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Farm via Fuzzy Modelling and Identification

DOI: 10.1016/j.ifacol.2015.09.712

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3 AUTHORS:

University of Ferrara University of Ferrara

144 PUBLICATIONS 713 CITATIONS 11 PUBLICATIONS 10 CITATIONS

Paolo Castaldi

University of Bologna

79 PUBLICATIONS 327 CITATIONS

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All in-text references underlined in blue are linked to publications on ResearchGate, Available from: Silvio Simani

letting you access and read them immediately. Retrieved on: 02 February 2016

9th IFAC Symposium on Fault Detection, Supervision and

9th IFAC Symposium on Fault Detection, Supervision and

Safety

9th

9th of Symposium

IFAC

IFAC Technical Processes

on

on Fault

Fault Detection,

Detection, Supervision

Supervision and

Safety of Symposium

Technical Processes and

September

Safety

Safety of 2-4, 2015.

of Technical

Technical Processes

Processes

Available online

Arts et Mtiers ParisTech, at www.sciencedirect.com

Paris, France

September 2-4, 2015. Arts et Mtiers ParisTech, Paris, France

September

September 2-4,

2-4, 2015.

2015. Arts

Arts et

et Mtiers

Mtiers ParisTech,

ParisTech, Paris,

Paris, France

France

ScienceDirect

IFAC-PapersOnLine 48-21 (2015) 13451350

FaultTolerant

FaultTolerant Control of an Offshore

FaultTolerant Control

Control of

of an

an Offshore

Offshore

Wind

Wind Farm via Fuzzy Modelling and

Wind Farm via Fuzzy Modelling and

Farm via Fuzzy Modelling and

Identification

Identification

Identification

S.

S. Simani

,1

Simani ,1 S.

S. Farsoni

Farsoni P.

P. Castaldi

Castaldi

S. Simani

S. Simani ,1 S. Farsoni

,1

P. Castaldi

S. Farsoni P. Castaldi

Department of Engineering (EnDiF), University of Ferrara. Via

Department

of

of Engineering

Saragat 1E, (EnDiF), University of

of Ferrara.

Ferrara. Via

Department

Saragat 1E, 44122

44122 Ferrara

Engineering (FE),

(EnDiF),

Ferrara Italy,

Italy, (email:

University

(FE), (email: Via

Saragat

Saragat 1E,

1E, 44122

44122 Ferrara

Ferrara (FE),

(FE), Italy,

Italy,

{silvio.simani,saverio.farsoni}@unife.it)(email:

(email:

{silvio.simani,saverio.farsoni}@unife.it)

Department{silvio.simani,saverio.farsoni}@unife.it)

of

of Electrical,

Electrical, Electronic

Electronic and

and Information

Information Engineering

Department{silvio.simani,saverio.farsoni}@unife.it) Engineering

Department of Electrical, Electronic and

and Information Engineering

(DEI),

(DEI), University

Department

University of

of Bologna.

of Electrical,

Bologna. Via Zamboni

Electronic

Via Zamboni 33, 40126

Information

33, 40126 Bologna (BO)

Engineering

Bologna (BO)

(DEI), University

(DEI), University of

Italy,

of Bologna.

(email:

Bologna. Via Zamboni 33, 40126

paolo.castaldi@unibo.it)

Via Zamboni 33, 40126 Bologna

Bologna (BO)

(BO)

Italy, (email: paolo.castaldi@unibo.it)

Italy, (email: paolo.castaldi@unibo.it)

Italy, (email: paolo.castaldi@unibo.it)

Abstract: In

Abstract: In order

order toto improve

improve the the safety,

safety, the

the reliability,

reliability, and and thethe efficiency

efficiency of of offshore

offshore wind

wind parkpark

Abstract:

installations, In order

thus to improve

avoiding the

expensive safety, the

unplanned reliability, and

maintenance, the efficiency

the of

accommodation offshore wind

of faultspark

in

installations, thus avoiding expensive unplanned maintenance, the accommodation ofwind

Abstract: In order to improve the safety, the reliability, and the efficiency of offshore faultspark

in

installations,

their earlier

installations, thus avoiding

occurrence

thus avoiding is expensive

fundamental. unplanned

Therefore,

expensive unplanned maintenance,

the main the

contributionaccommodation

of this paper of faults

faults in

consists of

their earlier occurrence is fundamental. Therefore, maintenance,

the main contributionthe accommodation

of this paperofconsists in

of

their

the earlier

development

theirdevelopment occurrence

of

earlier occurrence a is

fault fundamental.

tolerant

is fundamental. Therefore,

control scheme

Therefore, the

by

the main

means contribution

of a

main contribution viable of this

approach. paper

of this paperIn consists

consists of

particular, of

the of a fault tolerant control scheme by means of a viable approach. In particular,

aathe

the development

data-driven

development

data-driven

of

of a

strategy

strategya fault

based

fault

based

tolerant

on

on fuzzy

tolerant control

logic

control

fuzzy

scheme

is

logicscheme

by

by means

is exploited

exploited for of

of aa viable

for deriving

means derivingviablethe approach.

model

model of

theapproach.

