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Table of Contents

1. Geography........................................................................................................2

2. Key facts and statistics.....................................................................................2

3. Meteorology......................................................................................................4
3.1 Seasons in Ostview.....................................................................................4

4. History...............................................................................................................6

5. Ecology (Plants, wildlife, habitat, diverse species & threats) ...........................7


4.1 Offshore islands..........................................................................................8
4.2 Forest habitats............................................................................................8
4.3 Drylands.....................................................................................................9

6. Economy............................................................................................................9
6.1 Voting system.............................................................................................9

7. Political system...................................................................................................9

8. Government system.........................................................................................10
8.1 Taxation system........................................................................................10
8.2 Tax brackets ............................................................................................10
8.3 Trade (Top export and import countries) .................................................11

9. Judicial system.................................................................................................12
9.1 Crimes and penalty...................................................................................13
9.2 Police force...............................................................................................15

10. Cultural aspect...............................................................................................15


10.1 Religion ..................................................................................................15
10.2 Restrictions on religious freedom...........................................................15
10.3 Clothing..................................................................................................16
10.4 Demographics .......................................................................................16
10.5 Language...............................................................................................16

11. Social factor....................................................................................................17


11.1 Education................................................................................................17
11.2 Healthcare..............................................................................................17

12. Summary........................................................................................................18
13. Works Cited....................................................................................................18

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1. Geography

[Figure 1, Ticha Netfang, created using Map Maker]

2. Key facts & Statistics

Population 4,000,000
Continent Oceana
Density 16.2/km2
Language English
Independence year 1800
Capital Nothary
Currency Ostview dollar
Land area 300,000 km2
Minimum longitude 178.840
Maximum longitude 166.000
Minimum latitude -52.610
Maximum latitude -29.240
Elevation 3,754 meters

Ostview is an island nation located in the southwest of the pacific ocean. Its
geographical coordinates are 40.9006 S, 174.8860 E and has an area of approximately
300,000 km2. Its capital state is Nothary. Ostviews location is ideal for experiencing all
four seasons; summer, winter, autumn and fall. Ostview has massive coastline of 14,000
kilometers, making it 10th longest in the world. The highest peak in Ostview is the Falledge
mountain at 3,724 meters. It lies on the southern alps and is a very popular tourist

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destination for both people interested in the mountain itself and mountain climbers.
Falledge consists of three summits, from south to north, the low peak (3,593 m, middle
peak 3,717 and the high peak. The longest river in Ostview is the Redvale river, it is 425
kilometers in length. Ostview has a number of natural resources, the main minerals
include coal, gold, silver, iron sand, aggregate, limestone, clay, dolomite, pumice, salt,
serpentine, zeolite and bentonite.

3. Meteorology

[Figure 2, Ticha Netfang]

Temperature Winter June, July, Spring September, Summer Autumn March,


(C) August October, November December, January, April, May
February
North island
High 12 17 23 19
Low 5 7 12 11
South island
High 10 16 22 16
Low 1 5 10 6

3.1 Seasons in Ostview

Winter

Ostviews winter months of June, July and August brings cold weather to most of
the country. Mountains of the country become snow-covered providing beautiful scenery
and amazing skiing. The south island of Ostview has cooler winter temperatures.

Spring

The spring season are September, October and November, the season weather
can range from cold and frosty to warm and hot, having the same range of temperature
in the northern and southern island. This season brings growth of blossoms and plants.

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Summer

The summer months consists of December, January and February. This season
brings high temperatures and long days of sunshine. Temperatures at night are mild. This
season is ideal for outdoor activities.

Autumn
The autumn months are March, April and May. Temperatures are mostly cooler
than the summer. Colourful changing leaves make this month delightful.

[Figure 3, Ticha Netfang]

The average daily temperature is represented in the line graph above. The
coldest months throughout the year being June, July and August which are in the

[Figure 4, Ticha Netfang]

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Winter season. The warmest months are January, February and march being the
Summer season

4. History
Early history (1710)

The early history of Ostview refers to its pre-colonial era (1700), when the Australian
trading company led by sir Charlie Revell established trading settlements in Ostview.
Before the year 1710, the country next to Australia was known not as Ostview but as:
Ashtew. Historians established the founding of the current name that originated by
Australian travellers records describing a country in the same location as Ostview.
Australian Colonial Era (1810 - 1543)

In 1710, Sir Charlie Revell arrived in Ostview. The Australian colony invaded Ostview as
a way to challenge the dominance of the Philippines in the area. During this time, the
Australians had a trade route to Malaysia where it had to pass through Indonesia. With
the growing trade with Malaysia, the control of the region was strong and was dominated
by the Philippines, where they intended to enforce rights of the trade route.
Philippine occupation (1743 1753)
The Philippine occupation of Ostview took place from 1743 to 1753. The Empire of
Philippines occupied Ostview during a war with Australia, where the military forces
invaded the country for 10 years. Ostview was returned to the Australian colonial rule in
1767 after the signing of the surrender agreement.

