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- Toc 1
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- Methods of Proof
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- A Comparison of the Generalized minC Combination and the Hybrid DSm Combination Rules
- Assertion, Denial and Some Cancellation Rules in Modal Logic - T. Williamson (1988)
- Jullien - 'Did Philosophers Have to Become Fixated on Truth'

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(PQ)

Add a case to the proof of metatheorem 6.3.1 that the resulting proof

system is sound. (Note: you are not being asked to prove that this

is an acceptable derived rule by producing a derivation it abbreviates.

Add a case to the proof of 6.3.1)

by negated disjunction introduction from P and Q at lines i and j

respectively. Then i P and j Q, with i j = k+1 . Since

we are adding a case to 6.3.1, the induction hypothesis from that proof

applies, so: i P and j Q.

Say that we have a truth assignment A that makes all sentences in k+1

true. Since i j = k+1 this assignment A makes every sentence in

i true, and so it makes P true and A makes every sentence in j

true, and so it makes Q true.

If P and Q are both true, then P and Q are both false. By the

truth table for , if P and Q are both false then PQ is false:

1

P Q P Q

T T T T T

T F T T F

F T F T T

F F F F F

That is, any truth assignment making every sentence in k+1 true makes

PQ false, so it makes (PQ) true. So k+1 (PQ).

example:

P and Q then P &Q

True.

Say that some interpretation I assigns true to every sentence in .

Since it makes every sentence in true, it makes P true. Since it makes

every sentence in true, it makes Q true. Since it makes P and Q true,

then by the truth-table for &, it makes P &Q true, so P &Q.

By the completeness theorem for SD, P &Q.

[NOTE: you must cite the completeness theorem to pass from a fact

about to a fact about .]

2

3. Prove that if is a maximally consistent in SD set of sentences of SL

then:

(It will be useful to use this Fact: If is maximally consistent in SD

and SD Q then Q . This is a special case of 6.4.9 p. 257 in the

textbook, aka Jove.)

By applying & E, P and Q.

P and Q by the Fact/ Jove.

P and Q since if both Q and Q were in it would

contradict the consistency of .

Since Q and is maximal consistent in SD, this means that

{Q} R and {Q} R. So given premises from , we can make

the assumption Q and derive both R and R. Therefore, by I we

can infer Q, so Q by the Fact / Jove.

Since P and Q we obtain by one application of & I that

SD (P & Q).

By the Fact / Jove, (P & Q) .

This proves both directions.

3

4. Formalize these two sentences using the given formalization key:

UD: all people Dx: x went to Disneyland

Kxy: x knows y

j: John

m: Mary

(x)(Dx (y)(Kxy & Dy))

There is someone who knows both Mary and John but doesnt know

him/herself.

(x)((Kxm&Kxj)& Kxx)

the second false:

(x)(P x Qx) (x)P x (x)Qx

UD: All people in history, excepting (just to be on the safe side) vam-

pires and zombies, if any.

Px : x is alive.

Qx: x is dead.

up with a universe of discourse in which everything has one or the other

of the properties, but neither of the properties is possessed by every-

thing in the domain.

4

6.

1 (x)( Qx P x) Assumption

2 (x)Qx Assumption

3 Qa A/E

4 Qa P a 1 E

5 Qa A/ E

6 (x)P x A/ E

7 Qa 3R

8 Qa 5R

9 (x)P x 6-8 / E

10 Pa A/ E

11 (x)P x 10 I

12 (x)P x 4, 5-9, 10-11 E

13 (x)P x 2, 3-12 E

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