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# Contents

## 4 Review: Building a Maximal Consistent in SD Set 19

4.1 What is With the Extra Stage in Getting the List Matching
Numbers and Sentences? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.2 Why do we Need to Assign Every Sentence a Unique Number? 23

## 5 How to Use the Completeness and Soundness Theorems 26

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1. Completeness: The Proof up to Now

## Our objective is to prove that any for any sentence S of

SL and set of sentences of SL:

SS

## Last week we showed that we can prove this if we prove

the following result:

sistent.

## Our strategy to prove that is to take the set and make

it bigger, into a set that is still consistent in SD, but
also so big that if we add just one more sentence, the
result will no longer be consistent in SD.

## That is, the set is maximal consistent in SD.

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How does making bigger like this help us?

## To see why, look at the the way that truth-assignments

for complex sentences relate to their parts, and compare
that to the way that the membership of a complex sen-
tence in relates to the membership of its parts in :

a) P is assigned T P is assigned F
b) P&Q is assigned T P is assigned T and Q is assigned T
c) P Q is assigned T P is assigned T or Q is assigned T
d) P Q is assigned T P is assigned F or Q is assigned T
e) P Q is assigned T (P is assigned T and Q is assigned
T ) or (P is assigned F and Q is assigned F)

a) P P
b) P&Q P and Q
c) P Q P or Q
d) P Q P or Q
e) P Q (P and Q ) or (P and
Q )

## They are exactly the same, except for the interchange of is

assigned T/is assigned F with / .

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The main goal of the Tuesday lecture was to prove that
acts as indicated on the map displayed on the pre-
vious slide.

## Thanks to this structure, we can dene a truth-assignment

that makes all the sentences in true, if we just stipu-
late that every sentence letter in is assigned T.

## The nal installment of the proof of the completeness

theorem is to prove that this truth assignment works.

## That is, we need to prove that if you stipulate that every

sentence letter in is T, then every sentence in is
assigned T.

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2. The Completeness proof, Completed

## We are given a maximally consistent . We stipulate

that every sentence letter in is assigned T. (And ev-
ery other sentence letter is assigned F).

true.

## The proof is by induction: We use the fact that the the-

orem is true for simpler sentences to prove that it is true
for more complex ones.

A S .

## We know the base case is true just by stipulation: That is

how we dened the truth-assignment A on the sentence
letters.

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Induction Step:

## Induction Hypothesis: For every sentence P of SL with

k or fewer connectives, P is true on A P

## Must prove, given the induction hypothesis: For every

sentence P of SL with k + 1 connectives, P is true on
A P .

## The induction step has several cases, depending on what

P looks like.

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Case 1: P = Q for some Q

## If Q is true on A then Q is false on A because A

is a truth-assignment, and that is how they roll.

## Because Q has fewer than k + 1 connectives, the induc-

tion hypothesis applies, and hence:

Q is false on A Q .

So Q

## We know from the Regularity Lemma that:

Q Q

So: Q .

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If Q is false on A then Q is true on A.

## Because Q has fewer than k + 1 connectives, the induc-

tion hypothesis applies, and so:

Q is true on A Q .

Hence: Q .

Q Q

## Since weve shown Q , this clause of the Regularity

Lemma allows us to conclude that Q .

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Case 2: P = Q & R for some Q and R

## If Q & R is true on A then Q is true on A and R

is true on A by the rules for truth-assignments.

## Since both Q and R have fewer than k + 1 connectives,

the induction hypothesis applies, and so:

Q is true on A Q
and R is true on A R

P&Q P and Q

## So it follows that Q & R .

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If Q & R is false on A then either Q is false on A
or R is false on A by the rules for truth-assignments.

## Since both Q and R have fewer than k + 1 connectives,

the induction hypothesis applies, and so:

Q is true on A Q and
R is true on A R

So either Q or R .

P&Q P and Q

## So we can conclude: Q & R , which is what we

needed to show.

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Case 4: P = Q R for some Q and R.

true on A.

## Since both Q and R have fewer than k + 1 connectives,

the induction hypothesis applies, and so Q or
R .

## By the Regularity Lemma, P Q P or

Q , so:

Q R .

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If Q R is false on A then Q is true on A and R
is false on A.

## Since both Q and R have fewer than k + 1 connectives,

the induction hypothesis applies, and so Q and
R .

## By the Regularity Lemma, P Q P or

Q , so:

Q R .

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Cases 3 and 5 are questions on the problem set.

## This completes the proof that if is maximal consis-

tent, then the truth assignment making every sentence
letter in true and every sentence letter not in false
makes every sentence in true.

## Since we have that is truth-functionally con-

sistent, because there is a truth assignment making every
sentence in true.

## That is, we have proven that if is consistent in SD, then

is truth-functionally consistent.

## As we proved at the outset of last weeks rst lecture, it

follows from this that if  P then P

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3. The case of the Regularity Lemma

## I received a couple of requests to say a bit more about

the proof of the Regularity Lemma, so Ill go over the
case that I skipped over Tuesdays lecture.

We want to show:

P Q P or Q

## This is a biconditional, so we need to prove both the

and the directions.

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Say that P Q

Either P or P .