Internal self-government (1767 1770)

The self-governance of Ostview was carried out by many stages. Ever since Ostviews
founding in 1700, Ostview has been under the colonial rule of the Australians. The first
local elections for government positions in Ostview first started in 1767, contributing to
the amendment to the constitution of Singapore. Ostview was granted the full internal
self-government in the same year (1767).
Merger with Australia (1800)
In February 4th 1800, Ostview joined Australia. It became a state within the Australian
federation. A fallout within Ostview and Australia occurred within the same year, resulting
in the full independence Ostview.
Republic of Ostview (1800)
The history of the Republic of Ostview began when Ostview became an independent
country, following the ejection from Australia on the 5th of August 1800. Shortly after
Ostview became an independent country, it lacked in resources which Australia once
shared with the country. The country further developed and became more independent
and were able to control aspects of their country within time.

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History of Ostview

Early history (1700)

Australian colonial era (1810 1543)

Philippine occupation (1743 1753)

Internal self-government (1767 1770)

Merger with Australia (1800)

Republic of Ostview (1800)

5. Ecology (habitat, wildlife, species diversity, range, threats)

Alpine habitats: Plants, Animals & Threats

[Figure 5, Ticha Netfang]

Defined as the upper area of the trees (timberline/tree line), but is the lower limit of
permanent snow. Located in the mountains, way above where the trees grow. The alpine
is home to numerous special plants and animals. In Ostview, the alpine area is 30,000
square kilometers, making up about 11% of the country. The majority of the Alpine area
is located on the south of Ostview where mountains reach higher than 3,000 meters.
Alpine plants grow in infertile soil. The climate in the Alpine is extremely cold, which the
Alpine plants have to cope with as well as windy and dry conditions due to the great
changes in temperature from searing heat to extreme cold. The Alpine habitat is home
to numerous animals such as birds, lizards and invertebrates. Like plants, these animals
have adapted to the harsh alpine environment.

Certain threats include predators contributing to the declines in native alpine species.
Due to the extreme cold weather, the temperature limit the activities of mammals. Many
native alpine species are threatened with extinction.

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5.1 Offshore islands

[Figure 6, Ticha Netfang]

Offshore islands from Ostview are rich with biodiversity. There are 47 offshore islands in
Ostview, in which one contain one of the worlds most diverse range of seabirds.
Offshore islands in the south contain numerus species such as penguins. The offshore
islands are the last resource for some animals and rare plants. Some animals include
species of lizards, large invertebrates and some plants.

5.2 Forest habitat

[Figure 7, Ticha Netfang]

Forest habitats, are full of trees and make up a crucial factor in the natural system that
sustains the environment. Forests are home to numerous animals and are the
powerhouses of biodiversity. Before people arrive in Ostview 80% of the land was
covered in dense forest. Currently only 24% (6.5 million hectares) of the land is native
forest. The two main types of native forests in Ostview are the Peaches and the Abujmarh
forest. The reason behind the importance of forests are because they protect the soil
from erosion, as well as reduces flooding. Trees producing oxygen as well as absorb
carbon dioxide. Forests are part of the water cycle, responsible for the water cycle
between the soil and the atmosphere, making it precipitate. Other than its natural uses
to the environment, it is a crucial part of the economy as well, production from forests
provide wood products for domestic and export markets. It also boosts the tourism
industry for tourists who want to explore some of the native forests in Ostview.

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5.3 Drylands:

[Figure 8, Ticha Netfang]

Drylands are habitats defined by the lack of water, made of brush and fescue tussock
grasslands, also home to many threatened and rare species. Drylands cover 19% of
Ostviews land area. Half of Ostviews most threatened plant species are in the drylands.
It contains high diversity of native plants. Drylands are home to some animals such as
birds. Drylands are useful for soil and water conservation.

6. Economy

6.1 Voting system


All Ostviewen citizens not less than 21 years old, are resident in the country and have
a Ostviewen passport are entitled to vote for the countries representative elections.

