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International Stainless Steel Forum (ISSF)

Founded in 1996, the International Stainless Steel Forum (ISSF) is a non-profit

research organisation that serves as the world forum on various aspects of the
international stainless steel industry. Whilst having its own Board of Directors,
budgets and Secretary General, ISSF is part of the International Iron and Steel
Institute (IISI). ISSF now comprises some 67 company and affiliated members
in 24 countries. Jointly, they are responsible for around 85 percent of worldwide
stainless steel production. A full list of members can be found on the ISSF


Summary The Ferritic Solution by Jean-Yves Gilet 5

Foreword: A steel whose time has come by ICDA 6
What theyre saying about ferritics 9
The fabulous ferritics 13
Corrosion resistance properties 21
Mechanical and physical properties 27
Forming ferritic grades 31
Joining ferritic grades 37
Products and applications 45

The chemical composition of ferritic stainless steels 59
Surface finishes 63
References 64
ISSF membership 66
Acknowledgements 67

Structural steelwork for

highway bridge in Durban,

South Africa, of painted

ferritic stainless steel.

By Jean-Yves Gilet, Chairman of the ISSF Market Development Committee (MDC)

ISSF first discussed a project to promote ferritic grades in Since ferritic grades do not contain nickel, their cost is
February 2004, many members having pointed out that no lower and more stable than that of austenitic stainless
joint industry effort was being made in this direction. steels. They can therefore:
Under the guidance of the Market Development complement type 304 within the stainless steel family
Committee, an international group of experts, led by Philippe (although 304 remains a versatile and commonly used
Richard, started by gathering market statistics on ferritic grade);
grades and applications. They received contributions from be an alternative to the 200 series (offering generally
all around the world especially Japan, where the ferritics better usage properties);
market is the most developed. substitute for other materials in many areas (e.g. carbon
The ICDA soon proposed to join the initiative and co- steel, Cu, Zn, Al, plastic, etc.), thanks to their special
fund the project. This we accepted with great pleasure, as technical properties the drivers for replacement being,
a concrete example of cooperation between international usually, technical and Life Cycle Cost benefits.
business organisations. Ferritic stainless steels magnetism is not a negative
During the projects start-up phase, nickel prices hit quality, somehow associating it with ordinary carbon steel.
the roof and interest in more price-stable grades increased On the contrary, magnetism is a special asset of these
dramatically. ISSF then gave the project highest priority! excellent stainless steels, marking them out from other
I am now proud to present the results, which will hit the stainless steel grades.
market at just the right time. To get the best results from ferritics, it is essential that:
I strongly believe that ferritic stainless steels can and new users be trained in forming and joining techniques;
should be much more widely used. The purpose of this the user consult his stainless steel producer regarding
publication is to bring about more extensive use of these correct grade selection;
grades. the user acquire his material from a reliable source,
Stainless steels are stainless because their chromium able to offer proven guarantees as to the grade, quality
content gives them remarkable resistance to corrosion. and origin of the material supplied.
Ferritic grades, containing only chromium and possibly The high quality of the teams efforts and the strong support
other elements (Mo, Ti, Nb, etc.), are no exception. Well- of the ICDA allow us today to present a reference document
known standard ferritic grades 409, 410 and 430 are readily for our stainless steel business. It benefits from highly
available all over the world. Very successfully used in interesting testimonials from customers, showing a lively
important applications, such as washing-machine drums interest in new developments. ISSF is grateful for all these
and exhaust systems, they actually have much broader contributions.
application potential, in numerous fields. Jean-Yves Gilet
More recently-developed ferritic grades, such as 439 Chairman
and 441 meet an even broader range of requirements. They Market Development Committee
can be formed to more complex shapes and joined using ISSF
most conventional joining methods, including welding.
Thanks to the addition of molybdenum, the resistance of
ferritic grade 444 to localised corrosion is at least equal to
that of austenitic grade 316.

A steel whose time has come
by Friedrich Teroerde of the International Chromium Development Association

I must first thank ISSF for inviting the ICDA to write the We were therefore delighted when ISSF asked us to support
foreword to The Ferritic Solution a publication that is its project to identify and develop new ferritic market
inevitably eloquent on the subject of chromium. applications. The admirable aim of this project is to achieve
The ICDA was set up in Paris, in 1990, and currently sustainable growth in the stainless steel market and build
boasts some 96 Members from 26 countries across 5 a bright future for these excellent grades.
continents. Our mission is to tell the world the positive Looking at information already available on ferritic
story of chromium. grades, one finds plenty of material on stainless steel in
Chromium is used in iron and steel to produce stainless general but little dedicated specifically to ferritics although
steel and other alloys. In stainless steel, chromium is a such grades have existed for almost 100 years! This lack
special ingredient. It is the alloying element that makes has encouraged ISSF to create the current handbook. It
stainless steel stainless, giving it its remarkable corrosion provides essential information on the technical properties,
and oxidation resistance. Chromium is both readily available advantages and potential applications of ferritic grades
and easily recycled in its stainless steel form, posing no and gives fabrication recommendations. It also attempts to
threat to the environment. correct certain popular misconceptions regarding the use
As a body representing the chromium producers, we are and characteristics of ferritic stainless steels.
sponsoring this handbook because we believe it will develop In conclusion, ICDA is aware that the volatility of nickel
the chromium industry. Chromium is never used alone. presents a major problem for stainless steel users. We
The Market Development Committee of ICDA has therefore are keen to support the industry and its customers by
been implementing projects of common interest with sister participating in the search for alternative solutions. It is
organisations like ISSF for some years. Chromium is the clear to us that, thanks to its proven technical qualities and
basic element of all families of stainless steel at an average cost advantages, ferritic stainless steel is a steel whose
content level of 18 percent. The annual consumption of time has come.
stainless steel is increasing at a compound growth rate of 5 The following pages will guide existing and potential
percent and the material is used in an increasing number of stainless steel users in extending the use of ferritic grades
applications in the food, beverage, mining and automotive into new and exciting application areas.
industries and in architecture.
You will be aware that nickel, used in austenitic
stainless steels is subject to considerable price fluctuations, Friedrich Teroerde
due to stock market factors. In fact, in the last few years, the Chairman
nickel price has increased to unprecedented levels, greatly Market Development Committee
affecting the cost of austenitic grades. ICDA
Ferritics, the second great family of stainless steels,
contain no nickel. They do, however, contain chromium. In
the context of our own development, given the exceptional
growth in the stainless steel market, we feel we should
strongly encourage the broader use of ferritic grades, at
this time.

Ferritic stainless steel

is ideal for the external

surfaces of professional

kitchen equipment.

The shining appearance

of ferritic is a symbol

of cleanliness and

hygiene in food-contact


What theyre saying about ferritics
The economic advantages and technical merits of ferritic grades have been
appreciated by certain market sectors for a number of years. The following
testimonials, representing both existing and evolving markets, show that these
benefits are becoming more widely understood.

use a higher-alloyed ferritic grade. The important thing is to

Stefan Raab
benefit from the economic advantages of using ferritics.
Director Corporate Purchasing of Product Materials, We find them excellent for our applications and, given
BSH Bosch und Siemens Hausgerate Gmbh, Munich, Germany the high cost of nickel, the future, in our case, definitely lies
We use stainless steel in about a third of with these excellent steels.
our products. Our reason for using this
material is partly functional, because
Jean-Louis Lalba
of its corrosion resistance, and partly
aesthetic. The share of ferritic stainless Market Buyer for Groupe SEB, (Tefal, Rowenta, Krups,
steel is approximately 50 percent at this Moulinex, Arno, All Clad, Panex, etc.), Rumilly, France

time. Our intention is to increase this, We use about 15,000 metric tons of
mainly because ferritic gives the customer the benefits of stainless a year, of which some 40
stainless steel in terms of functional qualities and design, in percent is ferritic. Our group originally
many application areas, but within a limited cost frame. We used ferritics for cookware lids, for
will use ferritic grades wherever corrosion resistance and which they are ideal, for the stamped or
formability allow. brazed bases of induction cookware and
for oven housings. This has extended
to include frying pans, in those cases where the result is
Roberta Bernasconi
entirely satisfactory for the end-user.
Manager, Global Technology Materials, Often, in such applications, the corrosion resistance,
Whirlpool Corporation, Cassinetta di Biandronno, Italy deep drawing and polishing characteristics of ferritics
As a manufacturer of home appliances, have proved very acceptable both for us and our customers.
we use ferritics for our refrigerators and There are cases where very demanding manufacturing or
washing machines and are evaluating in-service requirements will exceed the limits of ferritic
conversion to ferritics for cooking grades, in terms of one or more of these qualities or in
appliances and dishwashers. The cost terms of ease of processing. And there is even irrational
advantage is such that it makes sense prejudice against ferritics in some countries! However, we
for us and our customers that we should find these grades to be a perfect choice in many instances.
make more use of these grades. Indeed, their magnetic nature is essential to stainless steel
We accordingly design our products with the necessary induction cookware. And, of course, the price of ferritics is
manufacturing considerations in mind and occasionally select stable and reliable.
a coated grade and even a fingerprint-protected coated grade, Given our good experience of ferritics, we intend to
if need be, to ensure long service life. We may, on occasion, extend their use to other applications.

In the sugar industry,

ferritic stainless steel

has proved superior

to carbon steel

on every level.

Low cost is not the only reason for favouring ferritics. Ferritic
Gaetano Ronchi
grades are magnetic and have good thermal conductivity. They
Senior Manager, Metals Procurement, IKEA are easy to recycle, which helps save the planets resources.
We use stainless steel for pots & pans, Changing from 304 to ferritic means that the manufacturer
cutlery including knives and bathroom becomes more competitive and the consumer gets a safe
and kitchen accessories. Our current product at a lower price. We must correct the unfounded
annual consumption, of 60,000 tons a prejudice that because ferritics are magnetic they are low-
year, is growing by about 15 percent a quality and have poor corrosion resistance.
year. A substantial part of this is ferritic. In factories where 304 is predominantly used, changing to
In mid-2003, IKEA decided to adopt ferritic grades ferritic grades means adjusting the manufacturing process
as general-purpose stainless steels, largely due to the and dies. This is costly. Our experience, however, shows that
materials stable, predictable price. Tests showed that total production costs can be lowered with ferritics.
articles with welded seams require a grade with higher Overall, we are very satisfied with ferritics. A good range
chrome content than standard 430 for optimum corrosion of ferritic grades has been developed, to meet a wide variety
resistance and that welded components need further of requirements. We hope ferritic stainless steel becomes
processing to meet requirements. However, the decision widely available in steel service centres and becomes more
represented a breakthrough for our development of stainless extensively used in a broad range of sectors.
steel articles. Our sales growth and the use of stainless
steel in new-product design would have been seriously
Atushi Okamoto
jeopardised had we stayed with austenitic grades.
A significant number of IKEAs stainless steel articles Manager of No.1 Production Section, Osaka works,
are manufactured by an Asian OEM and the success of Takara Standard Corp., Japan

our transition to ferritics has been due to educating and Takara Standard is a major Japanese
training the Groups purchase offices in Asia and its OEM manufacturer of kitchen and bathroom
subcontractors. Our target is to phase out austenitic grades products. We use stainless steel for sinks
completely, replacing them with upgraded ferritics. We are and top panels of built-in kitchens and
currently testing new ferritic grades with enhanced deep- for bathtubs and mounting components
drawing or corrosion-resistance properties. of built-in baths. This company has used
ferritic grades for about 40 years, for the simple reason that
their properties are sufficient for these applications.
Michael Leung
We are successful with ferritics because our product
Assistant Manager, design takes into account the specific mechanical properties
Yiu Heng International Company Limited, Macao of these grades and we have appropriate press-forming and
The main products of our subsidiary die technology. We have met no major problems with ferritic
Xinhui RiXing Stainless Steel Products, grades. When an intricate shape is required, we carry out
based in Guangdong Province, China, trials, to establish the best processing parameters.
are stainless steel cookware and kitchen To conclude, we are very satisfied with ferritic stainless
utensils. At the time of writing, the steels. I would like to see guidelines issued to help companies
company consumes about 800 metric choose the right ferritic grade for their application.
tons of stainless steel per month, of which 66-70 percent is
ferritic. When we launched our factory, in 1999, we just used
400-series grades on the bottom of cookware. We began Other testimonials follow on
using them for cookware bodies in 2002. the left-hand pages before each chapter...

Ferritic stainless steel

welded tubes have a dynamic

future in the tube market,

due to the technical and

economic merits

of these grades.

Clovis Tramontina
what theyre saying about ferritics

President, Tramontina, So Paulo, Brazil.

