirements. and the time the metal is held at temperature depends on the composition. such as quenching and tempering. The slow cooling treatments. The temperature. increase ductility and toughness. improve uniformity of microstructure. and improve ductility and fracture toughness. and toughness. induce softness. unless controlled. This heat treatment is commonly used to refine the grain size. shape. followed by slow cooling. excess gases are expelled from the metal and. or rimmed steels. Increasing amounts of gas evolution results in semi-killed. 2 Materials 2.3 Killed and Semi-Killed Steels The primary reaction involved in most steelmaking processes is the combination of carbon and oxygen to form carbon monoxide gas. decrease hardness and promote uniformity of structure. Consequently.1. Thus. killed steel ingots are less segregated and contain negligible porosity when compared to semi-killed steel ingots.200°F to equalize the temperature throughout the piece. The solubility of this and other gases dissolved in the steel decreases as the molten metal cools to the solidification temperature range. In general. killed steel products usually exhibit a higher degree of uniformity in composition and properties than semi-killed steel products. (1) Annealing Annealing consists of heating the steel to a given temperature followed by slow cooling. Usually steels are annealed to remove stresses. and facilitate cold forming.

1.200 0F. controlled rolling incorporates a hold or delay time to allow the partially rolled slab to reach a desired temperature before the start of final rolling. Fine grain size and improved notch toughness can be obtained by controlling the finishing temperature. (2) the percentage reduction from the start of controlled-rolling to the final plate thickness. Controlled rolling increases strength. improves toughness. quenching. cutting. and (3) the plate finishing temperature. Controlled rolling involves deformations at temperatures between 1. (4) Quenching and tempering Quenching and tempering consists of heating and holding the steel at the proper austenitizing temperature (about 1. controlled rolling usually is restricted to less than 2-inch thick plates.6000F) in this practice are higher than required for controlled rolling.6500F) for a significant time to produce a desired change in microstructure. The strength and ductility parameters under tensile loading can be defined and explained best by analyzing the tensile stress-strain curve for the material. In contrast. It is not intended to alter significantly the microstructure of the mechanical properties. because heavier plates are involved than with controlled rolling. and hardness.800°F.5 Mechanical Properties The mechanical properties of a material are those properties that characterize its elastic and inelastic (plastic) behavior under stress or strain. After quenching. Quenching and tempering increase the strength and improve the toughness of the steel. but may decrease ductility. holding for a specified time at temperature. 2 Materials by welding. the steel is tempered by reheating to a temperature between approximately 800°F and 1. Because rolling deformation at these low temperatures increases the mill loads significantly. The finishing temperatures (approximately 1. (5) Controlled rolling Controlled rolling is a thermo-mechanical treatment at the rolling mill that tailors the time-temperature-deformation process by controlling the rolling parameters. LU 450 . 2. These properties include parameters related to the material's strength. and machining. cold working. mill delays still are required to reach the desired finishing temperatures. normalizing. The parameters of primary importance are: (1) the temperature at the start of controlled rolling in the finishing stand. refines the grain size. then quenching by immersion in a suitable medium (such as water for bridge steels).500°F and 1. Hot-rolled plates are deformed as quickly as possible at temperatures above 1. and may eliminate the need for normalizing. (6) Controlled finishing-temperature rolling Controlled finishing-temperature rolling is a less severe practice than controlled rolling and is aimed primarily at improving notch toughness of plates up to 21/2 inches in thickness.8000 F to take advantage of the hot workability of the steel at high temperatures. ductility. However. and then cooling under suitable conditions to obtain the desired properties.