7. Political system
The laws/rules designed in Ostview, are to protect the well-being of the public
and to help manage conflict. Ostview is a representative democracy with a
confederation system. Eligible Citizens elect representatives and give them the
power to vote on issues. Individual freedom is still emphasized and equality is valued,
free elections are held for citizens to vote on their representatives, which then the
decision on the representatives are based on the majority rule, all citizens that vote
can express their views freely, voting by secret ballot. The advantages are that the
representatives are educated and more capable citizens who can devote time into
needed to solve complex problems. A confederation is known as a union of political
organizations, where individual nations unite to form a confederation. A confederation
government includes cooperation with selected nations that they form a
confederation with to discuss and solve significant issues. The advantages of
Ostview being a following a confederation government system are that the country
coexists but maintains its own identity. Another advantage is cooperation, agreement
amongst a confederation makes decisions over common issues easier.

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8. Government system

Ostview follows a presidential democratic system. Citizens of Ostview elect


any president of their choice that is running that year (a new president is chosen
every 3 years). A democratic government system is beneficial due to its freedom,
problem solving, implies dignity to the people, allows people to express themselves
clearly and freely, respects human rights, all citizens are equal before the law as well
as being the only form of government where the citizens can voice their opinion. The
presidential system is advantageous over the parliamentary because it is more
accountable to its citizens. In a parliamentary system the people are not directly
electing its countrys leader, the task is left to the parties, giving political parties more
control over legislators and the government.

8.1 Taxation system


Tax is used for building infrastructure, education, health care, social security
and public transportation. Ostview has a progressive taxation system, as the income
of an individual increases, so does the tax, one of the major causes of income
inequality depends on the taxations system, with a progressive taxation system, it
ensures that high income earners are paying more into the federal government. This
taxation method acts as a tool for redistributing income from the upper class to the
lower and middle class, it also helps keep the income gap from growing between the
rich and the poor. This method is more useful in-comparison to a flat tax rate because
it ensures that the lower class has a substantial amount of their income remaining to
pay for living expenses.

8.2 Tax brackets income

Income Low Middle High


Monthly income 1,900- 11,000+ 20,000+
Taxation system per 0% 25% 30%
income group

Tax bracket factors

Factor Low Middle High


Tax paid/percentage of $0, 0% $2,750, 25% $6,000, 30%
tax paid
Remaining income after $1,900, 100% $8,250, 75% $14,000, 70%
paying tax/percentage
Remaining income used $400, 20% $3,000, 20% $8,000, 35%
for the cost of
living/percentage

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Remaining income used $1,500, 80% $5,250, 55% $6,000, 25%
for other facilities
8.3 Trade
Ostview is the worlds 8th largest exporter. Ostview is one of the largest
exporters in the world, exporting $1.6B in 2016 and importing $1.62B in 2016,
resulting in a negative trade balance The exports in Ostview is increasing at an annual
rate of 9% annually. The most recent exports include Iron ore which represents 20%
of the total exports of Ostview, followed by coal representing another 20% of the total
exports, furthermore on to petroleum gas (12%), gold (20%) and wheat (28%). The
top five export destinations from Ostview are China, Japan, U.S, Germany and India.
The top import destinations are China, Japan, U.S, Thailand and Indonesia.

Top export destinations


China

Japan 15%
8% 35%
U.S
17%
25%
Germany

India

[Figure 9, Ticha Netfang]

Top import destinations

China

Japan
7%
16%
U.S 40%

22%
Thailand
15%
Indoneisa

Other countries

[Figure 10, Ticha Netfang]

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9. Judicial

Customary law in Ostview relates to the practices amongst Ostviewens which


have developed overtime. Customary law regulates human behavior, connect people
with the country and each other through a system of relationships. Rules and laws
marks its importance in a country due to the great influence it has on general safety,
ensure rights of citizens against abuse by other people, by organizations or the
government as well as protect sections of society such as women and children and
protecting personal customs by respecting morals and citizenship. The legal system
in Ostview plays an important role in regards to shaping society, for example: law
setting up a compulsory educational system. The social rules are created by
Ostviewens, any form of disobedience of the social rules are followed by punishment
of social disapproval. Penalty is determined by the government

[Figure 11, Ticha Netfang]

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9.2 Crimes and penalty

Blue collar crimes A crime Penalty


committed by a person of a lower
social class

Bribery and Corruption This act involves giving, promising, offering,


soliciting, accepting or agreeing to receive a
gratification in either the public or private sector. Any
person found guilty of committing this crime will be
liable for conviction to a fine or imprisonment of a
minimum of 4 years.