In particular,

ofInthe

the required

particular,

required

aa data-driven

controller. Fuzzystrategy

theory based

is on

on fuzzy logic is exploited for deriving

deriving the model of

of the required

data-driven

controller. Fuzzystrategy

theorybasedis exploited

exploited here

fuzzy since

sinceisit

herelogic is

is able

able to

itexploited approximate

to for

approximate easily

the

easily unknown

model

unknown thenonlinear

required

nonlinear

controller.

models

controller.and Fuzzy

managetheorynoisyis exploited here

measurements. since it is

Moreover, able to

the approximate

controller easily

fuzzy unknown

prototype nonlinear

is directly

models andFuzzy

managetheorynoisyis exploited here since

measurements. it is ablethe

Moreover, to approximate

controller fuzzy easily unknownisnonlinear

prototype directly

models

identified

models and

andfrommanage

the

manage noisy

wind

noisy farmmeasurements.

measurements,

measurements. Moreover,

and

Moreover, it the

provides

the controller

the

controller fuzzy

straightforward

fuzzy prototype is

achievement

prototype is directly

directlyof

identified

identified from

from the

the wind

wind farm

farm measurements,

measurements, and

and it

it provides

provides the

the straightforward

straightforward achievement

achievement of

of

the fault

identified tolerant

from the control

wind scheme.

farm In general,

measurements, anandanalytic

it approach,

provides the

the fault tolerant control scheme. In general, an analytic approach, where the system nonlinearity where the

straightforward system nonlinearity

achievement of

isthe

the fault

explicitly

fault tolerant

taken

tolerant control

into

control scheme.

account,

scheme. In

could

In general,

require

general, an

an analytic

more

analytic approach,

complex

approach,design where the system

methodologies.

where the system nonlinearity

This aspect

nonlinearity

is explicitly taken into account, could require more complex design methodologies. This aspect

ofis

is explicitly

the taken into account, could require

require more complex design methodologies. This aspect

of the work,

explicitly followed

work,taken intoby

followed by the

the simpler

account, could solution

simpler solution relying

more

relying on

on fuzzy

complex fuzzy rules,

design

rules, represents

represents the

methodologies. key

theThis point

keyaspect

point

of

when

of the

the work,

on-line

work, followed

followed by

implementations

by the

the simpler

are

simpler solution

considered

solution relying

of the

relying on

proposed

on fuzzy

fuzzy rules,

control

rules, represents

scheme.

represents To the key

highlight

the key point

the

point

when on-line implementations are considered of the proposed control scheme. To highlight the

when

potential

when on-line

of

on-line implementations

the proposed

implementations fault are

are considered

tolerant control

considered of

of the proposed

algorithm

the proposed in control

real scheme.

applications,

control scheme. To

a

To highlight

hardwarein

highlight the

the

potential of the proposed fault tolerant control algorithm in real applications, a hardwarein

potential

theloop of the proposed fault tolerant control algorithm in real applications, a hardwarein

theloop test facility representing a realistic offshore wind farm installation is considered to

potential test

of facility

the proposedrepresenting

fault a

tolerant realistic

control offshore

algorithm wind in farm

real installation

applications, is

a considered

hardwarein to

theloop

analyse

theloopthe test facility

digital representing

representing a

implementation aof realistic

the offshore wind

wind farm installation is considered to

analyse test

the facility

digital implementation the designed

of realistic offshore

designed controller.

controller. The

farm results

results have

The installation haveisshown that

that the

considered

shown to

the

analyse

developed

analyse the

the digital

scheme

digital implementation

maintains

implementation desired of

of the

the designed

performances,

designed controller.

thus validating

controller. The

The results

its have

reliability

results have shown

also

shown in that the

real-time

that the

developed scheme maintains desired performances, thus validating its reliability also in real-time

developed

developed scheme

implementations. scheme maintains

maintains desired

desired performances,

performances, thus thus validating

validating its its reliability

reliability also

also inin real-time

real-time

implementations.

implementations.

implementations.

2015, IFAC (International Federation of Automatic Control) Hosting by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Keywords: Passive Passive fault

fault tolerant

tolerant control

control system;

system; fuzzy

fuzzy modelling

modelling and and identification;

identification;

Keywords:

datadriven

Keywords: Passive

scheme;

Passive fault

fault

fault tolerant control

estimation;

tolerant control system;

offshore

system; fuzzy

wind

fuzzy modelling

farm.

modelling and

and identification;

identification;

datadriven scheme; fault estimation; offshore wind farm.

datadriven

datadriven scheme;

scheme; fault

fault estimation;

estimation; offshore

offshore wind

wind farm.

farm.

1.

1. INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION true

true status

status of of the

the system.

system. Over Over the the last

last three

three decades,

decades,

1.

1. INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION true

the

true status

growing

status of the

demand

of the system.

for

system. Over

safety,

Over the last

reliability,

the last three

three decades,

maintainability,

decades,

the growing demand for safety, reliability, maintainability,

The unscheduled maintenance of offshore wind parks is the

and

the growing

growing demand

survivability

demand in for

power

for safety,

safety, reliability,

processes has

reliability, maintainability,

drawn significant

maintainability,

and survivability

The unscheduled maintenance of offshore wind parks is and survivability in power processes has drawn significant in power processes has drawn significant

The

The unscheduled

expensive, and

and hence

unscheduled

expensive,

maintenance

their

maintenance

hence

of

of offshore

their reliabilityoffshore

reliability must

must

wind

windbe parks

high

high to

be parks is research

is

to

in

and survivability

research in FTC

FTC designs

in power(Mahmoud

designs processes has

(Mahmoud et

et al. (2003);

drawn

al. Noura

significant

(2003); Noura

expensive,

generate as

expensive,as andandmuch hence

energy their

as reliability

possible. must

Offshore be

wind high to

parks research

et al.

research in

(2009)).

in FTC

FTC designs

With

designs (Mahmoud

reference

(Mahmoud to et

wind

et al.

al. (2003);

parks,

(2003); Noura

they are

Noura

generate muchhenceenergy their reliability

as possible. must be

Offshore wind high to et al. (2009)). With reference to wind parks, they

parks et al. (2009)). With reference to wind parks, they

are

are

generate

are also

generate as

planned

as much

much energy

to work

energy as

as possible.

with very

possible. Offshore

short wind

downtime.

