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Semester March 2017 BMIS 32122 INTRO TO COMP NETWORKS ASSIGNMENT 2 22 May 2017

ANSWER THESE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION 1 (16 Marks)


Read about network address translation in Page 375-378 (textbook), and answer these questions:
a. Discuss what Network Address Translation is. How does it work?
b. Suppose you purchase a wireless router and connect it to your cable modem. Also suppose that your ISP
dynamically assigns your connected device (that is, your wireless router) one IP address. Also suppose
that you have five PCs at home that use 802.11 to wirelessly connect to your wireless router. How are IP
addresses assigned to the five PCs? Does the wireless router use NAT? Why or why not?
c. What is the problem of NAT in P2P applications? How can it be avoided? Is there a special name
for this solution?

QUESTION 2 (20 Marks)


In order to transfer packets from a sending host to the destination host, the network layer must determine the
path or route that the packets are to follow. Whether the network layer provides a datagram service or a virtual
circuit service, the network layer must nonetheless determine the path for a packet. This is the job of the network
layer routing protocol. At the heart of any routing protocol is the algorithm (the "routing algorithm") that
determines the path for a packet. The purpose of a routing algorithm is simple: given a set of routers, with links
connecting the routers, a routing algorithm finds a "good" path from source to destination.
a. Compare and contrast static and dynamic routing algorithms.
b. A router has eight interfaces. How many IP address will it have?
c. Differentiate between global and decentralized routing.
d. What is unicast and multicast routing?

QUESTION 3 (14 Marks)


Consider a datagram network using 32-bit bit addresses. Suppose a router has four links, numbered 0
through 3, and packets are to be forwarded to the link interfaces as follows:

Destination Address Range Link Interface


11100000 00000000 00000000 00000000
through 0
11100000 00000000 11111111 11111111
11100000 00000001 00000000 00000000
through 1
11100000 00000001 11111111 11111111
11100000 00000010 00000000 00000000
through 2
11100000 11111111 11111111 11111111
otherwise 3
Semester March 2017 BMIS 32122 INTRO TO COMP NETWORKS ASSIGNMENT 2 22 May 2017

a. Provide a forwarding table that has five entries, uses longest prefix matching, and forwards
packets to the correct link interfaces.
b. Describe how four forwarding table determines the appropriate link interface for datagrams
with destination addresses:
i. 11111000 10010001 01010001 01010101
ii. 11100000 00000000 11000011 00111100
iii. 11100001 10000000 00010001 01110111