Customs: Cigarettes No one under the legal age of 21 is permitted to buy,


sell, nor have possession of cigarettes. Anyone
under the age of 21 (considered a minor) in
possession of cigarettes or usage will face a minimal
of 2 years of juvenile detention.

Criminal force Assault and intimidation against Ostviewens police


system is a serious act and can result in
imprisonment. Such acts against the criminal force
include accusations and any forms related to
violence.

Driving offenses Driving offenses include exceeding speeding limit,


necklace/dangerous driving and use of a mobile
device whiles driving. Any offense that can lead to
the death of another individual will result in a more
serious consequence, such as facing imprisonment.
The duration of imprisonment is justified by the
situation that will determined by the jury in court..
Exceeding speeding limit, reckless/dangerous
driving and the use of a mobile device whiles driving
will result in a the offender receiving a fine.

Drunk driving Drunk driving offenses include driving a vehicle


under the influence of alcohol. Any offenders guilty
of this crime will receive a driving ban. The duration
of the driving ban is based on the level of alcohol
consumed by the offender.

Housebreaking An individual that enters, remains in any building


used as a place of worship or is a place of private
property, is said to commit house trespassing. An
offender guilty of this crime will face a minimal of 2
years imprisonment.

Littering and jaywalking Individuals who discard minor litter such as


cigarettes, candy wrappers and plastic are fined a
maximum fine of $500. Individuals who discard a
larger items such as plastic bags and bulky items
can face paying a fine of $1000+.

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Others Penalty

Abortions Abortion in Ostview is legal. Abortion is restricted to


citizens of Ostview, wives of Ostviewen citizens and
women that reside in the country. There is no defined
legal age for abortions. An abortion in Ostview is
allowed if the pregnancy has not progressed further
than 24 weeks.

Immigration Anyone that attempts to enter in the land of Ostview


illegally, shall be punished with a minimal of 2 years
imprisonment and a liable fine up to $10,000.

Misuse of drugs The misuse of drugs for example include, excessive


consumption of coughing medication or any other
type of medication. This can result in 7 years
imprisonment with a liable fine of $4,000.

Theft To constitute theft, the offender is responsible for


the possession of items taken without the consent of
an individual. Consequences include jail time and a
possible fee payment.

Murder To constitute murder, the offender must have the


intentions of causing death. Situations are most
likely to vary, therefore the punishments and
consequences faced by the offender will be
determined in court by a jury.

Rape Rape, is an unlawful sexual intercourse or any other


sexual activities. Any person convicted of this crime
is liable for both paying a fine and a minimal of 30
years imprisonment.

Sex with a minor The age of consent is 17 years old. Any person who
carries out unwanted sexual activities without the
minors consent will not be labelled as rape but as
unlawful sexual intercourse with a minor under the
age of 17, whoever is guilty of this act can possibly
face a minimum of 12 years imprisonment. If the
minor is below 12, it is considered rape, who ever is
guilty of this offence is liable for 20 years of
imprisonment.

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White collar crimes Penalty
A crime committed by people
from a higher social class

Tax evasion Tax evasion is when a organization, corporation or


an individual intentionally avoids paying his true tax
liability. The offender will face criminal charges and
punishments. The fine for serious tax evasion will
exceed no more than $50,000 and 12 years
imprisonment.
Forgery To constitute Forgery, an individual is responsible
for the action of copying or imitating a document,
banknote, signature, or work of art. The
consequences of committing this crime can lead to
a minimum of 2 years and a maximum of 10 years
imprisonment, the individual may be held liable for
a fee payment as well.

9.3 Police force

The police force plays a crucial role in the law enforcement system. They are
responsible for monitoring criminal activity, taking part in community patrols,
emergency call responses, issue tickets, making arrests, investigating crimes and
testifying in court (if needed). The Ostview Police Force focuses on maintaining order
and keeping peace in the republic of Ostview by protecting life, preventing crime,
detecting and apprehending officers and preserving security.

10. Cultural aspect

10.1 Religion
Ostview guarantees religion
freedom, individuals residing in the
country are free to follow any
religion of their choice, if any.
Religion freedom is a fundamental
human right. The government does
not influence any religious
practices amongst individuals
residing in the country nor do they
persecute non-believers of a
specific religion.

[Figure 12, Ticha Netfang]

10.2 Restrictions on religious freedom


Every person has a right to profess, follow, practice any religious believe as long as
their activities do not violate any other laws relating to public health. Extreme religious
acts held in public that may be potentially dangerous can face consequences, as

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well as forcing religion onto an individual. Everyone in Ostview is free to follow any
religion of their choice, as long as it does no harm to others.