Offshore wind parks

This

parks complex

et al. nonlinear

(2009)). Withdynamic systems,

reference to whose

wind aerodynamics

parks, they are

are also planned to work with very short downtime. This complex complex

nonlinear dynamic systems, whose aerodynamics

nonlinear dynamic systems, whose aerodynamics

are

key

are also

also planned

feature can

planned beto

to work

achieved

work with

by

with very

designing

very short

short downtime.

control

downtime. This

solutions

This are

complex

are nonlinear and

nonlinear

nonlinear and unsteady,

dynamic

unsteady, whilst

systems,

whilst their

whose

their rotors are subject

aerodynamics

rotors are subject

key feature can be achieved by designing control solutions are nonlinear and unsteady, whilst their rotors are subject

key

key feature

that are can be achieved by

by designing control solutions to

arecomplicated turbulent wind inflow fields driving fatigue

that are able

feature can to

able be manage

to achieved possible

manage designing

possible fault situations

faultcontrol

situations and

solutions

and to to

nonlinear and

complicated

complicated

unsteady,

turbulent

turbulent wind

wind

whilst

inflow

inflow

their rotors

fields

fields

are subject

driving

driving fatigue

fatigue

that are

malfunctions. able

that are ableThese to

These manage

types

to manage possible

of control fault

systems situations

are known and

as loading.

to Therefore,

complicated the

turbulent control

wind of the

inflow wind

fields farm represents

driving fatigue

malfunctions. types ofpossible fault situations

control systems are knownand as loading.

loading.

Therefore, the control of the wind farm represents

Therefore, the control of the wind farm represents

malfunctions.

fault tolerant

malfunctions. These

control

These types

(FTC)

types of

of control

systems,

control systems

as

systemsthey are known

possess

are known as

the

as aloading.

complex and

Therefore, challenging

the task

control of (Odgaard

the wind and

farm Stoustrup

represents

fault tolerant control (FTC) systems, as they possess the aa complex and challenging task (Odgaard and Stoustrup

fault

fault tolerant

ability

ability to control

control (FTC)

to accommodate

tolerant

accommodate (FTC) systems,

component

systems,faults

component

as

as they

faults

possess

possess the

automatically.

they

automatically. a complex

the (2013)). complex

(2013)).

and

and challenging

Todays

Todays wind

wind turbines

challenging task

task (Odgaard

turbines in

in aa wind

(Odgaard and

windandpark

park

Stoustrup

employ

Stoustrup

employ

ability

In to

general,

ability accommodate

FTC

to accommodate methods component

are

component faults

classified automatically.

into

faultsinto two types,

automatically. (2013)).

different Todays

control

(2013)). Todays wind

actuation turbines

wind turbines and in a

strategies wind to

in a windtopark park employ

achieve the

employ

In general, FTC methods are classified two types, different different control

control actuation

actuation and

and strategies

strategies to achieve

achieve the

the

In

i.e. general,

Passive

In general, FTC

Fault

FTC methods

Tolerant

methods are

Controlclassified

are classified(PFTCS) into two

and

into and types,

Active

two Active required

different goals

control and performances.

actuation and

types, required goals and performances. An important control An

strategies important

to control

achieve the

i.e.

i.e. Passive

Passive Fault

Fault Tolerant

Tolerant Control

Control (PFTCS)

(PFTCS) and Active required goals and performances. An important control

Fault

i.e. Tolerant

Passive Control

Fault Tolerantschemes

Control (AFTCS).

(PFTCS) PFTCS

and needs

Active objective,

required which

which motivates the current study, consists of its

goals motivates

and the

performances. current An study, consists

important of

control

Fault Tolerant Control schemes (AFTCS). PFTCS needs objective, objective, which motivates the

its

Fault

neither

Fault Tolerant

Fault

Tolerant Control

Detection

Control schemes

and (AFTCS).

Diagnosis

schemes (AFTCS). (FDD) PFTCS

schemes

PFTCS

neither Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) schemes nor fault tolerance

needs

nor

needs fault tolerance

objective,

fault whichproperties.

tolerance motivates The

properties. the current

The fault

current study,

study, consists

fault tolerance

tolerance consists of

of its

capabilities

its

capabilities

neither

neither Fault

controller Detection

Detection and

reconfiguration, butDiagnosis

it (FDD) schemes

schemes nor nor of the controller properties.

must Themonitoring

include fault tolerance

tolerance

for capabilities

faults. As an

controllerFault

reconfiguration, andbut it has

has limited

Diagnosis (FDD)faulttolerant

limited faulttolerant fault

of

of the

the

tolerance

controller

controller

properties.

must

must

The

include

include

fault

monitoring

monitoring for

for

capabilities

faults.

faults. As

As an

an

controller

capabilities. reconfiguration,

In contrast

controller reconfiguration, tobut it

PFTCS,

but has limited

AFTCS

it has AFTCS faulttolerant

reacts

limited faulttolerantto the example,

of the the

controller FTC problem

must includewas recently

monitoring

example, the FTC problem was recently analysed but with analysed

for but

faults. Aswith

an

capabilities.

capabilities. In

In contrast

contrast to

to PFTCS,

PFTCS, AFTCS reacts

reacts to

to the

the example, the FTC problem was recently analysed but with

system component

capabilities. In faults

contrast actively

to PFTCS, by reconfiguring

AFTCS reacts control

to the reference

example, to

the anFTCoffshore

problem wind turbine

was benchmark

recently analysed (Odgaard

but with

system component faults actively by reconfiguring control reference to an offshore wind turbine benchmark (Odgaard

system

system component

actions

actions so

so that

that the

component faults actively

stability

thefaults and

actively

stability and by

by reconfiguring

acceptable control reference

control

performance

reconfiguring

acceptable performance

et al.

reference

et

to

to an

al. (2013)).