As a major Brazilian manufacturer of In terms of deep-item manufacturing, such as lay-on sinks,
household goods and tools, with an ferritics are not as easy to work with as austenitics and require
intense export activity, Tramontina an intermediate rolling process. However, I still consider
currently uses about 850 tons of ferritic stainless steel as a good choice, due to the cost/
stainless steel per month, of which benefit ratio. Being easy to clean and maintain, the material
almost 30 percent is ferritic. The is hygienic. It also has all the aesthetic merits of stainless
products for which we mainly use ferritics are economical steels and is available in various surface finishes.
trays and cutlery, sinks and the base of pans. To sum up, were happy with ferritics and have used them
We have used ferritics since 1974, when we started to for a long time now. In fact, were always looking for new
produce pans and serving sets at our plant in Farroupilha. Our applications in which to use them and benefit from the cost
main reason for introducing ferritics was the lower cost of this advantage.
raw material, coupled with the fact that their characteristics
and properties are very satisfactory for these applications.

The fabulous ferritics
In the face of an explosion in raw-material costs, ferritic stainless steels are
emerging as a useful solution in many applications where cost-saving material
substitution has become an imperative.

In recent years, prices of raw materials such as aluminium, Lower cost, stable price
copper, zinc and nickel have exploded. Stainless steel The good news is that ferritic (400-series) stainless steel
producers and users, notably, are greatly affected by the grades low and stable in price yet boasting impressive
high and volatile nickel price which fluctuates daily. Nickel technical characteristics are waiting in the wings, ready to
is a constituent of the widely used austenitic (300-series) prove an excellent alternative material for many supposedly
stainless steel grades. austenitic-only applications.

Professional griddle, in grade 430.

Canopy, in grade 446M, S. Korea.

L M E CA S H NiC kE L P r i C E 1 9 9 9 - 2 0 0 7 (US $ / T )

Containing no nickel, ferritic grades basically consist of iron
22,000 and chromium (min. 10.5%). The price of chromium the
18,000 ingredient that makes stainless steel especially corrosion
resistant is historically relatively stable. Certain ferritic
8,000 grades contain additional alloying elements, such as
molybdenum, to enhance specific properties.
Ferritic stainless steels share most of the mechanical
00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 02 02 02 03 03 04 04 04 05 05 05 05 06 07 07
and corrosion-resistance properties of their more
expensive cousins, the austenitics, and even improve on
Stainless steel producers have no control over these austenitics in certain characteristics. Why pay for nickel if
phenomena, whose inevitable effect is to both push up and you dont have to?
destabilize the cost of their nickel-containing grades. This Users of copper, aluminium
situation is forcing some existing users of these grades to or austenitic stainless steels in
seek materials that cost less than austenitics but which search of another solution can
might still provide fabrication and in-service characteristics take heart. Ferritics are often an
adequate for their product or application. affordable and technically ideal
The situation can also scare off potential users of stainless way to benefit fully from stainless
steel, who may believe that stainless steels possessing the steels unique qualities.
qualities they need are financially out of reach.
Why pay for nickel
if you dont have to?

The 5 ferritic families
Ferritic grades fall into five groups three families of
standard grades and two of special grades. By far the
greatest current use of ferritics, both in terms of tonnage

Containers, in grades 409L and 410L.

and number of applications, centres around the standard
grades. Standard ferritic stainless steels are plainly,
therefore, totally satisfactory and entirely appropriate for
many demanding applications.

s TA N dArd ferr ITIC grAdes

91% of total volume in 2006
Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 2 (type 430) is the most widely used family of
ferritic alloys. Having a higher chromium content, Group
14%-18% 2 grades show greater resistance to corrosion and behave
10%-14% 14%-18%
most like austenitic grade 304. In some applications, these
30% 48% 13% grades are suitable to replace type 304 and are usually of
high enough grade for indoor applications. Typical uses
sTAN dArd ferr ITIC gr Ades
include washing-machine drums,
91% of total volume inindoor
2006 panels, etc. Type
Types 430Ti, 439, 441, etc.
Cr content: 14%-18%. 430 is Group
often substituted
1 for type2304 in household
Group Group utensils,
Types 409, 410, 420 Type 430 Include stabilising elements
Cr content: 10%-14% Cr content: 14%-18% such as Ti, Nb, etc. dishwashers, pots and pans. For information on its welding
see p. 38. 14%-18% 14%-18%

Group 1 (type 409/410L) has the lowest chromium content Group30%

3 includes types 430Ti,
48% 439, 441, etc.
of all stainless steels and is also the least expensive. This with Group 2, these grades show better weldability and
group can be ideal for non- or lightly-corrosive environments formability. Their behaviour is even, in most cases, better
Types 430Ti, 439, 441, etc.
or applications
s pwhere
ferrlocalised rust is acceptable.
ITIC grAdes than that of 304 austenitic grades. Typical applications
Cr content: 14%-18%.
Types 409, 410, 420 Type 430 Include stabilising elements
Type 409 was originally
designed for automotive exhaust-
9% of volume in 2006 include sinks,
Cr content: exchanger
10%-14% tubes
Cr content: (the sugarsuch
14%-18% industry, energy,
as Ti, Nb, etc.
system silencers (exterior
Group 4 parts Group
in non-severe
5 corrosive etc.), exhaust systems (longer life than with type 409) and
environments). Type 410L is often used for containers, buses the welded parts of washing machines. Group 3 grades can
and coaches and,Added
Mo LCD monitor
Othersframes. even replace type 304 in applications where this grade is an
7% 2%

s peCIAl ferr ITIC grAdes

9% of volume in 2006
Cr content: 18%-30%
Types 434, 436, 444, etc. or not belonging Group 4 Group 5
Mo content above 0.5% to the other groups

Added Mo
Standard ferritic stainless steels

are totally satisfactory and 7% 2%

entirely appropriate for many

demanding applications. Types 434, 436, 444, etc.
Cr content: 18%-30%
or not belonging
Mo content above 0.5% to the other groups

T h e 5 g rO ups Of ferrITIC gr Ades
Group 4 includes types 434, 436, 444, etc. These grades in many cases, ferritics are
have added molybdenum, for extra corrosion resistance.
emerging as a better choice than
Typical applications include hot water tanks, solar water
heaters, visible parts of exhaust systems, electrical-kettle more expensive materials.
and microwave oven elements, automotive trim and outdoor
panels, etc. Type 444s corrosion-resistance level can be
similar to that of type 316. Other current uses of ferritic grades range from kitchenware
and catering equipment to indoor furniture and decorative
Group 5 (types 446, 445/447 etc.) has additional items, automotive
chromium and contains molybdenum, for extra corrosion trim, superheater and
and scaling (oxidation) resistance. This grade is superior reheater tubes, burners,

Solar water heater, Taiwan.

to type 316 in respect of these properties. Typical uses air-conditioning ducts,
include applications in coastal and other highly corrosive barbecue grills, etc.
environments. The corrosion resistance of JIS 447 is equal Many new applications
to that of titanium metal. are waiting to emerge.

Impressive references Todays excellent ferritics

Among the success stories of ferritic stainless steels, two Top-quality ferritic stainless steels have existed for some
typical and extremely demanding applications stand out. years now and much intensive research and development
For years, ferritic grades have been very extensively used in has gone into defining the remarkable grades currently
two extremely demanding applications: automotive exhaust available.
systems and washing-machine drums. They are neither new to the market nor to their highly-
experienced producers. Strangely, though, attitudes to
these steels seem tinged with misconception and ignorance,
for largely historical reasons. Grade 430 was once the only
grade available and early, pioneering users may have
received insufficient technical support regarding the use
of this grade especially, perhaps, in the case of welded
structures or more corrosive conditions. In any event, the
false idea took hold, in some quarters, that ferritics are
inferior and that only austenitics will do.
Exhaust systems are exposed to high temperatures and Ferritics moved on
corrosive environmental conditions. The use of stainless a long time ago! Full
steel (ferritic) makes it possible to extend the warranty technical support is

Overpass noise-absorbing plate, Japan.

period of these parts. available today and the
Washing-machine drums have to withstand detergents range of grades has
and a virtually constantly humid environment. In this context, greatly increased and
however, localised corrosion would be utterly inadmissible. diversified, to meet
Car owners and householders will readily testify to their users needs, in terms
satisfaction with the long life of their washing machines of properties. Since
drums and exhaust systems. For manufacturers of these these properties are
products, fabrication friendliness and major economic broadly comparable to those of austenitics, it is wrong to
advantages are additional factors making ferritic stainless see ferritic grades as either inferior or superior. They are
steel the obvious choice. just different and usefully so.

Indeed, in many cases, ferritics are emerging as a better some are not. Corrosion resistance is not a matter of atomic
choice than more expensive materials. They may more structure but one of chemical composition in particular
closely match the actual specification of a particular chromium content. Magnetism has nothing to do with it.
application, providing just the qualities needed no less and, In fact, the magnetism of ferritic grades is one of the
equally importantly, no more. materials major assets, having many existing and potential
uses and advantages, ranging from sticking memos on the
fridge to storing knives and other metallic implements.
Indeed, it is essential that pans used in induction cooking

Milk tanker, cladding in grade 430, S. Africa.

are magnetic, since the process involves generating heat in
the cookware itself by transfer of magnetic energy.

Refrigerator, cladding in grade 430.

Fine for forming
Every bit as malleable as carbon steel, ferritic grades
are suitable for most forming operations. They are less
malleable than austenitic stainless steels, which have
exceptional properties, but in many cases austenitics are
Carbon steel and ferritic stainless steel demonstrate
equivalent forming behaviour. One need only think, therefore, Special technical advantages
of the complex shapes into which carbon steel is currently Stainless steel is an especially durable, low-maintenance
formed (e.g. car bodies) to appreciate the broad possibilities material, with considerable Life Cycle Cost advantages over
for ferritic stainless steels. Given correct adaptation of carbon steel. It is also 100% recyclable: over 60% of new
tooling and choice of grade, countless shapes may be stainless steel is made from melted scrap.
formed using ferritic grades. Stainless steels main properties can be summarised as
Proud to be magnetic corrosion resistance
A widely held misconception is that because ferritics are aesthetic appeal
magnetic they are not real stainless steels and will rust heat resistance
like carbon steel. This is nonsense. Purely for reasons of low lifecycle cost
atomic structure, some stainless steels are magnetic and full recyclability
biological neutrality (meets EU RoHS requirements)
ease of fabrication
A widely held misconception is
that because ferritics are magnetic Ferritic stainless steels boast all the advantages that
stainless steels have over carbon steels in terms of corrosion
they are not real stainless steels resistance, low Life Cycle Cost and longevity. In addition,
and will rust like carbon steel. their advantages over their close cousins, the austenitic
grades, do not just stop at costing less. Ferritics actually
This is nonsense. outshine austenitics in several characteristics.

Ferritic special trump cards
Ferritics are magnetic.

Ferritics have low thermal expansion

(they expand less than austenitics when heated).

Ferritics have excellent high-temperature

oxidation resistance (they are less prone to
scaling than austenitics).

Ferritics have high thermal conductivity

(they conduct heat more evenly than austenitics).

Ferritics stabilised with niobium have excellent

creep resistance (they deform less than
austenitics in response to long-term stresses).

Ferritics are easier to cut and work

than austenitics (which require special
tools and more powerful machines and
generate greater tooling wear).

Ferritics are significantly less prone to

springback than austenitics, during cold forming.

Ferritics have higher yield strength

(similar to that of popular carbon steels)
than type 304 austenitics.

Ferritics, unlike austenitics, are not prone

to stress corrosion cracking.
Perfection is matching the spec
In current market conditions, existing and potential users

Kitchen line-up, in grade 430, S. Africa.

should, above all, avoid over-specifying when choosing a
steel for a given application.
Historically, austenitic grade 304 has been the most
widely developed and readily available stainless steel grade,
due to the broad spectrum of applications for which it is
suitable. Todays ferritic stainless steel grades, properly
specified, can often be substituted for 304, to excellent
effect. Sometimes, a reasonable in-service compromise (e.g.
Close and realistic examination of the fabricating advising end-users to clean their products surface regularly)
and in-service qualities required will often reveal that an is all that is required to keep a particularly inexpensive
economically advantageous ferritic grade can perfectly ferritic grade immaculately corrosion-free for the life of the
adequately meet these specifications, for both fabricator product.
and end-user.

Cladding panels, in coated grade 430, Italy.

A steel whose time has come
Given the quality of todays ferritic grades, their price
advantage and the exceptional properties that can be obtained
by using additional alloying elements, the opportunities for
ferritic stainless steels seem unlimited.
This brochure tries to make the qualities of ferritics
easily understandable, describing them in relatively simple
terms. Its aim is to encourage the greater use of stainless
steels in general by increasing awareness of the merits of
Todays ferritic stainless steel these lower-cost grades. This is part of a stainless steel

grades, properly specified, can industry initiative to help users specify the correct grades
for their application.
often be substituted for 304, The following pages examine the properties of todays
to excellent effect. ferritics, the roles of the various alloying elements and the
many existing and potential applications of these steels.

In certain environments
ferritic stainless steels

provide an aesthetic,

durable and economical

solution for urban

furniture requirements.