In this region the strain is fully recoverable and the specimen returns to its original length when the load is removed. as opposed to a true tensile stress-strain curve.1. On the other hand. represents the elastic behavior of the specimen. The slope of the line. the stress required to produce additional plastic strain increases with increasing strain. The rate at which stress increases with plastic strain is the strain-hardening modulus. A detailed discussion of definitions and details for tension test specimens and test methods is available in ASTM A370. the strains are calculated by dividing the instantaneous elongation of a gage length of the specimen by the original gage length. Usually. E ( Inches per inch) Figure 2-1 Idealized Tensile Stress-StrainCurve The curve shown in Figure 2-1 is an engineering tensile stress-strain curve. The curve in Figure 2-2(A) exhibits a smooth deviation from linearity. The stress corresponding to the initial deviation from linearity represents the yield strength of the material and the beginning of the plastic region. where stress is lineat y related to strain. the stress and strain relationship becomes nonlinear. Also. The initial straight linse sess-st cutress-strain curve.1 Stress-Strain Curves Figure 2-1 shows an idealized tensile stress-strain curve for constructional steels. cross-sectional area. or Young's modulus. and the specimen experiences permanent plastic deformation. which is the ratio of stress to stra in the elastic region. The curve is obtained by the tensile loading to failure of specimens that have rectangular or circular cross sections. and thus the steel strain hardens._ Frecture 0Z t o iet s ! yield stress /strength NOMINAL STRAIN. becaus etiaplotted stresses are calculated by dividing the instantaneous load on the specimen by its original. and the stress continuously increases to a maximum value and then decreases until the specimen fractures. rather than reduced. and is equal approximately to 29 x 106 psi for steels.5. Figure 2-2 shows tensile stress-strain curves for constructional steels that exhibit two types of behavior in the plastic region. is the modulus of elasticity.1 Un i form Necking Strain Strain S I ode ifongs b modu Iul estrength ha - Fgr 2 Tensile _j oi strength Te NOMIAL. the stress for the curve in Figure 2-2(B) reaches a peak 046 .2 Materials 2. As the load increases.

U4 47 U . Yield strength 0 0.008 0.004 0.004 0. 2 Materials immediately after the stress-strain curve deviates from linearity.020 0.024 Construct C D parallel A B at E =O. 005 . and then remains at a constant value for a considerable amount of additional strain.008 0.005 inch/inch total extension under load (see Figure 2-2(A)). the steel strain hardens and the stress increases with strain to a maximum and then decreases until the specimen fractures. E (Inches per inch) (B) Figure2-2 Schematic Stress-StrainCurves for Steels The maximum stress exhibited by the engineering stress-strain curve corresponds to the tensile strength of the steel. Thereafter.2% offset LA.002 0 0. W- LA S--- I-I /.002 0.005 fCy E.016 0. The stress corresponding to the peak value represents the yield strength and is the stress at which the material exhibits a specific limiting deviation from linearity of stress and strain.012 UNIT STRAINE (Inches per inch) Specified unit strain (A) Tensi le• I--F La E =0. The deviation may be expressed as a 0.006 0.010 0.012 0.2% offset or a 0. dips slightly. ts 1I i I I I1 0 0.

2. 1 The general specifications and tolerances for acceptability of structural steel plates are presented in ASTM standard A6. The larger the area under the curve. and the magnitude of the constraints that would prevent plastic deformation. The mode of fracture is governed by the temperature at fracture. the percent reduction of area is calculated from the difference between the initial and the final cross-sectional area after fracture. Because of the recognized variations. Such stresses occur in welded connections and at regions of stress concentration such as holes and changes in geometry. they establish aim chemical compositions that ensure that the requirements of the material specifications will be met.6 Fracture Toughness Most steels fracture either in a ductile or a brittle manner. The total percent elongation and the total percent reduction of area at fracture are two measures of ductility that are obtained from the tension test.1 Ductility is an important material property because it allows the redistribution of high local stresses.1. the rate at which the loads are applied.1. Both elongation and reduction of area are influenced by gage length and specimen geometry. In general. decreasing load rate. and decreasing 048 .2 Ductility and Toughness The tensile stress-strain curve can be divided into a uniform strain region and a nonuniform strain region which combine to give the total strain to fracture (see Figure 2-1). 2 Materials the cross-sectional area along the entire gage length of the specimen decreases uniformly as the specimen elongates under load. Similarly. Beyond this point the plastic strain becomes localized in a small region of the gage length and the specimen begins to neck locally with a corresponding decrease in total stress until the specimen fractures. In the uniform strain region. The percent elongation is calculated from the difference between the initial gage length and the gage length after fracture. 2 Steel producers are aware of the chemical segregation and the variability in the properties of steel products. based on their experience. the fracture toughness increases with increasing temperature. Consequently. Toughness is the ability of a material to absorb energy prior to fracture and is related to the area under the stress-strain curve.3 Tensile Properties The procedures and definitions for the tension test methods are presented in ASTM standard A370. the tougher the material. the aim chemistries and processing practices usually are selected to result in properties that will exceed the minimum properties required by the material specifications. the strain hardening compensates for the decrease in cross-sectional area and the engineering stress continues to increase with increasing strain until the specimen reaches its ultimate tensile strength. Initially. 2. The effects of these parameters on the mode of fracture are reflected in the fracture-toughness behavior of the material. The conversion between elongation of an 8-inch gage length strap specimen and a 2-inch gage length round specimen can be found in ASTM standard A370.

