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Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems 31 (2016) 663671 663

DOI:10.3233/IFS-162179
IOS Press

The generalized Dice measures for multiple


attribute decision making under simplified
neutrosophic environments
Jun Ye
Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing,
Zhejiang Province, P.R. China

Abstract. A simplified neutrosophic set (SNS) is a subclass of neutrosophic set and contains a single-valued neutrosophic
set (SVNS) and an interval neutrosophic set (INS). It was proposed as a generalization of an intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS)
and an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set (IVIFS) in order to deal with indeterminate and inconsistent information. The
paper proposes another form of the Dice measures of SNSs and the generalized Dice measures of SNSs and indicates that
the Dice measures and asymmetric measures (projection measures) are the special cases of the generalized Dice measures in
some parameter values. Then, we develop the generalized Dice measures-based multiple attribute decision-making methods
with simplified neutrosophic information. By the weighted generalized Dice measures between each alternative and the ideal
solution (ideal alternative) corresponding to some parameter value required by decision makers preference, all the alternatives
can be ranked and the best one can be obtained as well. Finally, a real example on the selection of manufacturing schemes
demonstrates the applications of the proposed decision-making methods under simplified neutrosophic environment. The
effectiveness and flexibility of the proposed decision-making methods are shown by choosing different parameter values.

Keywords: Generalized Dice measure, Dice measure, decision making, simplified neutrosophic set, asymmetric measure,
projection measure

1. Introduction are very suitable for handling decision making


problems with indeterminate and inconsistent infor-
Multiple attribute decision making is a main branch mation, which IFSs and IVIFSs cannot describe and
of decision theory, where neutrosophic theory intro- deal with. Recently, many researchers have applied
duced by Smarandache [1] has been successfully SNSs and the subclasses of SNSs (SVNSs and INSs)
applied in recent years. As a generalization of an to the decision-making problems. Various methods
intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS) [16] and an interval- have been developed to solve the multiple attribute
valued intuitionistic fuzzy (IVIFS) [17], a simplified decision-making problems with simplified neutro-
neutrosophic set (SNS) introduced by Ye [10] is sophic information. For example, Ye [9] proposed
a subclass of a neutrosophic sets [1], including a the correlation coefficient of SVNSs and applied it
single-valued neutrosophic set (SVNSs) [4] and an to multiple attribute decision making. Chi and Liu
interval neutrosophic set (INSs) [3]. Hence, SNSs [18] and Biswas et al. [21] extended TOPSIS method
to single-valued and interval neutrosophic multiple
Corresponding author. Jun Ye, Department of Electrical and
attribute decision-making problems. Ye [1113] pre-
Information Engineering, Shaoxing University, 508 Huancheng
West Road, Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province 312000, P.R. China. Tel.:
sented some similarity measures of SVNSs, INSs
+86 575 88327323; E-mail: yehjun@aliyun.com. and SNSs and applied them to decision making.

1064-1246/16/$35.00 2016 IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved
664 J. Ye / The generalized Dice measures for multiple attribute decision making