Dominique Maret
what theyre saying about ferritics

Marketing Director, Faurecia Exhaust Systems, France

As a worldwide automobile Ferritics are a success story for us because our deep
equipment supplier, Faurecias understanding of the specific behaviour of the grades in different
main use of stainless steels is in exhaust environments means we can choose the right grade
exhaust systems. Of the 200,000 for the right application. Of course, formability limitations and
metric tons or so of stainless the need to avoid intergranular corrosion need to be taken into
steel that we use for this purpose account in both product design and manufacturing process.
annually, some 90 percent is We increasingly require continued progress with ferritics in
ferritic. In fact, weve been using ferritics since the mid-1970s, the areas of high temperature performance above 900C and
when we started producing catalytic converters conforming to corrosion resistance. We believe that such improvements to
U.S. emission standards. Ferritics have much lower thermal ferritic grades will bring them closer to the performance of
expansion characteristics than austenitics, which was a austenitics, but still at a lower and more stable cost. That said,
crucial factor in the durability of these catalytic converters. were already very satisfied with ferritics.

Corrosion resistance properties
Stainless steels are stainless because their chromium content gives them
exceptional resistance to corrosion.

All steels are prone to corrosion, to varying degrees. Stainless ferritics and austenitics can
steels, however, are significantly more corrosion resistant
be seen as two interchangeable
than carbon steels, due to the chromium they contain.
Chromium (not nickel, as is sometimes imagined) is the key stainless steel families.
ingredient in the corrosion resistance of stainless steels.

LOCALISED CORROSION RESISTANCE A comparison of the corrosionresistance properties of

Stainless steel applications are mostly maintenance-free the five ferritic groups with those of austenitic type 304
but, in some cases, light maintenance (removal of deposits, clearly highlights the key role of chromium and shows that
for example) may be necessary, to ensure corrosion-free the corrosion resistance of nickel-containing (austenitic)
service life. grades can be matched by the majority of ferritic families.
The corrosion resistance of stainless steels is determined
more by chemical composition than by austenitic or ferritic f E R Ri t i c / a u s t En i t i c Lo ca L i s E d
atomic structure. Indeed, in terms of resistance to corrosion, c oR R o s i o n R E s i s ta n c E
ferritics and austenitics can be seen as two interchangeable
stainless steel families.
- corrosion resistance +

304 316
441 436



G1 G2 G3 G4

PRE 10 16 17 18 20 24

The above chart shows that only molybdenum-containing

ferritic grades have better localised (pitting) corrosion
resistance than 304. However, stabilised ferritic standard
grades, although positioned slightly below 304, still have
Moisture separator reheater in grade 439, Europe.

very good resistance to pitting corrosion.

Partially 444 building cladding, Brazil.
Radiator grill and trim, in grade 436.

Group 1 ferritics are best suited to non-severe conditions, The PRE factor
such as inside the home (where the material is either not The PRE or Pitting Resistance Equivalent number is a
exposed to water contact or gets regularly wiped dry) or measure of the relative pitting corrosion resistance of a
outdoors in contexts where some superficial corrosion is stainless steel grade in a chloride-containing environment.
acceptable. In such contexts, this group of ferritics has a The higher a grades PRE value, the more corrosion resistant
longer life than carbon steel,. that grade will be.

Group 2 grades are effective in contexts involving A u s tE Ni t iC / f E R Ri t i C P R E Co M PA Ri s o N

intermittent contact with water, in non-severe conditions. PREN = %Cr = 3,3 x % Mo + 16 x %N


Group 3 grades are suitable for similar contexts to those 317lN 446/447 SEA wATER 20C
appropriate for Group 2 grades, but are easier to weld.
316 444 CoASTAl ENv. 20C

Group 4 ferritics are more corrosion resistant than type 20


304 and are suitable for a wide variety of uses. 304


Group 5 includes, for example, grades with a very high 0


chromium content of around 29% Cr, plus 4% Mo, which AUSTENITIC FERRITIC

makes them as corrosion resistant in seawater as titanium

metal. The PRE comparison table shows at a glance that for every
austenitic grade there is a ferritic grade with comparable
corrosion resistance.
In the commonly used shortened form of the PRE formula
PRE=%Cr+3.3%Mo, molybdenum (Mo) is expressed as
being 3.3 times more effective than chromium against
pitting corrosion. However, chromium is always essential
for providing the basic corrosion resistance. Molybdenum
cannot replace this base amount of chromium in stainless
steels, but can be used to boost corrosion resistance.
Nickel content is not considered in the formula, since
in most applications it plays no role in resistance to pitting

Avoiding corrosion
Storage tank, in grade 444, Brazil.

Stainless steels passive

layer (see p. 59) needs
oxygen to remain intact. An
accumulation of deposits can
Barbecue and trolley, in grade 430, Italy.

deprive the steel of oxygen

at critical points, which
Nickel plays no role in resistance could lead to corrosion.

to pitting corrosion. Propagation of corrosion

may lead to eventual rupture
of the part.

Corrosion risk factors
embedded particles

superficial deposits

surface defects

structural discontinuities

salinity (salty areas, seawater, etc.)

increase of temperature

highly acidic conditions (strong acids)

a strongly reducing environment

Corrosion-preventing factors
a clean surface

a smooth surface

a pre-passivated surface

ageing of the surface

the washing effect (e.g. rain)

higher chromium content

oxidising conditions (O2 not too strong)

adding molybdenum

Corrosion sets in when pH reaches a critically low value Choice of grade
(low pH = high acidity). The pH level is a unit of measure Ferritic grades can be used in atmospheric environments of
describing the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution. widely varied corrosive severity. All parameters concerning
This is measured on a scale of 0 to 14. in-service conditions should be closely considered in
selecting the appropriate grade.

Railway station safety barrier, in SUS430J1L, Japan.

If slight localised surface rust (pitting corrosion), for
example, is of no importance in a certain application or
environment, a lower-cost grade might well be the correct
material choice.

Rules of thumb
In the case of an aggressive environment,
ATMOSPHERIC CORROSION select a grade with a higher chromium
This type of corrosion occurs on a steel surface, in the thin, and/or molybdenum content.
wet film created by a combination of humidity in the air and
impurities. It is often initiated by the presence of chlorides Avoid rough surface finishes favour a
or sulphur compounds in an industrial environment. fine-polished surface with a low Ra value.
Typical conditions could be, for example, chloride deposits
in a humid, marine atmosphere. Optimize design for washability (e.g. min.
15 slope on upward-facing surfaces).
At m o s p h e r i c co r r o s i o n re s i s tAn c e
marine Avoid crevice-like geometries.
rust unacceptable
Keep surface clean, by regular washing,
to avoid staining and dust accumulation.
small pits acceptable
no rust


409 410 430 439 304 444 316 447 material


Different environments require different ferritic (400-series) or austenitic (300-series)

grades, to resist atmospheric corrosion. In industrial, coastal and marine environments,
some localised (pitting) corrosion may be acceptable, in certain applications.
Electrification box, in painted grade 410, S. Africa.

Ferritic grades can be used

in atmospheric environments
of widely varied corrosive

OXIDATION RESISTANCE ferritic grades are much less
Unlike the two above types of corrosion, high-temperature
prone than austenitic alloys
cyclic oxidation is dry corrosion occurring at high
temperatures (>500C) and in oxidizing atmospheres, with to high-temperature cyclic
or without thermal cycle. oxidation scaling.
When stainless steels are heated, their chromium content
forms a protective chromium oxide surface scale that
delays further oxidation. The scale and the metal substrate
will have different thermal expansion behaviour, which can
affect the scales stability, especially in service conditions

Manifold, in grade 441.

Burner, in grade 430.
of frequent thermal cycling. The expansion coefficient of
the scale is very low and if that of the metal is too high,
excessive scale will be generated, which will spall or crack
when the metal cools and contracts.
Thanks to their lower thermal expansion coefficient, Potential stainless steel users may be surprised by the
ferritic grades are much less prone than austenitic alloys exceptional qualities of ferritics and discover that stainless
to high-temperature cyclic oxidation scaling. Where there steel is a viable option after all!
is no spalling or cracking, there is no new oxidation. This
is a particular advantage in applications such as heating Life Cycle Costing: an invaluable guide
systems, burners or exhaust systems, including manifolds. The value of carrying out a Life Cycle Costing study on any
potential application cannot be stressed too highly. Such
Broad application possibilities a study will often reveal that stainless steel generally
These interesting corrosion-resistance properties are far seen as a costly solution is actually the lower-cost option,
from being ferritic stainless steels only attractions. They viewed long-term.
are already enough, however, to win friends for ferritics in Stainless steels corrosion resistance means longer life,
the current climate of high material costs. less maintenance, higher resale value, better appearance,
Close examination of the properties of ferritics tends to etc. It renders painting or galvanizing unnecessary. And as
pay dividends. Some existing austenitic users might find, on if this were not inducement enough, the lower investment
examining their specification, that a ferritic grade is actually cost of ferritic grades can be a clinching argument in favour
highly appropriate for their application. of stainless steel as a material choice.
Already widely used and respected, ferritic grades are
nonetheless still being discovered. The numerous well-
proven existing applications, however, light the way to many
exciting new possibilities for these fine steels.
Gymnasium roof, in grade 445, S. Korea.

the lower investment cost of

ferritic grades can be
the clinching argument in
favour of stainless steel

Induction cooking requires

the magnetic properties

of ferritic grades.

Seung Tae Baek

what theyre saying about ferritics

Team Leader Washing Machine Procurement,

LG Electronics, Korea.
We use ferritic stainless steels mostly The advantage for us is simply that ferritic grades have very
in washing-machine drums and have satisfactory mechanical qualities but are less costly than
done so from an early stage in our austenitics. Technically, advances in moulding technology and
development of automatic washing the development of higher-quality ferritic grades mean we
machines. In fact, in 2006, we used can use ferritics very successfully these days. Cracking and
some 15,500 tons of ferritics, against creasing in the press remains an occasional source of defects
2,500 ton of austenitics, so ferritics and we need to improve aspects of the deep drawing process.
accounted for 86 percent of our stainless However, with ferritics we get a result that satisfies everyone
steel consumption. in terms of both price and quality.

Mechanical and physical properties
Ferritic stainless steel grades are fabrication-friendly and suitable for a very
wide range of applications.

Ferritics have good mechanical properties, occupying an

intermediate position in this respect when compared to


the other stainless steel families. They have higher yield AUSTENITICS
TYPE 304/316
strength than austenitics, while their elongation and forming UTS
properties are equivalent to those of carbon steels. Their FERRITICS
TYPE 430
physical properties include two characteristics in which 500

they out-perform austenitic grades: thermal expansion and

thermal conductivity. YS

300 A36

Mechanical properties 200 CARBON STEELS

Generally speaking, the mechanical properties of a FERRITIC STAINLESS:

metallic alloy are those that describe the materials ability
to compress, stretch, bend, scratch, dent or break. The 0
4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 EI
most commonly used criteria for evaluating mechanical STRAIN

characteristics are: UTS is measured in MPa (1Mpa = 1N/mm 3 = 145PSI = 0.1kg/mm 3) and represents
maximum resistance at failure. YS refers to the beginning of the plastic phase, where
Strength: the degree of resistance of a material to elongation no longer disappears when the stress is removed.

deformation. Two critical values are generally considered:

yield strength, or the stress the material can be The stress-strain curves show that while ferritic grade 430
subjected to before permanent plastic deformation has its limits, it clearly performs exceptionally well within
occurs; those limits.
tensile strength, or the stress it can be subjected to
before rupture/failure.
Hardness: the degree of resistance to indentation by an

Escalator steps, in grade SUS430, Japan.

Bus body frame, in grade 410, S. Africa.

applied load.
Toughness: the capacity to absorb deformation energy
before fracture.
Ductility (or plasticity): the ability to deform plastically
without fracturing.

Some of these properties can be measured by a tensile

test. The resulting stress-strain curves make it possible to
determine yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS) ferritics and austenitics can
and total elongation at failure (E). These tests result in the
be seen as two interchangeable
definition of a stress-strain curve charting the performance
of the metal in response to various loads. stainless steel families.

Ferritic stainless steels have stress-strain curves fairly
similar to those of plain carbon steels. With moderately high
yield strength (generally higher than that of austenitics),
moderately high ultimate tensile strength and good total
elongation performance, they offer good ductility.

M e c h a n i ca l Pro P erties (cold rolled)

Boiler inner tube, in grade 444, S. Korea.