(2013)). an offshore

offshore windwind turbine

turbine benchmark

benchmark (Odgaard

(Odgaard

actions

of the

actions so that

entire the

system

so thatsystem stability

can

the stability beand acceptable

maintained. Aperformance

successful et

et al.

al. (2013)).

(2013)).

of the entire can beand acceptable A

maintained. performance

successful In In more detail, this paper addresses the development of

more detail, this paper addresses the development of aa

of

of the

AFTCSthe entire

design

entire system

relies

system can

can be

heavily beon maintained.

realtime

maintained. A

A successful

FDD schemes

successful In more detail, this paper addresses the development of a

AFTCS

AFTCS design

design relies

relies heavily

heavily on

on realtime FDD schemes FTC,

In more

FTC, which

detail,

which integrates

this paper

integrates a fault estimation

addresses

a fault scheme

the development

estimation with

scheme with of the

thea

to

AFTCS

to provide

provide the

design most

the relies uptodate

most heavily

uptodate on realtime

information

realtime

information

FDD

FDD schemes

about

schemes

about the

the FTC, design

FTC, which

of

which a integrates

controller

integrates aa fault estimation

accommodation

fault estimation scheme

system.

scheme In with the

particu-

with the

to

to provide

provide thethe most most uptodate

uptodate information

information about about the the designdesign

lar,

of a controller accommodation system. In particu-

of aa controller accommodation system.

system. In particu-

1 Corresponding author.

1 Corresponding author. lar, the

designtheofmethodology

controller for

methodology online

online fault

accommodation

for fault estimation

estimation In relies on

particu-

relies on

1

1 Corresponding author. lar,

lar, the

the methodology

methodology for

for online

online fault

fault estimation

estimation relies

relies on

on

Corresponding author.

Copyright

2405-8963 2015,

2015 IFAC 1345Hosting by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

IFAC (International Federation of Automatic Control)

Copyright 2015 IFAC 1345

Peer review

Copyright

Copyright under

2015 responsibility

2015 IFAC

IFAC of International Federation of Automatic

1345Control.

1345

10.1016/j.ifacol.2015.09.712

SAFEPROCESS 2015

1346

September 2-4, 2015. Paris, France S. Simani et al. / IFAC-PapersOnLine 48-21 (2015) 13451350

fuzzy models estimated via the data acquired from the xc (t) = fc (xc (t), u(t))

process under diagnosis. The controller accommodation (1)

exploiting further control loops depends on the online y(t) = xc (t)

estimate of the fault signals themselves. The suggested

nonlinear fault estimation procedure resembles the ap- T

where u(t) = [vw (t), i (t)] and y(t) = xc (t) =

proach described in (Simani and Castaldi (2014)), even T

if in this paper the nonlinear filters are described as fuzzy [i g (t), Pi g (t)] are the input and the monitored output

prototypes and identified directly from the wind farm data. measurements, respectively. The subscript i indicates the

Both the adaptive filters and the FTC strategy are anal- measurement from the ith wind turbine of the wind

ysed with respect to the wind park simulator described in farm (i = 1, . . . , 9). fc () represents the continuoustime

(Odgaard and Stoustrup (2013)), in the presence of faults, nonlinear function that will be approximated with the

disturbances, measurement noise, and modelling errors. discretetime fuzzy prototype from N sampled data of u(t)

The design of the overall FTC for the wind park simulator and y(t), and using the procedure presented in Section 3.

and based on fuzzy FDD modules represents the novel

contribution of this paper. The proposed solution will 2.1 Simulated Fault Conditions

be also compared with respect to two different strategies

presented in (Simani and Castaldi (2012); Simani et al. In this benchmark three faults are considered that in-

(2014)). fluence the measured variables from the wind turbine,

i.e. i (t), i g (t), and Pi g (t). It is also assumed that the

considered faults can be detected at a wind farm level by

comparing the performance from other wind turbines in

2. OFFSHORE WIND PARK SIMULATOR the wind farm, but they are difficult to detect at a wind

turbine level. Moreover, these three faults affect different

In this benchmark model a simple wind farm with 9 wind wind turbines at different times, as described in more

turbines is considered, arranged in a square grid layout detail in (Odgaard and Stoustrup (2013)).