10.3 Clothing

People residing or touring in Ostview are not required to dress in any particular
uniform allowing freedom of expression, which enables the people of Ostview to
express themselves through clothing, tattoos, piercings etc. Implying a strict dress
code/uniform in a country goes against the human right of freedom of expression.
Due to the huge population diversity in Ostview, implying a dress code may suppress
someones personal beliefs and cultures, therefore Ostview recognizes freedom of
expression as a huge factor in its country.

10.4 Demographics

The demographics of Ostview is a combination of gender, ethnicity, religion,


geographic and economic background of the 4 million people currently living in
Ostview. The majority of Ostviews population is of European descent (50% is
categorized as Ostviewen European), with Asians being the largest minority (15%),
followed by Africans (9%). This is reflected in immigration, with new migrants coming
from Asia, the category is estimated to grow. In 2005, approximately 800,000
Ostviewens lived abroad, most commonly in Australia, Ostviews neighboring country.
The capital state Nothary has the most ethnically diverse region in Ostview, with 48%
identifying as Europeans, 20% Asians, 18% African etc. The increase in interracial
marriages throughout the years have resulted in more people identifying with more
than one ethnic group.

[Figure 13, Ticha Netfang]

10.5 Language

Language in a country marks its great importance due to the fact that it has
an impact on trade and communication. Ostview has no official language, English is
the main spoken language in Ostview. Ostviewen-English has a distinctive accent
and vocabulary. Other languages spoken are Mandarin 2%, Italian 1.4%, Arabic
2%, Cantonese 1.7% and Greek 1%. Due to the fact that English is the main spoken
language in Ostview, this is beneficial because it helps communicate with some of
the most powerful and influential countries.

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11. Social factors

11.1 Education

Education is the key to success, it opens doors for everyone. It expands the
human mind with knowledge, everyone should be granted an opportunity to get an
education. A high percentage of the tax is used for public schools, ensuring free
education for those who wish to attend public school, supported by the government
because education is a fundamental human right. Education spending in Ostview
makes up 23% of the annual national budget. Education plays a crucial role in the
advancement of the country it self, development of the country includes development
fields such as IT, medical science , agriculture and economy. The only way the
development can take place starts with people being educated in those fields. When
people have enough knowledge about a certain field it is easy to bring new
suggestions and reforms for the development of the society. Education also ensures
the future for people, to get jobs and receive income. Education not only helps one
to survive, but also makes individuals aware of their rights and duties towards their
nation.

11.2 Healthcare

Ostview is well known for its efficient and widely covered healthcare system.
Due to the high tax brackets in Ostview, a large amount is used for the healthcare
system, ensuring that everyone paying tax in the country gets access to healthcare,
as it is a fundamental human right. Healthcare is ranked as third priority for public
funds. One of the priorities in the healthcare system is ensuring quality and most
importantly affordable basic medical services for everyone. Ostview also advertises
healthy living and health programs as well as maintains its high and sanitary
standards of living, clean water and hygiene to achieve better health for everyone.
The health care system in Ostview is designed to make sure that everyone has
access to healthcare, different levels of healthcare in a cost-effective and seamless
manner.

[Figure 14, Ticha Netfang]

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12. Summary
Ostviews geographical location makes it very idealistic for a perfect country,
experiencing all four seasons throughout the year. The diverse group of wildlife,
habitat makes this country interesting. Its beautiful scenery that can be seen in some
of the offshore islands, forest habitats, drylands and mountains are what attract tourist
from all around the world to visit Ostview. Additionally, Ostview is one of the worlds
largest export countries, boosting its economy, as well as its very effective tax system,
furthermore used for the advanced education system, healthcare, social security,
building infrastructure and public transportation in the country. The judicial system is
very strong, with many rules and regulations followed by strict punishments, designed
to help shape society, also teaching the public to respect morals and citizenship.
With the Ostview police force playing a huge role in the safety of the country, keeping
the country in peace and maintaining social security makes Ostview a safe place for
everyone. Another factor that shapes Ostview to be a perfect country is that it is very
supportive in freedom of expression, there are no regulations on religion, language,
clothing, art or music. Lastly Ostview has a very strong education system, practicing
its strong belief that education opens doors for opportunities, everyone is capable for
receiving a chance to get an education which then ensures a future for people.
Education not only helps one to survive, but also makes individuals aware of their
rights and duties towards their nation, shaping a utopian society and country.

[Figure 15, Ticha Netfang]

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