ASTM A 240 JIS G 4305 EN 10088-2

Rm Rp02 A5 Rm Rp02 A5 Rm Rp02 A80

min min min min min min min min

409 380 170 20 -- -- -- -- X2crti12 1.4512 380- 220 25


410s 415 205 22 sUs 440 205 20 X2crni12 1.4003 450- 320 20
410 650

430 450 205 22 sUs 420 205 22 X6cr17 1.4016 450- 280 18
430 600

434 450 240 22 sUs 450 205 22 X6crMo17-1 1.4113 450- 280 18

Physical properties
434 630

436 450 240 22 sUs 410 245 20 X6crMonb17-1 1.4526 480- 300 25
436 560
The physical properties of a metallic alloy concern the
439 415 205 22 -- -- -- -- X2crti17 1.4520 380- 200 24
530 materials ability to conduct heat, conduct electricity, expand
439 415 205 22 -- -- -- -- X2crti17 1.4510 420-
240 23 or shrink, etc.
441 415 205 22 -- -- -- -- X2crMonb18 1.4509 430- 250 18 Ferritics are magnetic. They also have some other
useful advantages over austenitic grades. Their thermal
s44400 415 275 20 sUs 410 245 20 X2crMoti18-2 1.4521 420- 320 20
(444) 444 640
conductivity, for instance, is notably high. This means that
304 205 515 40 sUs 520 205 40 X5crni1-80 1.4301 540- 230 45
304 750 they spread heat comparatively efficiently which makes
them highly suitable for applications such as electric irons
The above table expresses properties in terms of U.S., Japanese and European standards, or heat exchangers (tubes or plates).
comparing ferritic grades with standard austenitic grade 304. Rm = ultimate tensile
strength, Rp02 = yield strength and A5/A80 = elongation to fracture. The thermal expansion coefficient of ferritic stainless
steels is similar to that of carbon steel and much lower
than that of austenitic stainless steel. As a result, ferretics
distort less when heated.

Ph YSi Cal Pro PE rT iES

Type of Density Electric Specific Thermal Thermal expansion Youngs
stainless resistance heat conductivity coefficient modulus
steel x103

g/cm3 7 mm2/m 0 ~ 100C 100C 0~200C 0~600C N/mm2

J/kg C W/m C 10-6/C

409/410 7.7 0.58 460 28 11 12 220

10%-14% Cr

430 7.7 0.60 460 26 10.5 11.5 220

14%-17% Cr

Stabilised 7.7 0.60 460 26 10.5 11.5 220

430Ti, 439,
Soleplate of electric iron, in buffed grade 430.


Mo > 0,5% 7.7 0.60 460 26 10.5 11.5 220

434, 436, 444

Others 7.7 0.62 460 25 10.0 11.0 220

17%-30% Cr

304 7.9 0.72 500 15 16 18 200

Carbon steel 7.7 0.22 460 50 12 14 215

The modulus of elasticity of ferritic grades (at 20C) is superior to that of 304 austenitic.
IS units: g/cm3 = kg/dm3 J/kg C = J/kg K W/m C = W/m K 10-6/C =
10-6/K N/mm3 = MPa.

As strong as carbon steel,

low-chromium ferritic grades

are also corrosion resistant.

Ferritic rail ore wagons

therefore have a lower

Life Cycle Cost (LCC).

Aesthetic and hygiene

factors make ferritic

an ideal material

for gas hobs.

Zhang Sen
Director of Stainless Steel Purchasing, Qingdao Haier
what theyre saying about ferritics

International Trading Co. Ltd., Peoples Republic of China

As one of the worlds leading white goods home-appliance Compared with austenitic grade 304, standard ferritics neither
manufacturers, the Haier Group uses meet the deep-drawing requirements of every part nor show
ferritics in a broad range of products, as good corrosion resistance in chloride environments, nor
including washing machines, dish do they have the same welding characteristics. However,
washers, gas cookers, kitchen they remain excellent materials for home appliances and,
extractor hoods and microwave ovens. in terms of manufacturing, the adapted grades we use have
Having started using these grades good punching and drawing properties. So were happy with
before the year 2000, we currently use ferritics.
around 14,500 metric tons of ferritics With the nickel price going up crazily, our purchasing
a year, representing about 85% of our total stainless steel costs for stainless steel have increased sharply. Replacing
consumption. Ferritic grades are less costly than austenitic austenitics with ferritics not only lowers our raw-material
grades and are ideally suited to these applications. costs but also saves resources and protects our environment.
I would go so far as to say that while austenitics dominate
todays stainless steel market, the future of stainless-steel
consumption lies with ferritics.
Forming ferritic grades
Thanks to their good drawing characteristics, ferritic stainless steels can meet
the challenges of complex, three-dimensional designs.

Since their use in complex designs does not impair any of some ferritic grades show
their remarkable corrosion resistant, heat resistant and
excellent drawing performance.
decorative qualities, ferritic grades are often the right choice
for both industrial and consumer products.
How drawing works
In the drawing process, shaping of the part is achieved by
pressing a flat sheet blank into a die cavity, by means of
a punch. The metal is drawn inwards, slipping between
the die and the blankholder to form the walls or skirt of
Stamped top and bottom of boilers, in grade 441, S. Africa. the part.

D e e p Dr aw i n g

Cold forming operations change the shape of strip or sheet

products by subjecting them to plastic strain. The forming
operation involves complex combinations of tensile and
compressive loading, using a combination of stretching and
deep drawing deformations.
Although the overall drawing capacity of austenitic The slipping effect differentiates drawing from the stretch-forming method, in which
the blank is constrained by the blankholder.
grades is better than that of ferritics, some ferritic grades
(notably titanium-stabilised, 17% chromium grades) show
excellent drawing performance.

Drawing ferritic grades

Drawing is the process most commonly used for forming
hollow objects from a flat sheet or blank. The good
Sink, in grade 430, Japan.

drawing behaviour of ferritic stainless steels, coupled with

their considerable price advantage, can make ferritics the
optimum choice.

Ferritics have higher LDR values than austenitics, which

Microwave oven, in grade 430, BA finish, S. Korea.

makes them particularly suitable for drawing.

LDR g R a De compa Rison


limited drawing ratio (LDR)




409 430 439 441 304

Successful drawing means Stretch-forming ferritic grades

Ferritic grades are inferior to austenitics in pure stretch-
The absence of fracture forming.
Excellent surface aspect
S t r e tc h fo r m i n g
Minimum material consumption
High fabrication productivity
Low tool wear

The LDR factor

The Limited Drawing Ratio (LDR) is an important deep-
drawability parameter.

L i m i t e d d r aw i n g r at i o ( Ld r )

In stretch-forming, the drawn area becomes thinner.

The table below compares the stretching performance

of various grades Dome height refers to the maximum
degree of deformation before necking (the phase just
Limited Drawing Ratio (LDR) refers to the quotient of the before failure) of a blank undergoing stretching.
maximum blank diameter (D) that can be deep drawn into
a cylinder in one step and the diameter of that cylinder.
LDR = D/d. S t r e tc h - fo r m i n g p e r fo r m a n c e
Dome height (K50) for different stainless steels

Ferritics have higher LDR values 35.0

dome height (K50) in mm

than austenitics,


which makes them particularly 20.0


suitable for drawing. 409 430 439 441 304

forming limit curves Titanium-stabilised grade 430Ti
In practice, industrial forming operations involve a
is often chosen to replace
combination of both pure drawing and pure stretch-forming
deformation, in a series of passes. an austenitic in applications
Forming limit curves are a useful guide to maximum involving deep drawing.
deformation before failure, in both deep drawing and
stretching processes. Established for the principal stainless
steel grades, they can be used to analyse a forming Ridging
operation. After certain forming operations, ferritic grades are
sometimes prone to surface phenomena known as ridging
439 460 409
and roping.
major strain J 1

0,7 436 441 434




Without surface defect.




-0,5 -0,4 -0,3 -0,2 -0,1 0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 This defect takes the form of a series of lines or ridges,
minor strain J 2
parallel to the sheet rolling direction. Ridging describes
the overall profile of the deformed surface and includes
These curves define local deformations during and after both the microgeometry modifications and the roping
forming in terms of two principal true strains: longitudinal undulations caused by the deformation.
(major strain) and transverse (minor strain). The curves
plot the effects of the various combinations of these two
strains, up to the point of fracture. The higher the position

Dryer drum: 409 welded sheet, formed by expansion.

of its curve the better a grades formability.

How ferritics behave

Generally, the work hardening and elongation characteristics
of ferritic stainless steels are comparable to those of high-
strength carbon steels. They are not the same as those of
austenitic grades.
Design, construction and fabrication parameters and
the material properties of the ferritic grade concerned must
be considered together, in order to get the best out of the The addition of a stabilising element, such as titanium, will
drawing process. bring improvement here. Titanium-stabilised grade 430
Ti gives remarkable
results in this regard
Stamped manifold, in grade 441.

and is thus often chosen

Stamped catalytic converter

to replace an austenitic
housing, in grade 441.

in applications involving
deep drawing.

Lubrication The forming properties
Good lubrication of the blank and the tooling is essential for of the main steel groups
successful drawing, to avoid altering the surface appearance The table below compares the
and to prevent sticking phenomena detrimental to tool life. forming properties of ferritic

Welded bended tubes of a manifold, in grade 441.

If ferritic stainless steels are delivered with a bright, stainless steels (which have
smooth surface, a high-viscosity drawing lubricant may a specific metallurgical
be used. Lubricants used with stainless steels are special structure and hence specific
oils with high pressure resistance and containing little or behaviour) to those of carbon
no chlorine. Uniformly applied on the blank, they are easily steel and austenitic stainless
removable from a stainless steel component after drawing. grades. It uses standard
criteria applied in defining
Tooling deformation characteristics.
Using the right tooling is vital, since it has a decisive influence Bcc (body-centred cubic) and fcc (face-centred cubic)
on friction conditions and thus on metal flow during the refer to the particular atomic structure of each type of
forming operation. In special cases, tooling (mold and die) steel.
can be made of copper, iron or aluminium bronze.

Carbon Steel Ferritic SS Austentific SS

structure bcc bcc fcc

work hardening low low high

springback low low high

deep drawing excellent good good

stretch forming good good excellent

ridging no can occur no

Corrugated and finned heat exchanger

Bending of 430Ti welded tube.

welded tubes, in grade 439.

Surface treatments, such as a TiCN layer, may be applied,
to increase the life of the tooling. The blank holder and die
tools have to be carefully polished. The punch can remain
Deformation of the weld (1.4003).

Lubricants used with stainless

1.4003 hydroformed welded tube.

steels are easily removable from

a component after drawing.

The case for ferritics
While the tables and curves show that austenitics are hand, to help users find ways to make ferritic grades work
superior, overall, in terms of formability, the ferritic cost and to ensure that the most appropriate grade is chosen for
advantage is such that looking into the use of a ferritic any given application.
grade can often pay clear dividends. Favouring the drawing
method, especially, allows a remarkably wide use of ferritic
grades. Indeed, in certain specific cases such as deep
drawing or springback effects ferritics behave better than favouring drawing allows
exceptionally wide use of
Users should thoroughly discuss technical questions
regarding the use of ferritic grades with a reputable material ferritic grades.
supplier. Stainless steel industry expertise is always on

Increasingly stringent

anti-pollution regulations

plus technical and economic

requirements make ferritic

the basic material for

exhaust systems.

Bernhard Blaeser
what theyre saying about ferritics

Director, Macadams Baking Systems (PTY) Ltd

South Africa
My company makes baking ovens and provers. With the
substantial increases in austenitic prices in the recent past,
many players in the industry have moved away from or are in
the process of moving away from stainless steel altogether.
This is especially so in non-heat applications, like the external
panels of ovens, and other bakery equipment not directly in
contact with food. As ferritic prices have not been as severely
affected, an alternative is to substitute ferritic. In essence
then, manufacturers should consider substituting austenitics
with ferritics, rather than dropping stainless steel entirely.

Joining ferritic grades
Ferritic grades are well suited to all the numerous methods of joining stainless

Ferritic grades have some useful

Adhesive bonding Mechanical joining advantages over austenitics,
when it comes to welding
Joining methods

Of the many welding processes developed for carbon steels
Soldering/Brazing Welding
that can be used with stainless steels only a few are really
appropriate for these materials and have become standard:
Welding: achieving complete joining of two or more arc, resistance, electron, laser-beam and friction welding.
materials through melting and re-solidification of the Welding is the most efficient and least costly way to join
base and filler metals. metals. The process makes possible structures of lighter
Soldering: producing joining of materials by heating them weight (through the optimal use of materials), joins all
to soldering temperature (below the solidus of the base commercial metals and provides design flexibility.
metal) in the presence of filler metals with a liquidus of The welding characteristics of stainless steels are
< 450C. affected by chemical composition, metallurgical structure
Brazing: the same as soldering but coalescence occurs at and physical properties. Ferritic grades have some useful
> 450C. advantages over austenitics when it comes to welding, since
Mechanical joining: includes clinching, seaming, riveting they feature lower thermal expansion, lower electrical
and mechanical fasteners. resistivity and higher thermal conductivity.
Adhesive bonding: achieved by pressing clean, activated
surfaces together after applying a bonding agent that Stabilised and unstabilised ferritic grades
bonds using either oxygen, water or a chemical reaction. On average, ferritic stainless steels tend to be less prone
than austenitics to the intergranular corrosion that can
result from welding.