## If P , then along with the fact that P Q

we can produce a derivation of Q using premises from :

1 PQ Assumption
2 P Assumption
3 Q 1,2 E

## Hence Q, and so by Jove, Q .

Hence, either P or Q

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Say that P or Q

i) P

## Since is maximal consistent in SD, this means that for

some sentence R of SD, {P} R and {P} R

## Let {A1; A2; . . . ; An} be all the premises from used

to derive R and R from {P}

## The following (minus line numbers and some steps) is a

derivation of P Q from {A1; A2; . . . ; An} with deriva-
tions of R and R indicated by vertical dots. (Next
slide)

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A1 Assumption
A2 Assumption
Assumption
Assumption
An Assumption
P A/ I
Q A/ I
..
.
R
R
Q E
PQ I

So P Q and so by Jove, P Q .

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The other possibility is:

ii) Q

## In that case, we can derive P Q quite easily from :

1 Q Assumption
2 P A/ I
3 Q 1R
4 PQ I

So P Q and so by Jove, P Q .

P Q .

## This proves the second direction, and so proves the bi-

conditional.

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4. Review: Building a Maximal Consistent in SD Set
4.1. What is With the Extra Stage in Getting the List Matching
Numbers and Sentences?

## The textbook ( p. 244 - 255) presents a procedure for

assigning numbers to sentences of SL so that every num-
ber is assigned a unique sentence, and every sentence is
assigned a unique number.

## (I discuss this procedure in lecture 17, slides 9 - 15.)

That is, we can specify an (innite) list:
1 S1
2 S2
3 S3
4 S4
5 S5
.... ..
.. ....
n Sn
.... ..
.. ....

## With every natural number occurring exactly once on

the right-hand side, and every sentence of SL occurring
at exactly one place as one of the sentences Si.

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The assignment takes place in three steps: First you as-
sign a (two digit) number to every symbol in the vo-
cabulary of SL (where you count the individual digits of
subscripts as separate symbols):

f () :
10
11
12 &
13
14
15 (
16 )
20 0
21 1
.... ..
.. ....
29 9
30 A
31 B
.... ..
.. ....
55 Z

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Then we associate each sentence with the string of num-
bers corresponding to its symbols (including the digits of
subscripts as symbols):

## If S is the string 1234 . . . n then the first number

associated with S is:

## For example, the sentence A11 (B2&C) is associated

with the string:

f (A)f (1)f (1)f ()f (()f (B)f (2)f (&)f (C)f ())

Which is 30212111153122123216

## Each string is assigned a unique number, and in fact if

you are given the number of a string, there is a simple
mechanical procedure to nd out what the string is.

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The reason that I put first number in boldface is that
this assignment of numbers to sentences doesnt nish the
job we need to do.

## It assigns a unique number to every sentence of SL, but

there are numbers that dont get assigned any sentence
of SL.

## We need the list to be complete: Every number must

be assigned a unique sentence.

## The numbers assigned to sentences in the rst order can

be arranged in a list according to size, with the smallest
number rst, the next smallest second, the next smallest
3rd, etc.

## Then list each sentence according to its place in this list.

The sentence with the smallest number gets 1, the sen-
tence with the second smallest gets 2, etc.

## That is the final, official list.

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4.2. Why do we Need to Assign Every Sentence a Unique Num-
ber?

## In the textbook (p. 255 - 57) and in lecture 18 p. 24 - 31

we see how to extend this to a maximal consistent in SD
set , with .

## Remember the procedure: Dene an innite sequence of

sets in stages, then take the union of all of them:

Stage 0: Let 0 =
{
n1 {Sn } if n1 {Sn } is consistent in SD
Stage n: Let n =
n1 if n1 {Sn } is not consistent in SD

## In other words, is the set consisting of the original

set , plus every sentence that was added at one of the
stages specied above.

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The reason that we need to have the list of sentences is
that we use it to dene the stages. Each stage considers
exactly one sentence, indexed by the number assigned to
the sentence.

## Why do we need to do things this way? Why not just

put in all the extra sentences at once?

## The reason is that there are going to be several dier-

ent maximal consistent in SD sets extending , and they
wont be compatible.

## For example, say we start with = {A, A B, C&D}.

This is consistent in SD. We can make it bigger by one
case, we will still have a set that is consistent in SD:

## {A, A B, C&D, E} and {A, A B, C&D, E} are

both consistent in SD

## But of course, {A, A B, C&D, E, E} is not consis-

tent in SD. You can add either of E or E, but not both.

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This also means that adding one of these sentences will
force you to exclude the other.

## That is why we have to build the set in ordered stages,

and consider the sentences one at a time, in a xed order.

## That is why we need to have all the sentences listed, in-

dexed by the natural numbers.

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5. How to Use the Completeness and Soundness The-
orems

## The completeness and soundness theorems are interest-

ing in their own right, but also they provide useful tools
for proving things about derivability in SD and truth-
functional entailment.

## Some facts are easier to prove if we consider them in

terms of derivations, others if we consider them in terms
of truth-functional entailment.

this.

## It is a challenge to show that there is no derivation of a

contradiction from {A}, but the problem is much more
straightforward if you reframe it in terms of truth-functional
entailment.

## The soundness theorem allows you to do that.

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Proving the compactness theorem for truth-functional en-
tailment is conceptually challenging, but proving it for
derivations in SD is simple.

## So reformulate the compactness theorem as a statement

about derivations in SD using the completeness theorem.

## Prove the corresponding fact about derivations in SD: If

S then there is a nite such that S.

## Then use the soundness theorem to translate this fact

back into a statement about truth-functional entailment.

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