At low temperatures. particularly when Supplemental Requirements are specified. support systems. Furthermore. when fracture toughness is an important parameter. the fracture toughness for materials can be established best by using fracture-mechanics test methods. the design engineer must establish and specify the necessary level of fracture toughness for the material to be used in the particular structure at a given temperature or in a critical component within the structure. The physical and chemical properties of steel produced to these two standards can be very similar. the fracture toughness for low. Traditionally. the percent shear (fibrous) fracture on the fracture surface. stiffener rings. 2.000 psi.1 Steel Plate Steel plate is manufactured to two standards-ASTM A62 for structural use and ASTM A20 3 for pressure vessels. there is no single unique fracture-toughness value for a given steel even at a fixed temperature and loading rate. even at a fixed temperature and loading rate. thrust rings. ring girders. The values of these fracture-toughness parameters increase as the test temperature increases until the specimens exhibit 100% fibrous fracture and reach a constant value of absorbed energy and lateral expansion. constructional steels exhibit a low value of absorbed energy (about 5 ft-lb). there is no single unique CVN value for a given steel. or other structural parts if desired. Therefore. in the amount of testing required to ensure uniform quality. The standards differ.2. and zero fibrous fracture and lateral expansion. These specimens may be tested at different temperatures and the impact fracture toughness at each test temperature may be determined from the energy absorbed during fracture. This transition from brittle-to-ductile fracture behavior usually occurs at different temperatures for different steels and even for a given steel composition. The individual ASTM standards for plates give the design engineer a wide range of properties from which to select the economical material for a particular application. The Charpy V-notch impact specimen has been the most widely used specimen for characterizing the fracture-toughness behavior of steels. Consequently. sickle beams. like other fracture-toughness tests. lugs. and for the pipe shell in many of the less critical penstocks where design stress does not exceed 21. however. However.2 Types of Materials 2. Pressure vessel quality plates (ASTM A20) normally are used in the fabrication of the pipe shell for penstocks.and intermediate-strength steels has been characterized primarily by testing Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimens at different temperatures. 2 Materials constraint. Structural steel (ASTM A6) is suitable for ring girders. They may also be used for crotch plates. LU 49 U . or the change in the width of the specimen (lateral expansion).

killed steel. A set of physical tests must consist of three tests on a coil-one from the outside wrap of the coil. except that the testing provisions for chemical and physical properties are revised as follows. Toughness usually is measured by Charpy impact tests.2. The spiral weld pipe manufacturer must furnish certified reports of the physical tests. The mill producing the coil must furnish certified chemical analysis of each heat. two sets of the required physical tests must be taken for each heat or each 50 tons of each heat. 0 50 Ml . the longitudinal axis of the test specimens must be transverse to the final rolling direction of the coil. and empty pipe may be subjected to lower temperatures. For test orientation. all applicable portions of standards ASTM A6 or ASTM A20 apply. and tempered steels have improved toughness at even lower temperatures. Steel coil. may be used if it qualifies as either PVQ (ASTM A20) or STR (ASTM A6) steel. ring girders. quenched. To qualify under ASTM A20. and one from the inner wrap adjacent to the portion of the coil that is used. Normalized. To qualify under ASTM A6. Also.6. 3 Currently. coil thickness is limited to 3/4 inch. The set from the middle portion of the coil may be taken from the finished pipe. one set of the required physical tests must be taken from each coil used. The lowest service temperature (LST) of a buried penstock is approximately 300F. with a 55 ksi minimum yield or less and a thickness of 5/8 inch or less.2 Coils Coils produced on modern rolling mills from continuous cast slab have proven to have the consistent chemical and mechanical properties throughout the coil required by ASTM standard A20.3 Temperature Considerations The toughness of steel at low temperatures must be considered in penstock design. and heat treatment of the coil (normalized or quenched and tempered) is not available. When spiral weld pipe is produced directly from coils. See Section 2. All required physical tests may be taken by the pipe manufacturer from the coil or from the completed pipe. has adequate toughness at a service temperature as low as 20'F. Fine-grain. used in the manufacture of spiral welded steel pipe. 2. one from the middle third of the coil. the lowest service temperature of an aboveground penstock is close to 30°F for the pipe shell.3 for testing requirements for other steels and thicknesses. 2 Materials 2. Structural support systems.