This is especially true of stabilised ferritic grades, which
contain strong carbide formers, such as titanium (Ti) and

Degree of sensitisation
Typical type
niobium (Nb). These tie up the carbon in the steel, during
i.e. 430
the welding process, preventing it combining with chromium
Low (C + N)
to form chromium carbide. With consequent chromium i.e. 410L
depletion at grain boundaries prevented, stabilised ferritic Extra-low (C + N)
grades are virtually immune to intergranular corrosion. + stabilisation
i.e. 430Ti, 409L
To ensure complete stabilisation, Ti content must be five
times greater than carbon content, or Nb plus Ti must be Grade weldability
three times greater than carbon content. Sometimes, the
introduction of nitrogen into this formula can be advisable,
to refine the grain in the melted zone. Overmatching filler metals
Unstabilised ferritic grades contain no Ti or Nb and can To ensure that a weld will be corrosion resistant, any ferritic
therefore be susceptible to intergranular corrosion in the filler metal used should slightly overmatch the composition
heat affected zone, due to chromium carbide formation. This of the base metal in terms of Cr, Mo, Ti and/or Nb alloying
effect is called sensitisation. Its extent depends mainly on elements. This is because heating will tend to cause a loss
the carbon level. of chrome in the weld zone. Alternatively, austenitic filler
The corrosion resistance of sensitised steels can, metal can be used, with an overmatch of Cr and Mo alloying
however, be restored by annealing, at a temperature range elements.
of 600-800C.

Welded tank, grade 444, Europe.

Protective gases
Being high in chromium, stainless
steels are highly oxidizable in the
molten state. If they are not protected
from air during the welding process,
chromium will be lost and oxides will form, resulting in
lack of soundness and decreased corrosion resistance in
the weld. Protection of the weld surface and neighbouring
area is usually ensured by the provision of an inert gaseous
shield. This shielding gas can either be an inert gas of pure
argon (Ar) or helium (He) or a mixture of Ar and He.
Exhaust system welding, grade 439, S. Korea.

For the welding of ferritics, these shielding gases should

be pure argon or argon-helium mixtures. Argon-hydrogen
mixtures, often used for austenitic grades, bring a risk of
hydrogen embrittlement in the weld joint, in the case of
ferritic grades. Argon is the most commonly employed
backing gas (protecting the rear of the workpiece). Nitrogen
must not be used with ferritic grades.

stabilised ferritic grades Troubleshooting ferritic welding problems

are virtually immune to As well as the risks referred to above, there can also be
risks of embrittlement by phase formation and grain
intergranular corrosion. coarsening at high temperatures. Their solutions are listed
in the following remedies table.

W E l d i nG fE R Ri t i C St E E l S: R E M E d iE S
Stainless steel Special feature Phenomenon Cause How to avoid

Unstabilised grades Sensitisation Poor corrosion Cr-carbide Annealing in

resistance in precipitation in temperature range
welded zone grain boundary 600-800C

Stabilised grades Grain coarsening Poor toughness in Excessive grain Minimising the heat
welded zone growth due to high input of welding

Ferritic tube mill, Brazil.


High Cr-Mo grades 475C Embrittlement Sigma (S) phase Reheating at 600C
embrittlement occurs at formation and cooling rapidly
400~500C due to decomposition
of S phase

High Cr-Mo grades Sigma (S) phase Embrittlement Sigma (S) phase Reheating above
embrittlement occurs at formation 800C and cooling
550~800C rapidly

Unstabilised grades Martensitic phase

occurs in lower Cr
Martensitic phase
formation due to
Removing the
martensitic phase
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW or MIG)
and higher-C types faster cooling by long annealing
in the 600-700C Unlike the GTAW process, in GMAW (also known as the Metal
Inert Gas process), the electrode is consumable. The arc is
struck between the molten filler wire and the workpiece.
Arc welding The shielding gas, injected through the torch, around the
Arc welding is the form of welding most commonly employed wire, is usually argon with an addition of 2% to 3% oxygen,
with ferritic grades. though more complex mixtures may be used for certain
welding modes.
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW or TIG/WIG) Since the weld is essentially composed of filler metal, it
In this process (also known as the Tungsten or Wolfam is vital that the filler metals composition should promote
Inert Gas process), the energy needed to melt the metal is penetration and perfect wetting of the base metal.
supplied by an electric arc between the tungsten electrode This high-productivity process is more difficult to perform
and the workpiece. than GTAW welding but results can be excellent when the
process is well controlled.

Resistance welding
In resistance welding, an electric current is passed through
the parts to be joined and welding is caused by resistance
Welded tank, grade 441, S. Africa.

Welded structural frame in grade 1.4003.

Stainless steels are always welded in the straight-polarity

DC mode (the electrode being the negative pole), under an
inert atmosphere. If a filler metal is used, this will be in
the form of uncoated rods (manual welding) or coiled wire
(automatic welding).

Several resistance welding techniques exist, the most The advantages of these joining techniques include the
common being spot welding and seam welding. In both following convenient features:
cases, the major advantages of resistance welding are: They require only a low-temperature heat source.
the limited modification of the microstructure in the heat Joints can be permanent or temporary.
affected zones (HAZ); Dissimilar materials can be joined.
the virtual absence of surface oxidation, if the sheets are The rate of heating and cooling is slow.
correctly cooled; Parts of varying thicknesses can be joined.
the very low level of distortion of the sheets after Realignment is easy.
welding; They require less heat than welding.
forging deformation during welding, which is particularly In deciding on the suitability of soldering or brazing for a
useful for the joining of ferritic steels. specific structural joint, care should be taken to evaluate
Compared to the requirements of mild steel, the main carefully the strength or performance required of the joint.
differences in process parameters for stainless steel are In all cases, while carrying out the joining, it is essential
the lower and more precisely adjusted welding powers (due to ensure perfect wetting of the two solid parts by the molten
to low electrical and thermal conductivities) and higher filler material.
electrode forces. Sensitisation will occur more readily in the case of
unstabilised grades.
Other processes
Other welding processes applicable to ferritic stainless
steels include electron and laser beam welding and friction

Brazing welded tubes, grade 441.


Soldering and brazing

Soldering and brazing are processes for joining metallic
components in the solid state by means of a fusible filler
metal that has a melting point well below those of the base
metals. Soldering employs soft filler alloys with melting
points below 450C, whereas brazing alloys are harder and Pickling, passivation
melt at higher temperatures. and decontamination
The slight discoloration resulting from welding should
be eliminated by either mechanical descaling or a
chemical treatment called pickling.
Pickling is carried out in a fluonitric solution
(10%HNO3 + 2%HF) or using pickling pastes designed
specially for welds.
It can be followed by a passivation and decontamination
Soldering a gutter, tin-coated grade 430Ti.

treatment to help the passive layer (see p. 59) reform

quickly and remove organic metallic residues (iron-rich
particles). The process involves immersion in a cold
20%-25% nitric acid bath.
Local passivation of weld zones can also be carried
out by means of special passivating pastes.

Mechanical joining Riveting
Mechanical joining techniques used for carbon steels can be This technique is always carried out at ambient temperature,
equally successfully used with stainless steels. using rivets of a maximum diameter of about 5 mm. It is
strongly recommended that joints be designed in such a way
Mechanical joining of stainless steels that the rivets are loaded in shear rather than in tension.

Mechanical fasteners Without any Riveting

additional part

Auto-riveting on 430, 1.5 mm.

Screws Clinching
Self-piercing rivets
Self-piercing and Seaming
thread-forming screws

Mechanical joining has certain advantages:

Dissimilar materials can easily be joined. Clinching
There is no heat affected zone (HAZ). This relatively recent joining technique can be readily applied
Parts of varying thicknesses can be joined. to stainless steels, thanks to their high ductility. Being a
There is no thermal expansion. cold forming process, it causes no structural modification
Consideration should, however, be given to the fact that or surface oxidation.
the mechanical properties of mechanical joints may have Since the sheets to be joined must overlap, clinching is
certain weaknesses, since there is no complete coalescence usually combined with an adhesive bonding, producing a
of the joining partners. The joining operation method may hermetically sealed joint, to avoid risk of crevice corrosion.
also require two-side access. This can also damp vibrations.
It is vital to ensure that none of the surfaces in contact
are liable to induce corrosion due to galvanic coupling. Seaming
To avoid this risk, parts to be joined should preferably be In this mechanical sheet-joining technique, the edges of one
made from the same stainless steel or an equivalent grade. or both of the sheets concerned are bent through an angle
Certainly any screws, bolts, fasteners or rivets should be of of 180, to produce a tight seam. As with clinching, different
stainless steel. materials can be joined for example, an austenitic and a
ferritic grade.
Screwing and bolting Perfectly leak-proof joints can be achieved with this
Stainless steel screws and bolts are available in all the technique, which is widely used in the manufacture of
principal grades. While 17% Cr ferritic grades are best domestic appliances.
suited to use in only mildly aggressive environments,
their corrosion resistance in chloride-containing media is
enhanced by the addition of 1% to 1.5% molybdenum.

Exploded display of washing-machine interior.

Adhesive bonding It is also possible that a smooth-surfaced stainless steel
Adhesive bonding can be employed to reinforce mechanical (especially bright annealed) will not have good adhesive
joints, and in its own right for joining thin stainless steel properties.
sheets. After roughening, surfaces should be very clean, dry and
well prepared. The essential condition for good bonding is
satisfactory wetting of the substrate by the adhesive.
As an example of adhesive bonding, bus and coach
manufacturers now often construct a body frame of stainless
steel shaped sections, often in ferritic grade 1.4003/410.

Bonding of guttering, tin-coated 430Ti.

The skin (sheet and/or glass) is adhesively bonded to this
body frame. This approach increases the vehicles life and
reduces its weight.

The advantages of adhesive bonding are:

There is no modification of the surface appearance,
geometry or microstructure of the assembled areas.
Dissimilar materials can be joined easily and
Correctly designed, joints can have excellent fatigue
The method can provide thermal, electrical or acoustic
Parts of varying thickness can be joined.

Windows bonded to a 1.4003 tubular frame.

Points to take into consideration, however, include the
fact that such joints will tend to have a temperature limit
of 200C and will have a certain sensitivity to moisture.
Adhesive joints will not be as strong as joints produced by
welding or brazing. For this reason they are mostly used
to produce lap joints, with the load spread over a sufficient
area to limit local stresses.

Nick McDonald
what theyre saying about ferritics

Marketing Manager, Lincat Limited,

Lincoln, UK
Established in 1971, Lincat We make virtually everything in 430 ferritic, except some
has been a front runner in the components, such as the inner tanks of wet-well bains-marie,
manufacture of professional where we are still using 304. On the fabrication side, our
kitchen equipment for 36 years. products are designed to be very easy to keep clean and 430 is
Grade 430 ferritic stainless steel, an easy material to work with in this respect.
which weve used from the start, Staying closely in touch with our customers needs, weve
is the absolute bedrock of our built a reputation for outstanding product reliability and sturdy,
product range. durable construction. Grade 430 ferritic is an essential part of
This grade ideally matches the spec of these applications the equation. We and our customers are very satisfied with it.
and is an economical way of enjoying the advantages
of stainless steel, which are so important when dealing
with food preparation and presentation. In addition,
430s relatively low thermal expansion characteristic is
a big technical plus in high-temperature applications.

Products and applications
Ferritics are often associated with decorative trim, sinks and car exhausts. Their
actual and potential usefulness extends far beyond these narrow confines

Ferritic stainless steels are straight chromium steels, Their range of uses is currently under-explored and the
containing no nickel. They resist corrosion and oxidation, are pages that follow show something of the range of possible
highly resistant to stress corrosion cracking, are usefully uses of these materials. The chapter covers applications
magnetic and offer a host of other technical, aesthetic and from many sectors of the market and many parts of the
practical advantages. They often prove better value in the world.
long run than carbon steel and are significantly less costly This publication aims to inspire actual and potential users
than their nickel-containing, austenitic cousins. of ferritic stainless steels by illustrating existing, successful
applications. It further aims to encourage responsible and
informed material selection optimal matching of material
and application has never been more important.