(Odgaard and Stoustrup (2013)). The distance between The remainder of this section describes the relations

the wind turbines in both directions are 7 times the rotor among the fault cases considered above, and the monitored

diameter, L. Two measuring masts are located in front measurements acquired from the wind park benchmark,

of the wind turbines, one in each of the wind directions in the presence of uncertainty and measurement errors. In

considered in this benchmark model, e.g. 0o and 45o . The this way, it will be shown that the fault isolation task can

wind speed is measured by these measuring masts and be easily solved by using the fuzzy scheme proposed in this

they are located in a distance of 10 times L in front of work, thus representing one of the main motivations of the

the wind farm. The wind turbines of the farm are defined suggested approach. In particular, Table 1 shows the fault

by their row and column indices in the coordinate system effect distribution in the case of single fault occurrence,

illustrated in (Odgaard and Stoustrup (2013)). The farm with respect to the acquired inputs and outputs of the

uses generic 4.8MW wind turbines, which are threebladed wind park simulator.

horizontal axis, pitch controlled variable speed wind tur-

bine. Each of the wind turbines are described by simplified Table 1. The FMEA results for the wind park

models including control logics, variable parameters and 3 benchmark.

states. The ith wind turbine model generates the electri-

Fault affecting Selected measurements Fault

cal power, Pi g (t), the collective pitch angle, i (t), and the wind turbine nr. after FMEA case

generator speed, i g (t). Note that only one measured pitch i = 2, i = 7 {vw (t), 9 (t), P4 g } Fault 1

angle is provided since it is assumed that the wind turbine i = 1, i = 5 {vw (t), 2 (t), P6 g } Fault 2

controller regulates the pitch angles in the same way. The i = 6, i = 8 {vw (t), 3 (t), P7 g } Fault 3

two scenarios with different wind directions but driven

both by the same wind speed sequence vw (t) (possibly with Table 1 was obtained by performing the socalled fault

a time shift) are considered. The wind sequence contains sensitivity analysis, i.e. the Failure Mode & Effect Analysis

a wind mean speed increasing from 5 m/s. to 15 m/s, and (FMEA). In practice, Table 1 is thus built by selecting

with a peak value of about 23 m/s. In this benchmark the most sensitive measurement (ui or yj ) with respect to

model a very simple wind farm controller is used, which the simulated fault conditions. Obviously, when different

provides the wind turbine controllers with a power refer- fault conditions have been considered with respect to the

ence Pi ref (t). If the wind farm is requested to generate scenario of this work, different measurements will probably

a power lower than the available one, the references are be taken into account.

evenly distributed among the wind turbine controllers.

More details on wind farm model considered in this paper 3. FUZZY MODELLING AND IDENTIFICATION

can be found in (Odgaard and Stoustrup (2013)). It is FOR PASSIVE FTC DESIGN

worth noting that the wind farm considered here could

be seen as simplistic model. However, the work (Odgaard

and Stoustrup (2013)) describes how the simulator can fit The proposed FTC method consists of two phases. The

actual wind farm. first stage requires the identification of the nonlinear

dynamic filters, which are required for fault estimation.

With these assumptions, the complete continuoustime From this FDD module, the fault reconstruction is thus

description of the wind farm under diagnosis has the exploited by the control scheme for compensating the

following form: alterations of both the measured and control signals.

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The nonlinear identification approach suggested in this residual generator function for fault estimation can be

work employs fuzzy clustering techniques to partition the directly identified again by exploiting a fuzzy identification

available data into subsets characterised by linear be- scheme, inspired by the unknown input reconstruction.

haviours. Relationships between clusters and linear regres- The nonlinear estimator based on a fuzzy inverse model

sion are exploited, thus allowing for the combination of takes into account the process nonlinearities, including the

fuzzy logic techniques with system identification tools. In inherent saturation (level) constraints of the control inputs

addition, an implementation in the Matlab r Toolbox of and other process variables, and is capable of controlling

the Fuzzy Modelling and IDentification (FMID) technique a nonlinear system in the entire operating range.

recalled in the following is available (Babuska (1998)). In

this study, TS fuzzy models are exploited as they are able First, it is assumed that the rulebased model (2) has been

to provide the nonlinear function between measurements identified for describing the continuoustime behaviour of

and faults. The switching and the scheduling between the the complete wind park system in the discretetime form

submodels is achieved through a smooth function of the (3):

system state, the behaviour of which is defined using fuzzy y(k + 1) = F (x(k), f (k)) (3)

set theory.

where x(k) represents the generic system state and f (k)

3.1 Fuzzy Modelling and Identification the (unknown) fault signal. Its TS prototype has the form

(4):

In more detail, the fuzzy modelling and identification al- M (m) (m) (m) (m) (m)

x (k) a x (k) + b

gorithm is based on a twostep procedure, in which at y(k + 1) =

i=1 i i i

(4)

M (m) (m)

first, the operating regions are determined using the data x (k)

i=1 i

clustering technique, and in particular, the Gustafson

Kessel (GK) fuzzy clustering, since already available in The input of the model is the current state x(m) (k) that

(Babuska (1998)). Then, in the second stage, the estima- collects the lagged inputs u(k) and outputs y(k), as well

tion of the controller parameters is achieved using the as the unknown input f (k). The output is a prediction of

identification algorithm already proposed by one of the the systems output at the next sample y(k + 1). In (4)

same authors in (Simani et al. (1999)), which can be seen (m)

as a generalisation of classical leastsquares. The TS fuzzy the estimated membership functions i , the state x(m) ,

(m) (m)

models have the form of: and the parameters ai , bi of the monitored system are

M denoted by the superscript (m).

i=1 i (x(k)) yi

y(k + 1) = M

(2)

i=1 i (x(k)) 3.2 Fault Estimation for FTC Design

where yi = ai x + bi , with ai the parameter vector The objective of the estimator is to compute the unknown

(regressand), and bi is the scalar offset. M is the number

of clusters. x = x(k) represents the regressor vector, input f(k), such that the system output at the next

which can contain delayed samples of u(k) and y(k). sampling instant is equal to the desired output y(k + 1).