Suitable materials include: (1) Forged steel weld couplets. and other appurtenances may be fabricated from any of the materials listed in Section 2. or toriconical design in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.4. 2. conical.4. Tee and Reducers. 2.2 Bends.1 Nozzles All openings in the penstock shell must be reinforced in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. or other fittings conforming to ANSI B16. and Caps Forged steel weld fittings must be in accordance with ANSI B136. hemispherical.4. Paragraphs UG-36 and 37. LU 51 1 .3 Dished Heads Heads may be of ellipsoidal. using materials listed in Section 2. 2. weldolets. 4 Section VIII. Paragraph UG-32. stiffener rings. Division 1. These materials have been specified with and without supplemental requirements.5 Material Specifications Table 2-2 lists some of the steels commonly used in the manufacture of steel penstocks and associated structural supports. thrust rings.4 Attachment Materials and Criteria 2.4 Attachments Non-pressure carrying attachments such as ring girders. Division 1. nipplets. conforming to ASTM A2346 for the schedule and grade required.4. 2 Materials 2.11 and of material conforming to ASTM Al 05.5.5. lugs. sweepolets.5 Grade 2 (2) Steel pipe manufactured from material listed in Section 2.4 Section VIII.5 or fabricated in accordance with Section 11. 2. torispherical.9. support systems.

TO 6 IN. AND UNDER ALL PVQ CL-1 IS CL-1 45 65 OVER 2-1/2 IN. GRAIN 50(S81) 50 70 3/4 IN. are used in the manufacture of penstocks.MAXIMUM API-5L B 35 60 PIPE SPECIFICATION X42 42 60 INCLUDES 100% NDE X46 46 63 X52 52 66 X56 56 71 X60 60 75 Steels with physical characteristics within the same ranges as above. and attachments welded directly to these pressure retaining parts.S.AND UNDER QUENCHED AND 90 105-135 OVER 2-1/2 IN.2 Materials Table 2-2 Steels Commonly Used in the Manufactureof Penstocks and Associated StructuralSupports SPECIFICATION NO.CARBON.CON-CAST D E 52 66 ASTM A516 55 30 55-75 PVQ 60 32 60-80 OVER 1-1/2 IN. tunnel linings.25 MAXIMUM 46 60 . IS NORMALIZED 65 35 65-85 70 38 70-90 ASTM A283 A 24 45-60 STRUCTURAL B 27 50-65 C 30 55-70 D 33 60-75 ASTM A285 A 24 45-65 PVQ B 27 50-70 C 30 55-75 ASTM A537 CL-1 50 70 2-1/2 IN. 2.TO 6 IN. ASTM A517 100 115-135 2-1/2 IN.AND UNDER TEMPERED.6 Material Testing Requirements Following are testing requirements for materials used for pressure retaining parts of exposed steel penstocks. TEMPERED AND ALL PVQ-H.TO 4 IN. NORMALIZED CL-2 IS QUENCHED AND CL-2 60 80 2-1/2 IN. CL-2 55 75 OVER 2-1/2 IN. ASTM A572 42 42 60 STRUCTURAL ALL S91 KILLED FINE 50 50 65 OVER 3/4 IN. C 42 60 SPECIFY . but with different labels or denominations. The designer should consult a metallurgist/fabricator when selecting steels.AND UNDER 60 60 75 1-1/4 IN. CL-2 46 70 OVER 4 IN. 52 .TO 4 IN. GRADE MINIMUM YIELD TENSILE STRENGTH REMARKS STRENGTH (ksi) (ksi) ASTM A36 36 58-80 STRUCTURAL ASTMA53 B 35 60 TYPE E & S PIPE SPECIFICATION ASTM A139 B 35 60 PIPE SPECIFICATION.