Grade 1.4509/441, diesel Grade 1.4509/441, Grade 1.4512/409, silencer, Grade 304 & 441, diesel
particle filter, Peugeot 607, manifold, Faurecia Faurecia, S. Korea particle filter, E Class
Faurecia Mercedes, Faurecia


COMPONENTS COMPONENTS Decorative trim Decorative trim

Grade SUS430J1L catalytic Grade 1.4509/441, catalytic Grade SUS430, S. Korea Grade SUS430J1L, Japan
converter shell, honeycomb converter, Faurecia
in 20%Cr-5%Al


Grade SUS430, S. Korea Grade 1.4016/430, black- Grade 1.4113/434, USA Grade 1. 4513, Plastic
coated trim, USA Omnium, France


Grade 1.4510/430Ti, Grade 1.4513, head- Grade 1.4113, truck Grades 1.4509/441
Peugeot 307, France light trim, Italy decorative trim, USA and 1.4016/430


Grade 1.4512/409L, Taiwan Grade 1.4028/420 Grade 1.4512/409, France Grade 1.4512/409,
1.5 mm thick, France



Grade 1.4016/430, Europe Grade 1.4510/430Ti, Grade 1.4521/444, Europe Grade 1.4521/444, Europe
tin-coated, Europe




Grade SUH 409L (1.4512/409), Grade 1.4016/430, Grade SUS 436L (1.4526/436), Grade 1.4003, Columbus new
JSSA, Japan painted, VERNEST and JSSA, Japan finishing mill, S.Africa
Centro Inox, Italy

Roof Structure Building Building Building

Roof-support: a potential Grade 445J1L & Resin coated SUS445J2, Outer parts SUS445J1,
application for ferritics. 445J2, Nakano Sakaue Phoenix Resort, 1994, Japan inner SUS304, Nihonbashi
Bldg., 1996, Japan Mitsui Bldg., 2005, Japan

BUILDING & CONSTRUCTION Civil construction



Grade SUS 436 (1.4526/436), Grade 1.4003/410 painted, Grade SUS 430J1l (1.4016/430), Grade 1.4016/430, painted,
JSSA, Japan SASSDA, South Africa (bridge JSSA, Japan Monte Mario Tunnel,
in service for over 8 years). Centro Inox, Italy

WINDBREAKER FENCE PLATFORM SCREEN DOOR Electrification Masts power generation

Grade SUS 445J2, JSSA, Japan Grade 1.4510/439, hair-line Grade 1.4003 (first major Grade 1.4003/ 410, X-grid
finish, KOSA, S. Korea application in 1982, along cooling tower packing, S.Africa
seashore 10m from surf,
no corrosion), S. Africa



Grade SUS 445M2, Grade 1.4521/444 brushed Grade SUS 445J2, Grade 1.4526/436, Ugine
low-reflectivity matt finish, no. 4 (horizontal panels), Future Science Museum, & Alz Steel Service Centre,
ASSDA, Australia Vivo Building, Rio de JSSA, Japan Arcelor Mittal Stainless,
Janeiro, Nucleo Inox, Brazil Katowice, Poland
(coastal environment)

Lifts Roofing



Grade SUS 430LX Grade 1.4510/439 Grade SUS445J2, Kitakyushu Grade 430Ti (standing
(1.4016/430), Japan Mediadome (Fukuoka seam technique), Ugine
Pref.)1998, Japan & Alz, Austria


Grade 445, KOSA, S. Korea Grade 446, KOSA, Grade 1.4510/430Ti (standing- Grade SUS 447J1, Kansai
Seoul, S. Korea. seam technique), Ugine & Alz, Airport terminal building
Germany. (architect Renzo Piano),
JSSA, Osaka, Japan

Urban furniture


Grade 1.4510/439, electro- Grade 1.4003/410, painted, Grade 1.4003/410, painted (15 Grade 1.4003/410, painted
polished welded pipe, SASSDA, South Africa. years in service), SASSDA, UK (15 years in service), SASSDA,
KOSA, Seoul, S. Korea Utility ferritics are often South Africa
painted, when aesthetic
considerations are important.


Grade 430, Macadams Baking Grade 430, Lincat, UK Grade SUS430J1, JSSA, Japan Grade 430, Lincat, UK
Systems (PTY) Ltd, S. Africa


Grade 430, Lincat, UK Grade 430 (interior and Grade 430 (gas hob), Resin-coated SUS 430
exterior), JSSA, Japan POSCO, S. Korea J1L panel, JSSA, Japan


Grade 430, Lincat, UK Grade 430 Grade 430, Lincat, UK Grade 430, Lincat, UK

In the following applications, ferritic (400-series) grades are now established as ideal, on grounds of their aesthetic quality,
their resistance to cleaning and disinfection agents, their low thermal expansion coefficient and their magnetism (for
induction cooking). They also offer considerable economic advantages over other materials.

Domestic cooking


KOSA, S. Korea TKN, Germany Grade SUS430J1, JSSA, Japan TSSDA, Thailand

Cookware and pots


Grade 1.4016/430, windscreen Grade 1.4016/430 Groupe SEB (Tefal)

and brazier, Compagril barbecue, USA
and Centro Inox, Italy



Grade 430, Groupe SEB Grade 430, POSCO, S. Korea Grade 430 interior panel Resin coated SUS430J1L
outer panel, JSSA, Japan

HOME & OFFICE Electrical appliances


Grade 430 (exterior and Grade 1.4513, TKN, Italy Grade 430 Resin coated SUS430,
interior panel), Haier, PRC JSSA, Japan



Resin coated SUS430, Grade 1.4016/430, horizontal Grade 1.4016/430, Graepel and Grade 430, POSCO, S. Korea
JSSA, Japan shelves, Graepel and Centro Inox, Italy
Centro Inox, Italy



Grade 430 welded tube Grade 410, POSCO, S. Korea Grade 430, Blanco, Grade 430, Falmec,
TKN, Germany Nucleo Inox, Brazil

Kitchenware Refrigerators



Grade 430 Grade 430, Groupe SEB Single layer SUS430J1L Grade 430 panel
(induction heating),
JSSA, Japan

Sinks Washing machines


Grade 430 door panel, Grade 430, Tramontina, Brazil Grade 430 (drum and exterior Grade 430 drum, LG
TKN, Germany panel), TKN, Germany Electronics, S. Korea

Dryers Tableware


Grade SUS430, JSSA, Japan Grade 409, Whirlpool, Europe Grade 430 400-series grades, IKEA

Ferritic is extensively used where the maintenance of carbon steel is a virtual impossibility.


Painted grade 1.4003/410, Painted grade 1.4003/410, Grade SUS430J1L, coloured- Grade 410S, Europe
Columbus, S. Africa Columbus, S. Africa resin coated (outer
jacket), JSSA, Japan

Burners Boilers


Grade 410S, Europe Grade 1.4509/441 (high Grade SUS430, boiler gas Grade 1.4521/444,
oxidation resistance) burner, JSSA, Japan. KOSA, S. Korea


Grade 1.4521/444, Grade 444, Europe Grade 1.4521/444, Europe Grade SUS444, JSSA, Japan
ZIP Industries and
ASSDA, Australia

Substitution from cupro-nickel (due to erosion by vapour and migration of copper), carbon
Food processing Heat exchangers steel (erosion problems) and 304 (higher thermal expansion than the carbon steel frame).



Grade 445M2, Melbourne, Grade 1.4510/439, Grade 1.4510/439, Grade 1.4510/439,

Australia VALTIMET, Europe VALTIMET, Europe VALTIMET, Europe

Solar water heaters Sugar industry


Grade SUS444, Suncue Grade 1.4509/441, Sun Tank Grade 444 solar panel, Grade 1.4003/410, Columbus,
Company Ltd. and and SASSDA, S. Africa SASSDA, S. Africa S. Africa. Here, ferritic has
YUSCO, Taiwan lasted over 18 years.


Grade 1.4003/410, Columbus, Grade 1.4003/410, Columbus, Grade 1.4521/444, Nucleo Inox, Grade 1.4003/410, Columbus,
S. Africa. This machine has S. Africa. Carbon steel (top) Brazil S. Africa
been in service 22 years. compared to ferritic (bottom)
after 6 years in service.

Industry Tanks


Grade 444, Brazil Grade 444, KOSA, S. Korea Partially in grade SUS 444, Partially in grade SUS 444,
. finish no. 4, JSSA, Japan finish no. 4, JSSA, Japan


Grade 444, Nucleo Inox, Grade 444, Nucleo Inox, Brazil Grade 1.4512/409L, Grade 1.4509/441, Centro Inox,
Brazil. Sander Inox has YUSCO, Taiwan Italy. The new Vespa ET2
successfully produced such is equipped with a ferritic
tanks for 7 years. catalytic silencer.


Grade 409L Grade 409L, Acesita, Brazil Grade SUS410SM1, Grade 420 brake dics, 1.4113
JSSA, Japan decorative trim, Italy


Grade 1.4003/410, Columbus, Grade 1.4003/410 (lower part Grade 1.4003 welded Grade 1.4003/410 (frame and
S. Africa. painted), Columbus, S. Africa. tubes and panel, Solaris panels), POSCO, S. Korea
Bus & Coach Co. Poland


Grade 1.4003/410, painted Grade 1.4003/410 (panels), Grade 1.4003/410 (panels), Grade 1.4003 (interior of
(frame and door panels) Columbus, S. Africa. In Columbus, S. Africa. In previous), SASSDA, S. Africa
service for over 20 years. service for over 15 years.


Grade 1.4003/410, Grade 409/410, painted, Grade 1.4003, Grade 1.4003/410 (body frame
painted, Europe TISCO, PRC SASSDA, S. Africa and painted panels), Europe

s TA NdA r d f e r rI T I C g rAd e s
91% of total volume in 2006
Group 1 Group 2 Group 3

Appendices 10%-14% 14%-18%


The chemical composition

30% 48% 13%

of ferritic stainless steels

Types 430Ti, 439, 441, etc.
Cr content: 14%-18%.
Types 409, 410, 420 Type 430 Include stabilising elements
Cr content: 10%-14% Cr content: 14%-18% such as Ti, Nb, etc.

Ferritic stainless steels have properties similar to those of mild steel but show
much better corrosion resistance. Their development began over a century ago.
s p e C I Al f e r r I T I C g rA d e s
9% of volume in 2006
Early ferritics A minimum of 10.5% chromium content (by weight) is
Group 4 Group 5
Stainless steel was discovered around 19001915. As required for the protective, self-repairing surface layer of
with many discoveries, it was actually the result of the chromium oxide to form reliably. The higher the chromium
Added Mo Others
accumulated efforts of several scientists. Research was content, the stronger the passive layer.
published in England, France and Germany on alloys with 7% 2%
compositions that would be known today as the 410, 420,
430, 442, 446 and 440C grades.
Stainless steels must have a very low level of carbon. Cr content: 18%-30%
Types 434, 436, 444, etc. or not belonging
For many years it was difficult to obtain such a low carbon Mo content above 0.5% to the other groups
level, which explains the late arrival of good ferritic grades
(in the 1980s). If the stainless steel surface is machined or accidentally
damaged, the passive layer instantaneously re-forms, in the
The grades and their chemistries presence of air or water.
Chromium (Cr) is by far the most important alloying element
in the production of stainless steel. It forms the passive Chemical composition and
surface film that makes stainless steel corrosion resistant international standards
and increases scaling resistance, wear resistance and The following tables show the chemical analysis of the five
tensile strength. groups of ferritic stainless steels.

Th e pa ssi vat i o n p r o c ess T h e 5 g r O u p s O f f e r rI T I C g rAd e s

Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5

10%-14% 14%-18% Added Mo Others

Types 430Ti,
439, 441, etc.
Cr content:
14%-18%. Cr content of
Types 409, Include Types 434, 436, 18%-30% or
410, 420 Type 430 stabilising 444, etc. not belonging
Cr content: Cr content: elements such Mo content to the other
10%-14% 14%-18% as Ti, Nb, etc. above 0.5% groups

Standards: - ASTM A 280 - 06C, Nov. 2006

- EN 10088-2, Sept. 2005

- JIS G 4305, 1991

Group 1
Chemical component (Maximum weight %)
AISI, ASTM Standard Ref.
C Si Mn P S Cr Mo Ti Nb Cu Al N Ni
403(M) 0.15 0.5 1.0 0.04 0.03 11.5-13.0 JIS SUS403
0.12-0.17 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.015 12.0-14.0 EN 1.4024

405 0.08 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 11.5-14.5 0.1-0.3 0.6 UNS S40500
0.08 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.015 12.0-14.0 EN 1.4000
0.08 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.015 12.0-14.0 0.1-0.3 EN 1.4002
0.08 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 11.5-14.5 0.1-0.3 JIS SUS405

409L 0.03 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.02 10.5-11.7 6x(C+N)-0.5 0.17 0.03 0.5 UNS S40910
0.03 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.02 10.5-11.7 8x(C+N)-0.5 0.1 0.03 0.5 UNS S40920
0.03 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.02 10.5-11.7 [0.08+8x(C+N)]-0.75 0.03 0.5 UNS S40930
0.03 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.02 10.5-11.7 0.05-0.2 0.18-0.4 0.03 0.5 UNS S40945
0.03 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.02 10.5-11.7 6x(C+N)-0.75 0.03 0.5-1.0 UNS S40975
0.03 1.0 1.5 0.04 0.015 10.5-12.5 0.03 0.3-1.0 UNS S40977
0.03 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.015 10.5-12.5 6x(C+N)-0.65 0.5 EN 1.4512
0.08 0.7 1.5 0.04 0.015 10.5-12.5 0.05-0.35 0.5-1.5 EN 1.4516
0.03 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 10.5-11.75 6xC-0.75 0.6 JIS SUH409L

10%-14%Cr 410(M) 0.08-0.15 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 11.5-13.5 0.75 UNS S41000
0.08-0.15 1.0 1.5 0.04 0.015 11.5-13.5 0.75 EN 1.4006
0.15 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 11.5-13.5 JIS SUS410