The antecedent fuzzy sets i are extracted from the In principle, this can be achieved by inverting the model

fuzzy partition matrix (Babuska (1998)). The consequent of the process. Given the generic current state x(k) and

parameters ai and bi are estimated from the data using the output y(k), the unknown input f(k) is given by:

the procedure presented in (Simani et al. (1999)). f(k + 1) = F 1 (x(k), y(k)) (5)

This section represents the main contributions of the work

and addresses the identification of the fault estimator Generally, it is difficult to find the analytical inverse func-

structure. Once a reasonably accurate fuzzy description of tion F 1 . Therefore, the method exploited here uses the

the considered benchmark has been available, it is used to identified fuzzy TS models of the process under investiga-

directly estimate the nonlinear behaviour between mea- tion (4) for providing the particular state x(m) (k) at each

surements and fault signals. In particular for this study, time step k. From this mapping, the inverse mapping f(k+

the proposed residual generator design methodology relies 1) = F 1 (x(k), y(k)) is easily identified as a prototype in

on the unknown input reconstruction principle, solved the form (2), if the whole system is stable, and in particular

within the fuzzy identification framework. It is wellknown in the form (6):

that for stable fuzzy systems, whose inverted dynamics M (r) (r) (r) (r) (r)

x (k) a x (k) + b

are stable, a nonlinear estimator for the unknown input i=1 i i i

f(k + 1) = M (r) (r) (6)

can be simply designed by inverting the fuzzy model. x (k)

i=1 i

Moreover, in the ideal situation of no modelling errors and

disturbances, this estimator provides perfect reconstruc- where the inputs of the identified controller model are

tion of the unknown input signal with zero steadystate the state x(r) (k) and the current output y(k). In (6) the

errors. However, in practice, one has to deal with both (r)

estimated membership functions i and the parameters

modelling errors and disturbances, which can be tackled (r) (r)

with an arbitrary degree of accuracy by exploiting the ai , bi of the identified controller model are denoted now

fuzzy modelling approach. by the superscript (r). Therefore, the series connection of

the fault estimator and the identified inverse model, should

It is worth noting that fuzzy identification can been yield to an identity mapping,

used to accurately approximate any nonlinear function. when f (k) exists such that

In the same way, this section tries to explain how the y(k + 1) = F x(m) (k), f(k) . However, due to modelling

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errors, noise, and disturbance, by means of the fuzzy iden- controller can be easily designed considering the faultfree

tification procedure

described

in Section 3, the difference plant.

|y(k + 1) F x(k), f (k) | is made arbitrarily small by an Finally, regarding the stability analysis of the overall FTC

appropriate choice of the parameters of the fuzzy residual system, the simulation results shown in Section 4 highlight

(r)

generator, i.e. the fuzzy membership functions i , the that the model variables remain bounded in a set, which

(r) (r) assures control performance, even in the presence of faults.

number of clusters M , and the regressand ai , bi . The Moreover, the assumed fault conditions do not modify the

process fuzzy model is used for the recursive prediction system structure, thus guaranteeing the global stability.

of the state vector x(m) (k). Therefore, the state of the However, a few more issues can be considered here. It

fuzzy fault estimator x(r) (k) is updated using the process should be clear that in steadystate conditions, when the

model state x(m) (k) and the output y(k). Apart from the fault effect is completely eliminated, the performances of

(r)

computation of the membership degrees i , both the pro- the FTC method are the same of the faultfree situation.

cess model and the controller are estimated using standard Therefore, the performances of the complete system are

matrix operations and linear interpolations, which makes the same of the faultfree nominal controller. The stability

the algorithm suitable for realtime implementation. properties of the FTC scheme should be considered only in

transient conditions, when the fault is not compensated.

Note that the nonlinear filter estimation and the fault However, it is possible to show that the fault estimation

reconstruction are performed online, thus providing non- error is limited and convergent to zero, thus the stability

linear adaptive filters. The fault estimations are therefore of the complete system is maintained.

exploited for the compensation of both the actuated and

measured signals used by the wind park controller. In

particular, in order to compute the simulation results 4. SIMULATED RESULTS

described in Section 4, the FTC scheme has been com-

pleted by means of the wind park controller described In order to show the capabilities of the proposed FTC

in (Odgaard and Stoustrup (2013)). In this way, the sig- strategy, the system has been simulated as described in

nals from the wind farm controller are compensated by (Odgaard and Stoustrup (2013)). Extended simulations

the FDD module providing the fa control additive fault have been also performed by the authors according to a

signals. On the other hand, also the measured outputs more realistic testrig developed in (Odgaard and Johnson

(2013)). The designed nonlinear filters provide the esti-

are compensated via the fy sensor additive fault signals

mate of the magnitude of the different faults acting on the

reconstructed by the FDD module. After these corrections,

the wind park model, as shown in Section 2.

the wind park controller provides the nominal tracking of

the reference signals. Note that these identified nonlinear

filters, organised into a bank structure, are also able to per- 4.1 PFTCS Performances

form the fault isolation task, as described e.g. in (Simani

(2013)). The overall FTC strategy based on the fuzzy FDD As an example, the identified nonlinear fuzzy filter pro-

module is depicted in Fig. 1. vides the reconstruction fa for the fault case 1 of Table 1,

which is decoupled from the effect of both the wind speed

v(t) and the Cp map uncertainty. In order to compute the

simulation results described below, the FTC scheme has

been completed by means of the standard wind park con-

troller implemented in (Odgaard and Stoustrup (2013)).