6. Also. All impact tests must be conducted at the lowest service metal temperature (LST). Consult the manufacturer for additional testing requirements. deep notch. 53 (ASTM A20. welding procedure tests of full-size models may be necessary.4 Special Carbon Equivalent Criteria Requirements For materials with specified yield point stresses over certain values. - OVER 5/8 TO 1 20 15 25 20 30 25 OVER 1 TO 1-1/2 25 20 30 25 35 30 OVER 1-1/2 TO 35 30 40 35 45 40 2-1/2 OVER 2-1/2 45 40 50 45 55 50 *" Where two base materials with different required energy values are joined. ** No test required. the weld metal impact energy requirements of the procedure qualification tests must conform to those of the base material with the higher value.3 must be impact tested in accordance with ASTM Standard SA370 or ASTM Standard A3701 requirements and must meet the criteria specified in Table 2-3.5 Additional Tests Additional testing of material may be required.6.6.2) 2. Table 2-3 Required Cv Energy Values for PressureRetainingMaterial NOMINAL ENERGY FOR BASE MATERIALS* OR SPECIFIED MINIMUM YIELD STRENGTH (FT-LB) WALL 55 ksi or less 56 ksi to 75 ksi 76 ksi to 105 kei THICKNESS AVERAGE OF 3 LOWEST 1 OF 3 AVERAGE OF 3 LOWEST 1 OF 3 AVERAGE OF 3 LOWEST 1 OF 3 (IN. 2. . the following special requirements apply to the carbon equivalent (CE) criteria.2 Tensile and Bend Tests Tensile and bend tests must be performed in accordance with ASME SA Specification 7 or ASTM ASpecification requirements. S20. CE .) 5/8 OR LESS** . 2.6. 2 Materials 2. L5U 53 l .2) (2) For specified yield point stress over 75 ksi. (1) For specified yield point stress over 55 ksi. SR brittleness. and double tension tests.6. 45 (ASTM A20.3 Impact Tests Materials other than those excluded in Section 2. 2.1 Chemical Analysis Chemical analysis tests must be performed in accordance with ASME SA Specification 7 or ASTM ASpecification requirements. S20. such as short bead. CE .

Standard Specification for General Requirements for Rolled Steel Plates. ASME. Metals Park. Standard Specifications for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel.L. Englewood Cliffs. Washington.E." Dynamic FractureToughness. ASTM A234. PA. ASTM. S. PA. S. Prentice-Hall. Sheet Piling and Bars for Structural Use. and McGannon. 4. Carbon Steel. Lankford. The Making. PA. B.. 7. for Piping Components. R.L. PA (1981). 054 . R.. Section 11. ASTM A20. W. OH (1985).. DC (1989). Abington. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. J. Brockenbrough. ASME. and Rolfe. Barsom. J.T. Standard Specification for General Requirements for Steel Plates and Pressure Vessels. ASME SA Specification. 1985). ASTM A105. The Variation of Charpy V-notch Impact Properties in Plates. Craven. Philadelphia. Philadelphia. Cambridge (1976). Section VIII. Jr.. The following references are not cited in the text.F. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 2 Materials References* 1.. Standard Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products. "Effect of Temperature and Rate of Loading on the Fracture Behavior of Various Steels. Pittsburgh. New York. ASTM A6. NJ (2nd Ed. code. N. Division 1. NY. Philadelphia. Fractureand FatigueControl in Structures-Applicationsof FractureMechanics.M. ASTM. Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels. ASTM. PA. American Iron and Steel Institute. Philadelphia. USS Steel Design Manual. Shapes. ASTM A370. 6. ASTM. PA (10th Ed.T. * The most current version of a standard. Shaping and Treating of Steel. "Carbon and Alloy Steels. 3. and Johnston. U. New York." Metals Handbook. Philadelphia. H. NY. Standard Specifications for Forgings. or specification should be used for reference. The Welding Institute. Barsom. Steel Corporation. Samways.M. 5. ASTM. 2. American Society for Metals. PA.G. Pittsburgh. 1987). Association of Iron and Steel Engineers. Inc.