410L 0.03 1.0 1.5 0.04 0.03 10.5-12.5 0.03 1.5 UNS S41003
0.03 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 12.0-13.0 9(C+N)-0.6 0.03 0.5 UNS S41045
0.04 1.0 1.0 0.045 0.03 10.5-12.5 0.1 0.6-1.10 UNS S41050
0.03 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 11.0-13.5 JIS SUS410L

0.03 1.0 1.5 0.04 0.015 10.5-12.5 0.3-1.0 EN 1.4003

410S(M) 0.08 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 11.5-13.5 0.6 UNS S41008
0.08 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 11.5-13.5 0.6 JIS SUS410S

420J1(M) 0.16-0.25 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 12.0-14.0 JIS SUS420J1

0.16-0.25 1.0 1.5 0.04 0.015 12.0-14.0 EN 1.4021

420J2(M) 0.26-0.40 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 12.0-14.0 JIS SUS420J2

0.26-0.35 1.0 1.5 0.04 0.015 12.0-14.0 EN 1.4028
0.36-0.42 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.015 12.5-14.5 EN 1.4031
0.43-0.50 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.015 12.5-14.5 EN 1.4034

Group 2
Chemical component (Maximum weight %)
AISI, ASTM Standard Ref.
C Si Mn P S Cr Mo Ti Nb Cu Al N Ni
420 0.08 1.0 1.0 0.045 0.03 13.5-15.5 0.2-1.2 0.3-0.5 1.0-2.5 UNS S42035
0.08 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.015 13.5-15.5 0.2-1.2 0.3-0.5 1.0-2.5 EN 1.4589

429 0.12 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 14.0-16.0 UNS S42900

0.12 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 14.0-16.0 JIS SUS429

14%-18%Cr 429J1(M) 0.25-0.4.0 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 15.0-17.0 JIS SUS429J1

430 0.12 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 16.0-18.0 0.75 UNS S43000
0.08 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.015 16.0-18.0 EN 1.4016
0.12 0.75 1.0 0.04 0.03 16.0-18.0 JIS SUS430

1.4017 0.08 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.015 16.0-18.0 1.2-1.6 EN 1.4017

440(M) 0.6-0.75 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 16.0-18.0 JIS SUS440A

Group 3
Chemical component (Maximum weight %)
AISI, ASTM Standard Ref.
C Si Mn P S Cr Mo Ti Nb Cu Al N Ni
430J1L 0.025 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 16.0-20.0 8x(C+N)-0.8 0.3-0.8 0.025 JIS SUS430J1L

430LX 0.03 0.75 1.0 0.04 0.03 16.0-19.0 0.1-1.0 0.6 JIS SUS430LX

439 0.03 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 17.0-19.0 [0.2+4x(C+N)]-1.10 0.15 0.03 0.5 UNS S43035
0,05 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.015 16.0-18.0 [0.15+4x(C+N)]-0.8 EN 1.4510

14%-18%Cr 0.03 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 17.0-19.0 [0.2+4x(C+N)]-0.75 0.15 0.03 0.5 UNS S43932
stabilised 0.03 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.015 17.5-18.5 0.1-0.6 [0.3+(3xC)] UNS S43940
0.03 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.015 16.0-17.5 0.35-0.55 EN 1.4590
0.025 0.5 0.5 0.04 0.015 16.0-18.0 0.3-0.6 EN 1.4520
0.02 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.015 13.0-15.0 0.2-0.6 EN 1.4595

430Ti 0.05 1.0 1.0 0.4 0.015 16.0-18.0 0.6 EN 1.4511

441 0.03 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 17.5-18.5 0.1-0.6 9xC+0.3-1 1.0 UNS S44100
0.03 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.015 17.5-18.5 0.1-0.6 3xC+0.3-1 EN 1.4509

Group 4
Chemical component (Maximum weight %)
AISI, ASTM Standard Ref.
C Si Mn P S Cr Mo Ti Nb Cu Al N Ni Other
415 0.05 0.6 0.5-1.0 0.03 0.03 11.5-14.0 0.5-1.0 3.5-5.5 UNS S41500

434 0.12 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 16.0-18.0 0.75-1.25 UNS S43400
0.08 0.75 0.8 0.04 0.015 16.0-18.0 0.9-1.4 EN 1.4113
0.08 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.015 16.0-18.0 0.8-1.4 [7x(C+N)+0.1]-1.0 0.04 EN 1.4526
0.12 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 16.0-18.0 0.75-1.25 JIS SUS 434

436 0.12 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 16.0-18.0 0.75-1.25 8x(C+N)-0.8 0.025 UNS S43600
0.025 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.015 16.0-18.0 0.9-1.4 0.3-0.6 EN 1.4513
0.025 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 16.0-19.0 0.75-1.25 8x(C+N)-0.8 0.025 JIS SUS 436L

1.4419(M) 0.36-0.42 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.015 13.0-14.5 0.6-1.0 EN 1.4419

Added Mo 1.4110(M) 0.48-0.60 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.015 13.0-15.0 0.5-0.8 V0.15 EN 1.4110

1.4116(M) 0.45-0.55 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.015 14.0-15.0 0.5-0.8 0.1V0.2 EN 1.4116

1.4122(M) 0.33-0.45 1.0 1.5 0.04 0.015 15.5-17.5 0.8-1.3 1.0 EN 1.4122

1.4313(M) 0.05 0.7 1.5 0.04 0.015 12.0-14.0 0.3-0.7 0.02 3.5-4.5 EN 1.4313

1.4418(M) 0.06 0.7 1.5 0.04 0.015 15.0-17.0 0.8-1.5 0.02 4.0-6.0 EN 1.4418

436J1L 0.025 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 17.0-20.0 0.4-0.8 8x(C+N)-0.8 0.025 JIS SUS 436J1L

444 0.025 1.0 0.7-1.5 0.04 0.03 17.5-19.5 1.75-2.5 0.2+4(C+N)-0.8 1.0 UNS S44400
0.025 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.015 17.0-20.0 1.8-2.5 4x(C+N)+0.15-0.8 0.03 EN 1.4521
0.025 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 17.0-20.0 1.75-2.5 8x(C+N)-0.8 0.025 JIS SUS 444

Group 5
Chemical component (Maximum weight %)
AISI, ASTM Standard Ref.
C Si Mn P S Cr Mo Ti Nb Cu Al N Ni
445 0.02 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.012 19.0-21.0 10X(C+N)-0.8 0.3-0.6 0.03 0.6 UNS S44500

445J1 0.025 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 21.0-24.0 0.7-1.5 0.025 JIS SUS445J1

445J2 0.025 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 21.0-24.0 1.5-2.5 0.025 JIS SUS 445J2

446 0.06 0.75 0.75 0.04 0.02 25.0-27.0 0.75-1.5 0.2-1.0 0.2 0.04 UNS S44626
0.01 0.4 0.4 0.02 0.02 25.0-27.5 0.75-1.5 0.05-0.2 0.2 0.015 0.5 UNS S44627
Others 0.025 0.75 1.0 0.04 0.03 24.5-26.0 3.5-4.5 [0.2+4(C+N)]-0.80 0.035 3.5-4.5 UNS S44635
0.03 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 25.0-28.0 3.0-4.0 6x(C+N)-1.0 0.04 1.0-3.5 UNS S44660
0.01 0.4 0.4 0.03 0.02 25.0-27.5 0.75-1.5 0.015 0.5 JIS SUS XM27

447 0.01 0.2 0.3 0.025 0.02 28.0-30.0 3.5-4.2 0.15 0.02 0.15 (C+N) 0.025 UNS S44700
0.03 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 28.0-30.0 3.6-4.2 6x(C+N)-1.0 0.045 1.0 UNS S44735
0.025 1.0 1.0 0.03 0.01 28.0-30.0 3.5-4.5 [4x(C+N)+0.15]-0.8 0.045 EN 1.4592
0.01 0.4 0.4 0.03 0.02 28.5-32.0 1.5-2.5 0.015 JIS SUS 447J1

448 0.01 0.2 0.3 0.025 0.02 28.0-30.0 3.5-4.2 0.15 0.02 2-2.5 (C+N) 0.025 UNS S44800

Impressive use of ferritic

welded tubes in a power

station condenser.


Surface finishes
Surface finishing treatments applied to stainless steels can take many forms.
The main finishes are described below. Ferritic surface finishes are the same as
those for austenitic and other grades.

Description ASTM EN 10088-2 Notes

A comparatively rough, dull surface produced by hot rolling to

Hot rolled 1 1E/1D
the specified thickness, followed by annealing and descaling.

A dull, cold rolled finish produced by cold rolling to the

Cold rolled 2D 2D specified thickness, followed by annealing and descaling.
May also be achieved by a final light pass on dull rolls.
A bright, cold rolled finish commonly produced in the same way as
No. 2D finish, except that the annealed and descaled sheet receives
Cold rolled 2B 2B
a final cold roll pass on polished rolls. This is a general-purpose
cold rolled finish and is more readily polished than No. 1 or No. 2D.

BA finish produced by performing bright annealing in an inert

Bright Annealed BA 2R
atmosphere after cold rolling. Smoother and brighter than No. 2B.

A general-purpose bright polished finish obtained by finishing

Brushed or
No. 4 1J/2J with a 120-150 mesh abrasive, following initial grinding with
dull polished
coarser abrasives.

Satin polished A soft satin finish having lower reflectivity than brushed
No. 6 1K/2K
(matt) (or dull polished) finish. It is produced by a Tampico brush.

The most reflective finish commonly produced. It is obtained by

Bright polished polishing with successively finer abrasives then buffing with a very
No. 8 1P/2P
(mirror) fine buffing compound. The surface is essentially free of grit lines
caused by preliminary grinding operations.
This surface is produced by electrolytic attack. This electrochemical
- - process improves the surface finish by removing peaks of surface
(NB: the above table is not official and should be used only as a guide)

2D 2B BA no. 4 no.6

Bucher, L., P.-O. Santacreu, et al. Elasto-Viscoplastic Miyazaki, A., Takao, et al.Effect of Nb on the Proof Strength
Behaviour of Ferritic Stainless Steel AISI 441-EN 1.4509 from of Ferritic Stainless Steels at Elevated Temperatures.
room temperature to 850C. Journal of ASTM International ISIJ International Vol. 42, No. 8 (2002): 916-920.
(JAI) Vol. 3, Issue 7 (2006). Also: Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics
Murayama, M, N. Makiishi, et al. Nano-scale chemical analysis
(symposium), Vol. 35.
of passivated surface layer on stainless steels. Corrosion
Cunat, Pierre-Jean. Working with Stainless Steels Paris: Science Vol. 48 (2006): 1307-1308.
SIRPE, 1998.
Park, J. H., D. S. Kim, et al.Inclusion Control of Fe-16%Cr
Fedosseev, A, and D. Raabe. Application of the method of Stainless Steel Melts by Aluminum Deoxidation and Calcium
superposition of harmonic currents for the simulation of Treatment. AIST Transactions in Iron & Steel Technology Magazine
inhomogeneous deformation during hot rolling of FeCr. Scripta Vol. 4, No. 1 (2007): 137-144.
Metall. Mater Vol. 30 (1994): 1-6.
Park, S. H., K.Y. Kim, et al.Evolution of Microstructure and
Gmpel, P., N. Arlt, et al. Simulation des Korrosionsverhaltens Texture Associated with Ridging in Ferritic Stainless Steels.
von nichtrostenden Sthlen in PKW-Abgasanlagen. ICOTOM 13, Seoul, Korea (2002): 1335.
Automobiltechnische Zeitschrift (ATZ) No. 4 (2004):
Park, S. H., K. Y. Kim, et al.Investigation of Microstructure
and Texture Evolution in Ferritic Stainless Steels,
Huh, M.-Y., J.-H. Lee, et al.Effect of Through-Thickness ISIJ International Vol.42, No.1 (2002): 100.
Macro and Micro-Texture Gradients on Ridging of 17%Cr
Park, S. H., K. Y. Kim, et al.Effect of Annealing Process on the
Ferritic Stainless Steel Sheet. Steel Research Vol. 76,
Microstructure and Texture Evolution in Type 430 Stainless
No. 11 (2005): 797-806.
Steel. Journal of the Korean Institute. of Metals & Materials
Kim, D. S., J. H. Park, et al.Improvement of Cleanliness of Vol.39, No. 8 (2001): 883.
16%Cr-containing Ferritic Stainless Steel in AOD Processes,
Park, S. H., K. Y. Kim, et al. Effect of annealing process on
La Revue de Metallurgie No. 4, Paris (2004): 291-299.
the microstructure and texture evolution in Fe-16%Cr ferritic
Kim, K, Y. Kim, et al.POSCOs development of Ferritic Stainless stainless steel. Rex & GG Aachen, Germany (2001): 1203.
Steel. The Second Baosteel Biennial Academic Conference Vol. 3,
Park, S. H., K. Y. Kim, et al. Effect of initial orientation and
Shanghai, China (2006).
austenitic phase on the formation of deformation band and
Lee, S.-B., M.-C. Jung, et al. Effect of Niobium on Nitrogen recrystallization behavior in hot rolled ferritic stainless steels.
Solubility in High Chromium Steel. ISIJ International THERMEC 2000, Las Vegas, USA (2000): 163.
Vol. 42 (2002): 603-608.
Raabe, D. Experimental investigation and simulation of
Lee, S.-B., J.-H. Choi, et al.Aluminum Deoxidation Equilibrium crystallographic rolling textures of Fe-11wt.% Cr. Materials
in Liquid Fe-16 Pct Cr Alloy. Metallurgical and Materials Science and Technology No. 11 (1995): 985-993.
Transactions B, Vol. 36B (2005): 414-416.
Raabe, D. On the influence of the Chromium content on the
Miyazaki, A., J. Hirasawa, et al. Development of High Heat- evolution of rolling textures in ferritic stainless steels. Journal
Resistant Ferritic Stainless Steel with High Formability, RMH- of Materials Science No. 31 (1996): 3839-3845.
1, for Automotive Exhaust Manifolds. Kawasaki Steel Technical
Report No. 48 (2003): 328.