The following results refer to the simulation of the accom-

modated controller with fault case 1 of Table 1. Hence,

after the proper identification of the fuzzy residual genera-

tor parameters, the nonlinear fuzzy estimator provides the

reconstruction of the fault mode, with minimal detection

delay. The tests refer to the simulation of the actuator

fault modelled as a sequence of rectangular pulses with

Fig. 1. Diagram of the integrated FTC strategy. variable amplitude and length. Fig. 2 shows the estimate

of the intermittent actuator fault fa (dotted grey line),

Fig. 1 describes the structure of the FTC system where compared with the actual fault (dashed black line). It is

u is the controller output, y and Ref are the measured shown that the fault estimation module provides a quite

and the reference outputs, respectively. The signal f is the accurate reconstruction of the fault signal.

generic estimated fault, i.e. the fa or fy additive signals. Under this condition, Fig. 3 shows the power reference

Therefore, Fig. 1 shows that the FTC system is obtained

signal (continuous black line) compared with its desired

by integrating the fuzzy FDD module with the baseline

value (grey dotted line), with fault accommodation.

control system. The FDD module, consisting of a bank

of fuzzy estimators, provides the correct estimates of the In particular, Fig. 3 depicts the power reference to the

fault signals. Each fuzzy estimator of the bank provides wind farm, Pref , which is constant and equal to 43.6MW

the correct detection (isolation) and the estimation of the until t = 2000 s., when it changes to about 30 MW. It

corresponding faults. These estimated signals are injected is worth observing that the suggested fuzzy estimators

into the control loop in order to compensate the effect of provide not only the fault detection, but also the fault

the faults. Thanks to this fault estimation feedback, the estimate. Moreover, a fault modelled as a sequence of

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errors. Under this assumption, Table 2 reports the nominal

values of the considered wind park model parameters of

the wind farm with respect to their simulated uncertainty.

The MonteCarlo analysis has been performed by mod-

elling these variables as Gaussian stochastic processes,

with zeromean and standard deviations corresponding to

realistic minimal and maximal error values of Table 2.

Table 2. Realistic wind park uncertainty.

Variable Nominal Value Min. Error Max. Error

1.225 kg/m3 0.1% 20%

J 7.794 106 kg/m2 0.1% 30%

Fig. 2. Realtime estimate fa of the intermittent fault case Cp Cp 0 0.1% 50%

1. u u0 0.1% 20%

y y0 0.1% 20%

and the power coefficient map Cp entries were affected

by errors, expressed as percent standard deviations of

the corresponding nominal values u0 , y0 , and Cp 0 also

reported in Table 2. Therefore, for performance evaluation

of the control schemes, the best, average, and worst values

of the N SSE% index were computed, and experimen-

tally evaluated with 100 MonteCarlo runs. The value of

N SSE% is computed for several possible combinations of

the parameter values reported in Table 2. It is worth noting

that Table 2 describes the uncertain parameters that have

been simulated in order to analyse the robustness of the

proposed scheme with respect to parameter variations. In

fact, the approach was proposed here also for removing

Fig. 3. Reference signal for the fault 1 with FTC. the effect of the uncertain wind term v(t), and not for

pulses with variable amplitude and length has been consid- handling the parameter variations summarised in Table 2.

ered, since it represents realistic fault conditions. However, Table 3 summarises the results obtained by considering the

the fault estimation module can be easily generalised to proposed FTC scheme integrating the original wind park

estimate, for example, polynomial functions of time, or controller for the different fault cases.

generic signals belonging to a given class of faults, if the Table 3. MonteCarlo analysis for the pro-

filters contain the internal model of the fault itself. The posed FTC: N SSE% values with different

generalisation to more general fault functions is beyond the fault cases.

scope of this paper, but it will be investigated in further

Fault case/Test case Best case Average case Worst case

papers.

Fault case 1 11.14% 12.63% 14.05%

As second example, the simulation of the sensor fault case Fault case 2 12.31% 13.63% 15.74%

2 of Table 1 is reported. Also in this situation, after a Fault case 3 10.46% 11.55% 12.73%

proper choice of the fuzzy residual generator parameters,

an accurate estimate of the fault signal fy is provided. In particular, Table 3 summarises the values of the consid-

The results refer to the simulation of a fault consisting ered performance index according to the best, worst and

of a rectangular pulse with fixed amplitude and length. average cases, with reference to the possible combinations

Also this simulation example shows the efficacy of the of the parameters described in Table 2. Thus, Table 3

presented integrated FDD and FTC strategy, which is able shows that the proposed FTC system allows to maintain

to maintain the reference tracking. In order to summarise good control performances even in the presence of faults,

the advantages of the proposed strategy, the performance errors, and uncertainty effects. The results demonstrate

of the FTC scheme applied to the wind park simulator with also that MonteCarlo simulation is an effective tool for

and without the fault accommodation scheme has been experimentally testing the design robustness of the pro-

evaluated in terms of percent Normalised Sum of Squared posed methods with respect to modelling uncertainty.

tracking Error (N SSE). In this case, the reference signal

r(k) corresponds to the power reference to the wind farm. 4.2 HIL Experiments

Moreover, the simulation of different wind data sequences

has been performed by exploiting the wind park simu- Finally, in order to evaluate the potential of utilising

lator, followed by a Matlab r MonteCarlo analysis. In the proposed control algorithms also in more realistic

particular, the nonlinear wind park benchmark originally conditions and investigate their capability to onboard

developed in the Simulink r environment (Odgaard and implementation, the remainder of this section presents

Stoustrup (2013)) was modified by the authors in order to the results of the socalled HardwareIntheLoop (HIL)

vary the statistical properties of the signals used for mod- tests. These experimental results serve to validate the

