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4.1 What is With the Extra Stage in Getting the List Matching

Numbers and Sentences? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

4.2 Why do we Need to Assign Every Sentence a Unique Number? 23

1

1. Completeness: The Proof up to Now

SL and set of sentences of SL:

SS

the following result:

sistent.

it bigger, into a set that is still consistent in SD, but

also so big that if we add just one more sentence, the

result will no longer be consistent in SD.

2

How does making bigger like this help us?

for complex sentences relate to their parts, and compare

that to the way that the membership of a complex sen-

tence in relates to the membership of its parts in :

a) P is assigned T P is assigned F

b) P&Q is assigned T P is assigned T and Q is assigned T

c) P Q is assigned T P is assigned T or Q is assigned T

d) P Q is assigned T P is assigned F or Q is assigned T

e) P Q is assigned T (P is assigned T and Q is assigned

T ) or (P is assigned F and Q is assigned F)

a) P P

b) P&Q P and Q

c) P Q P or Q

d) P Q P or Q

e) P Q (P and Q ) or (P and

Q )

assigned T/is assigned F with / .

3

The main goal of the Tuesday lecture was to prove that

acts as indicated on the map displayed on the pre-

vious slide.

that makes all the sentences in true, if we just stipu-

late that every sentence letter in is assigned T.

theorem is to prove that this truth assignment works.

sentence letter in is T, then every sentence in is

assigned T.

4

2. The Completeness proof, Completed

that every sentence letter in is assigned T. (And ev-

ery other sentence letter is assigned F).

true.

orem is true for simpler sentences to prove that it is true

for more complex ones.

A S .

how we dened the truth-assignment A on the sentence

letters.

5

Induction Step:

k or fewer connectives, P is true on A P

sentence P of SL with k + 1 connectives, P is true on

A P .

P looks like.

6

Case 1: P = Q for some Q

is a truth-assignment, and that is how they roll.

tion hypothesis applies, and hence:

Q is false on A Q .

So Q

Q Q

So: Q .

7

If Q is false on A then Q is true on A.

tion hypothesis applies, and so:

Q is true on A Q .

Hence: Q .

Q Q

Lemma allows us to conclude that Q .

8

Case 2: P = Q & R for some Q and R

is true on A by the rules for truth-assignments.

the induction hypothesis applies, and so:

Q is true on A Q

and R is true on A R

P&Q P and Q

9

If Q & R is false on A then either Q is false on A

or R is false on A by the rules for truth-assignments.

the induction hypothesis applies, and so:

Q is true on A Q and

R is true on A R

So either Q or R .

P&Q P and Q

needed to show.

10

Case 4: P = Q R for some Q and R.

true on A.

the induction hypothesis applies, and so Q or

R .

Q , so:

Q R .

11

If Q R is false on A then Q is true on A and R

is false on A.

the induction hypothesis applies, and so Q and

R .

Q , so:

Q R .

12

Cases 3 and 5 are questions on the problem set.

tent, then the truth assignment making every sentence

letter in true and every sentence letter not in false

makes every sentence in true.

sistent, because there is a truth assignment making every

sentence in true.

is truth-functionally consistent.

follows from this that if P then P

13

3. The case of the Regularity Lemma

the proof of the Regularity Lemma, so Ill go over the

case that I skipped over Tuesdays lecture.

We want to show:

P Q P or Q

and the directions.

14

Say that P Q

Either P or P .

we can produce a derivation of Q using premises from :

1 PQ Assumption

2 P Assumption

3 Q 1,2 E

Hence, either P or Q

15

Say that P or Q

i) P

some sentence R of SD, {P} R and {P} R

to derive R and R from {P}

derivation of P Q from {A1; A2; . . . ; An} with deriva-

tions of R and R indicated by vertical dots. (Next

slide)

16

A1 Assumption

A2 Assumption

Assumption

Assumption

An Assumption

P A/ I

Q A/ I

..

.

R

R

Q E

PQ I

So P Q and so by Jove, P Q .

17

The other possibility is:

ii) Q

1 Q Assumption

2 P A/ I

3 Q 1R

4 PQ I

So P Q and so by Jove, P Q .

P Q .

conditional.

18

4. Review: Building a Maximal Consistent in SD Set

4.1. What is With the Extra Stage in Getting the List Matching

Numbers and Sentences?

assigning numbers to sentences of SL so that every num-

ber is assigned a unique sentence, and every sentence is

assigned a unique number.

That is, we can specify an (innite) list:

1 S1

2 S2

3 S3

4 S4

5 S5

.... ..

.. ....

n Sn

.... ..

.. ....

the right-hand side, and every sentence of SL occurring

at exactly one place as one of the sentences Si.

19

The assignment takes place in three steps: First you as-

sign a (two digit) number to every symbol in the vo-

cabulary of SL (where you count the individual digits of

subscripts as separate symbols):

f () :

10

11

12 &

13

14

15 (

16 )

20 0

21 1

.... ..

.. ....

29 9

30 A

31 B

.... ..

.. ....

55 Z

20

Then we associate each sentence with the string of num-

bers corresponding to its symbols (including the digits of

subscripts as symbols):

associated with S is:

with the string:

f (A)f (1)f (1)f ()f (()f (B)f (2)f (&)f (C)f ())

Which is 30212111153122123216

you are given the number of a string, there is a simple

mechanical procedure to nd out what the string is.

21

The reason that I put first number in boldface is that

this assignment of numbers to sentences doesnt nish the

job we need to do.

there are numbers that dont get assigned any sentence

of SL.

be assigned a unique sentence.

be arranged in a list according to size, with the smallest

number rst, the next smallest second, the next smallest

3rd, etc.

The sentence with the smallest number gets 1, the sen-

tence with the second smallest gets 2, etc.

22

4.2. Why do we Need to Assign Every Sentence a Unique Num-

ber?

we see how to extend this to a maximal consistent in SD

set , with .

sets in stages, then take the union of all of them:

Stage 0: Let 0 =

{

n1 {Sn } if n1 {Sn } is consistent in SD

Stage n: Let n =

n1 if n1 {Sn } is not consistent in SD

set , plus every sentence that was added at one of the

stages specied above.

23

The reason that we need to have the list of sentences is

that we use it to dene the stages. Each stage considers

exactly one sentence, indexed by the number assigned to

the sentence.

put in all the extra sentences at once?

ent maximal consistent in SD sets extending , and they

wont be compatible.

This is consistent in SD. We can make it bigger by one

sentence by adding E, or by adding E, and in each

case, we will still have a set that is consistent in SD:

both consistent in SD

tent in SD. You can add either of E or E, but not both.

24

This also means that adding one of these sentences will

force you to exclude the other.

and consider the sentences one at a time, in a xed order.

dexed by the natural numbers.

25

5. How to Use the Completeness and Soundness The-

orems

ing in their own right, but also they provide useful tools

for proving things about derivability in SD and truth-

functional entailment.

terms of derivations, others if we consider them in terms

of truth-functional entailment.

this.

contradiction from {A}, but the problem is much more

straightforward if you reframe it in terms of truth-functional

entailment.

26

Proving the compactness theorem for truth-functional en-

tailment is conceptually challenging, but proving it for

derivations in SD is simple.

about derivations in SD using the completeness theorem.

S then there is a nite such that S.

back into a statement about truth-functional entailment.

27

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