Raabe, D. Metallurgical reasons and mechanical consequences Sinclair, C.W., J.-D. Mithieux, et al. Recrystallization of
of incomplete recrystallization. Stahl und Eisen No. 120 (2000): Stabilized Ferritic Stainless Steel Sheet, Metallurgical and
7378. Materials Transactions A, Vol. 36A (Nov. 2005): 3205.

Raabe, D, and K. Lcke. Influence of particles on recrystallization Van Hecke, Benot The Forming Potential of Stainless Steel
textures of ferritic stainless steels. Steel Research No. 63 Materials and Applications Series Vol. 8, Euro Inox (2006).
(1992): 457-464.
Toscan, F, A. Galerie, et al. Relations between Oxidation Kinetics
Raabe, D, and K. Lcke. Textures of ferritic stainless steels. and Chromium Diffusion in Stainless Steels. Materials Science
Materials Science and Technology No. 9 (1993): 302-312. Forum Vols. 461-464 (2004): 45-52. Online at www.scientific.
Santacreu, P.-O., L. Bucher, et al. Thermomechanical fatigue
of stainless steels for automotive exhaust systems. La Revue Yazawa, Y., Y. Kato, et al.Development of Ferritic Stainless Steel
de Mtallurgie No. 1, Paris (Jan. 2006): 37-42. with Excellent Deep Drawability for Automotive Fuel tanks.
Review of Automotive Engineering Vol. 26 (2005): 59.
Santacreu, P.-O., O. Cleizergues, et al. Design of stainless
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Nos. 7-8, Paris (July-Aug. 2004): 615-620. Also: JSAE Paper No. Relationship Between r-value and {111} Recrystallization
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Schmitt, J.-H., F. Chassagne, et al. Some Recent Trends
in Niobium Ferritic Stainless Steels. Proceedings of the Yazawa, Y., Y. Ozaki, et al. Development of ferritic stainless steel
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(30 Aug.3 Sept. 2004): 317.


List of members
Company members Ugine & ALZ
Acciaierie Valbruna Ugitech S.A.
Acerinox S.A. Viraj Group
Acesita S.A. Walsin Lihwa Corporation
Aichi Steel Corporation Yieh United Steel Corporation (YUSCO)
Arcelor Mittal Zhangjiagang Pohang Stainless Steel Co. Ltd. (ZPSS)
Baoshan Iron and Steel Co. (Stainless Steel Branch)
Cogne Acciai Speciali S.p.A. Affiliated members
Columbus Stainless (Pty) Ltd Australian Stainless Steel Development Association
Daido Steel Co. Ltd. (ASSDA)
Deutsche Edelstahlwerke GmbH British Stainless Steel Association (BSSA)
Hyundai Steel Company Cedinox
Industeel CENDI
JFE Steel Corporation Centro Inox
Jindal Stainless Ltd. Edelstahl-Vereinigung e.V.
JSC Dneprospetsstal Euro Inox
Ningbo Baoxin Stainless Steel Co., Ltd. EUROFER
Nippon Kinzoku Co., Ltd. Institut de Dveloppement de lInox (ID Inox)
Nippon Metal Industry Co. Ltd. Informationsstelle Edelstahl Rostfrei (ISER)
Nippon Steel and Sumikin Stainless Indian Stainless Steel Development Association (ISSDA)
Nippon Yakin Kogyo Co., Ltd. Japan Stainless Steel Association (JSSA)
Nisshin Steel Co., Ltd. Jernkontoret
North American Stainless Korea Iron and Steel Association (KOSA)
Outokumpu Oyj New Zealand Stainless Steels Development Association
Panchmahal Steel Limited (PSL) (NZSSDA)
POSCO Nucleo Inox
POSCO Specialty Steel Co., Ltd. Southern Africa Stainless Steel Development Association
Shanghai Krupp Stainless (SKS) (SASSDA)
SIJ - Slovenska industrija jekla d.d./Slovenian Steel Group Special Steel and Alloys Consumers and Suppliers
Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL) Association (USSA)
Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd. Specialty Steel Industry of North America (SSINA)
Taiyuan Iron and Steel (Group) Co. Ltd. (TISCO) Stainless Steel Council of China Specialist Steel Enterprises
Takasago Tekko K.K. Association (CSSC)
Tang Eng Iron Works Co. Ltd. Swiss Inox
Thainox Stainless Public Company Limited Taiwan Steel and Iron Industries Association (TSIIA)
ThyssenKrupp Acciai Speciali Terni S.p.A. Thai Stainless Steel Development Association (TSSDA)
ThyssenKrupp Mexinox S.A. de C.V. Union de Empresas Siderrgicas (UNESID)
ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH


ISSF is grateful to Friedriche Teroerde (ICDA) for writing the Steel Association (JSSA), Tokyo, Japan; p. 16 (l): South Africa Stainless Steel
Foreword to this brochure and to Philippe Richard (Arcelor Development Association (SASSDA), Rivonia, South Africa; p. 16 (r): Acesita
(Arcelor Mittal Group), Brazil; p. 17: Acesita (Arcelor Mittal Group), Brazil;
Mittal Stainless, France), who coordinated a working group
p. 18 (l): Ugine & Alz (Arcelor Mittal Group), France; p. 18 (tr): Mac Brothers
consisting of Jacques Charles (Ugine & Alz , France), Peir- Catering Equipment, Cape Town, South Africa; p. 18 (br): Centro Inox and
Teh Huang (Yusco, Taiwan), Kwangyuk Kim (Posco, South ThyssenKrupp Acciai Speciali Terni S.p.A., Italy; p. 19: Acesita (Arcelor Mittal
South Korea), Jochen Krautschick (ThyssenKrupp Nirosta, Group), Brazil; p. 20 (t): BSH Bosch und Siemens Hausgerate Gmbh, Munich,
Germany; p. 20 (b): Faurecia, Nanterre, France; p. 21 (l): Valtimet, Boulogne-
Germany), Juan Antonio Simon (Acerinox, Spain) and
Billancourt, France; p. 21 (c): Ugine & Alz (Arcelor Mittal Group), France;
Hideaki Yamashita (JFE, Japan). Thanks also go to Benot p. 21 (r): Acesita (Arcelor Mittal Group), Brazil; p. 22 (l): Sander Inox and
Van Hecke (Euro-Inox, Belgium) for checking the text and to Nucleo Inox, Brazil; p. 22 (r): Ompagrill and Centro Inox, Italy; p. 23: BSH
Paul Snelgrove, freelance consultant and English-language Bosch und Siemens Hausgerate Gmbh, Munich, Germany; p. 24 (tl & tr):
Japan Stainless Steel Association (JSSA), Tokyo, Japan; p. 24 (br): Columbus
writer (Paris, France), for his invaluable help in preparing
Stainless [Pty] Ltd, S. Africa; p. 25 (l): South Korea Iron & Steel Association
the brochure. (KOSA), Seoul, S. Korea; p. 25 (tc): Ugine & Alz (Arcelor Mittal Group), France;
Thanks are also due to de blauwe peer (Ghent, Belgium) p. 25 (tr): Faurecia, Nanterre, France; p. 26 (t): Group SEB, Rumilly, France;
for design and production, to MBCOM (Paris, France) p. 26 (b): LG Electronics, S. Korea; p. 27 (l): Columbus Stainless [Pty] Ltd,
S. Africa; p. 27 (r): Japan Stainless Steel Association (JSSA), Tokyo, Japan;
for designing the cover and to Stevens Creative Printing,
p. 28 (l): BSH Bosch und Siemens Hausgerate Gmbh, Munich, Germany;
Merelbeke, Belgium) for printing. p. 28 (r): South Korea Iron & Steel Association (KOSA), Seoul, S. Korea;
p. 29: Taiyuan Iron & Steel (Group) Company Ltd. (TISCO), Taiyuan, PRC;
p. 30 (t): ISSF China, PRC; p. 30 (b): Qingdao Haier International Trading Co.
Photo credits Ltd., PRC; p. 31 (l): SunTank, Pretoria, S. Africa; p. 31 (r): Japan Stainless
ISSF wishes to thank the companies and individuals who Steel Association (JSSA), Tokyo, Japan; p. 32 (box): POSCO, Pohang, S. Korea;
have contributed photographs to this publication. In those p. 33 (all): Ugine & Alz (Arcelor Mittal Group), France; p. 34 (l): Centro Inox,
Italy; p. 34 (tr): Faurecia, Nanterre, France; p. 34 (b): all 4 photos Ugine & Alz
cases where the original source of a photograph used is not
(Arcelor Mittal Group), France; p. 35: Acesita (Arcelor Mittal Group), Brazil;
known, ISSF extends its apologies to the copyright owner.
p. 36 (t): ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH, Krefeld, Germany; p. 36 (b): Macadams
Baking Systems (Pty) Ltd, Cape Town, S. Africa; p. 37 (l): Faurecia, Nanterre,
Front cover: MBCOM, Paris, France; p. 2-3: Ugine & Alz (Arcelor Mittal France; p. 37 (r): Ugine & Alz (Arcelor Mittal Group), France; p. 38 (l):
Group), France; p. 4: Columbus Stainless [Pty] Ltd, S. Africa; p. 5: Acesita Faurecia, Nanterre, France; p. 38 (r): Ugine & Alz (Arcelor Mittal Group),
(Arcelor Mittal Group), Brazil; p. 7: Lincat Limited, Lincoln, UK; p. 8: ISSF France; p. 39 (l): SunTank, Pretoria, S. Africa; p. 39 (tr): Acesita (Arcelor
China, PRC; p. 9 (tl): BSH Bosch und Siemens Hausgerate Gmbh, Munich, Mittal Group), Brazil; p. 39 (br): Solaris Bus & Coach Co., Poland; p. 40 (l):
Germany; p. 9 (bl): Whirlpool Corporation, Cassinetta di Biandronno, Italy; Brandt Edelstahldach GmbH, Cologne, Germany; p. 40 (r): Ugine & Alz (Arcelor
p. 9 (r): Groupe SEB, Rumilly, France; p. 10: Acesita (Arcelor Mittal Group), Mittal Group), France; p. 41 (tr): Ugine & Alz (Arcelor Mittal Group), France;
Brazil; p. 11 (tl): IKEA, Aelmhult, Sweden; p. 11 (bl): Yiu Heng International p. 41 (br): ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH, Krefeld, Germany; p. 42 (tl): Willem
Company Limited, Macao; p. 11 (r): Takara Standard Corporation, Japan; de Roover, Ghent, Belgium; p. 42 (bl): Faurecia, Nanterre, France; p. 42 (tr):
p. 12 (t): Acesita (Arcelor Mittal Group), Brazil; p. 12 (b): Tramontina, So Paulo, Centro Inox, Milan, Italy; p. 42 (br): Ugine & Alz (Arcelor Mittal Group), France;
Brazil; p. 13 (l): Lincat Limited, Lincoln, UK; p. 13 (r): South Korea Iron & Steel p. 43: Hanjin, S. Korea; p. 44 (t): Groupe SEB, Rumilly, France; p. 44 (b):
Association (KOSA), Seoul, S. Korea; p. 14: POSCO, Pohang, S. Korea; p. 15 Lincat Limited, Lincoln, UK; p. 58: ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH, Krefeld,
(l & c): Ugine & Alz (Arcelor Mittal Group), France; p. 15 (tr): Suncue Company Germany; p. 62: Valtimet, Boulogne-Billancourt, France; p. 63: POSCO, Pohang,
Ltd. and Yieh United Steel Corp. (YUSCO), Taiwan; p. 15 (br): Japan Stainless S. Korea.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information presented in this publication is technically correct. However, the
reader is advised that the material contained herein is intended for general information purposes only. ISSF, its members,
staff and consultants specifically disclaim any liability or responsibility for loss, damage or injury resulting from the use of
the information contained in this publication (in printed, electronic or other formats).
Date of publication April 2007 - Copyright - ISBN 2-930069-51-1