1349

SAFEPROCESS 2015

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September 2-4, 2015. Paris, France S. Simani et al. / IFAC-PapersOnLine 48-21 (2015) 13451350

designed control algorithms considering more realistic con- Mahmoud, M., Jiang, J., and Zhang, Y. (2003). Active

ditions that the wind park may experiment with during Fault Tolerant Control Systems: Stochastic Analysis and

its working situations. Therefore, for this purpose, a HIL Synthesis. Lecture Notes in Control and Information

testbed was exploited in this paper and applied to the Sciences. SpringerVerlag, Berlin, Germany. ISBN:

wind park, in order to analyse the capabilities of the 3540003185.

developed FTC approach also in realtime conditions. The Noura, H., Theilliol, D., Ponsart, J.C., and Chamseddine,

results achieved for a single test are summarised in Table A. (2009). Faulttolerant Control Systems: Design and

4 for the proposed FTC system. Moreover, the approach Practical Applications. Advances in Industrial Control.

described in this study has been compared with respect Springer, London, 1 edition.

to the PFTCS developed in (Simani et al. (2014)) and the Odgaard, P.F., Stoustrup, J., and Kinnaert, M. (2013).

adaptive FTC system in (Simani and Castaldi (2012)). On FaultTolerant Control of Wind Turbines: A Bench-

the other hand, the FTC strategy relying on the analytic mark Model. IEEE Transactions on Control Systems

disturbance decoupling approach addressed in (Simani and Technology, 21(4), 11681182. ISSN: 10636536. DOI:

Castaldi (2014)) is also considered. 10.1109/TCST.2013.2259235.

Odgaard, P.F. and Johnson, K. (2013). Wind Turbine

Table 4. HIL results with the considered FTC Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control an En-

solutions: N SSE% values. hanced Benchmark Challenge. In Proc. of the 2013

FTC Scheme Fault 1 Fault 2 Fault 3 American Control Conference ACC, 44474452. IEEE

N SSE% Control Systems Society & American Automatic Con-

Fuzzy identified FDD trol Council, Washington DC, USA. ISSN: 07431619.

module + FTC 13.74% 14.37% 15.01% ISBN: 9781479901777.

Odgaard, P.F. and Stoustrup, J. (2013). Fault Tolerant

Analytic Wind Farm Control a Benchmark Model. In Pro-

disturbance 14.07% 15.06% 15.34%

decoupled FTC

ceedings of the IEEE Multiconference on Systems and

(Simani and Castaldi (2014)) Control MSC2013, 16. Hyderabad, India.

Simani, S. (2013). Residual Generator Fuzzy Identification

PFTCS 32.64% 33.53% 34.98% for Automotive Diesel Engine Fault Diagnosis. Interna-

(Simani et al. (2014)) tional Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computer

Science AMCS, 23(2), 419438. Invited Contribution

Adaptive FTC 31.53% 31.94% 32.07% to the AMCS Quarterly. Organisers: Koscielny, M. J.

(Simani and Castaldi (2012)) and Syfert, M. ISSN: 1641876X. DOI: 10.2478/amcs

20130032.

Regarding the FTC system proposed in this study, Table Simani, S. and Castaldi, P. (2012). Adaptive faulttolerant

4 illustrates that there are some deviations between the control design approach for a wind turbine bench-

achieved results, but consistent with the ones from the mark. In C.M. Astorga-Zaragoza and A. Molina (eds.),

MonteCarlo analysis. Although there are some deviations 8th IFAC Symposium on Fault Detection, Supervision

between the simulation and the experimental results, these and Safety of Technical Processes SAFEPROCESS

deviations are not critical. Moreover, the results obtained 2012, volume 8, 319324. Instituto de Ingeniera, Cir-

here seem reliable enough for future wind farm real ap- cuito escolar, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 04510, Mexico

plications. Moreover, the comparison of Table 4 highlights D.F., IFAC, Mexico City, Mexico. Invited session pa-

that this FTC scheme can achieve better performances in per. ISBN: 9783902823090. ISSN: 14746670. DOI:

terms of tracking error. 10.3182/20120829-3-MX-2028.00066.

Simani, S., Fantuzzi, C., Rovatti, R., and Beghelli, S.

5. CONCLUSION (1999). Parameter identification for piecewise linear

fuzzy models in noisy environment. International Jour-

The paper addressed the development of a passive fault nal of Approximate Reasoning, 1(22), 149167. Pub-

tolerant control scheme applied to an offshore wind farm lisher: Elsevier.

simulator. In particular, a datadriven approach relying on Simani, S., Farsoni, S., and Castaldi, P. (2014). Fault

fuzzy model identification was exploited to build the fault tolerant control of an offshore wind turbine model via

accommodation solution. This simple approach relying on identified fuzzy prototypes. In J.F. Whidborne (ed.),

fuzzy rules can represent an alternative to possible more Proceedings of the 2014 UKACC International Con-

complex design solutions that would have been inevitably ference on Control (CONTROL), 494499. UKACC

derived from purely nonlinear modelbased methods. This (United Kingdom Automatic Control Council), IEEE,

point can represent also a very important aspect when on Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK. ISBN:

line implementations are required for a viable application 9781467306874. Special session invited paper. DOI:

of the proposed strategy. A highfidelity offshore wind 10.1109/CONTROL.2014.6915188.

farm simulator realised via the hardwarein-the-loop tool Simani, S. and Castaldi, P. (2014). Active Actuator Fault

was finally exploited to validate the achieved performances Tolerant Control of a Wind Turbine Benchmark Model.

of the suggested scheme. International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control,

24(8), 12831303. John Wiley. DOI: 10.1002/rnc.2993.

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