Ye [14] put forward a cross-entropy measure of is given to show the application of the proposed meth-
SVNSs for multiple attribute decision making prob- ods, and then the effectiveness and flexibility of the
lems. Ye [10], Zhang et al. [5], Liu et al. [19], Liu and proposed methods are indicated by choosing different
Wang [20], and Peng et al. [8] developed some simpli- parameter values. Finally, Section 7 contains conclu-
fied, interval and single-valued neutrosophic number sions and future work.
aggregation operators and applied them to multiple
attribute decision-making problems. Peng et al. [7]
and Zhang et al. [6] proposed outranking approaches 2. The Dice measures of SNSs
for multicriteria decision-making problems with sim-
plified and interval neutrosophic information. Sahin As a subset of a neutrosophic set [1], Ye [10] intro-
and Kucuk [22] presented a subsethood measure for duced a SNS and gave its definition.
SVNSs and applied it to multiple attribute decision
making. Sahin and Liu [23] introduced a maxi- Denition 1. [10] A SNS S in the universe of
mizing deviation method for neutrosophic multiple discourse X is defined as S = {x, tS (x), uS (x), v S (x)
attribute decision making with incomplete weight |x X}, where tS (x): X [0, 1], us (x) : X
information. Ye [15] presented a multiple attribute [0, 1], and v s (x) : X [0, 1] are a truth-membership
decision-making method based on the possibility function and an indeterminacy-membership func-
degree ranking method and ordered weighted aggre- tion, a falsity- membership function, respectively,
gation operators of interval neutrosophic numbers. of the element x to the set S with the condition
Since the Dice measure is one of vector similarity 0 ts (x) + us (x) + v s (x) 3 for x X.
measures, it is a useful mathematical tool for han- In fact, SNSs contain the concepts of SVNSs
dling decision-making problems. However, the Dice and INSs, which are the subclasses of SNSs. For
measure of SNSs [13] used for decision making lacks convenience, a component element < x, ts (x),
flexibility in decision-making process. Therefore, it us (x), v s (x) > in a SNS S is denoted by sx =<
is necessary to improve the Dice measure of SNSs tx , ux , v x > for short, which is called the simpli-
to handle multiple attribute decision-making prob- fied neutrosophic number (SNN), where tx , ux , v x
lems to satisfy the requirements of decision makers [0, 1] and 0 tx , +ux + v x 3 for a single-
preference and flexible decision making. In order valued neutrosophic number (SVNN), and then
to do so, the main purposes of this paper are: (1) tx = [txL , txU ] [0, 1], ux = [uL U
x , ux ] [0, 1], v x =
to propose another form of the Dice measures of [v x , v x ] [0, 1] and 0 tx + ux + v U
L U U U
x 3 for an
SNSs, (2) to present the generalized Dice measures interval neutrosophic number (INN).
of SNSs, and (3) to develop the generalized Dice Ye [13] presented the Dice measures of SNSs,
measures-based multiple attribute decision-making which was defined below.
methods with simplified neutrosophic information.
In the decision making process, the main advan- Denition 2. [13] Let S1 = {s11 , s12 , . . . , s1n } and
tage of the proposed methods is more general and S2 = {s21 , s22 , . . . , s2n } be two SNSs. If s1j =<
more flexible than existing decision-making methods t1j , u1j , v 1j , > and s2j =< t2j , u2j , v 2j , > (j =
with simplified neutrosophic information to satisfy 1, 2, . . . , n) are the j-th SVNNs in S1 and S2 respec-
the decision makers preference and/or practical tively, then the Dice measure between S1 and S2 is
requirements. defined as:
The rest of the paper is organized as follows.
Section 2 reviews the Dice measures of SNSs. Sec- n
1  2s1j s2j
tion 3 proposes another form of the Dice measures DSVNN1 (S1 , S2 ) =  2  2 .
of SNSs. In Section 4, we propose the general- n s1j  + s2j 
j=1
ized Dice measures of SNSs and indicate the Dice n
1  2(t1j t2j + u1j u2j + v 1j v 2j )
measures and asymmetric measures (projection mea- =
sures) as the special cases of the generalized Dice n (t 2 + u2 + v 2 ) + (t 2 + u2 + v 2 )
j=1 1j 1j 1j 2j 2j 2j
measures in some parameter values. In Section 5, the (1)
generalized Dice measures-based multiple attribute If s1j =< t1j , u1j , v 1j > and s2j =< t2j , u2j ,
decision-making methods are developed under sim- v 2j > (j = 1, 2, . . . , n) are the j-th INNs in S1 and
plified neutrosophic environment. In Section 6, a real S2 respectively, then the Dice measure between S1
example on the selection of manufacturing schemes and S2 is defined as:
J. Ye / The generalized Dice measures for multiple attribute decision making 665

1  2s1j s2j
n 3. Another form of the Dice measures of SNSs
DINN1 (S1 , S2 ) =  2  2 .
n s1j  + s2j 
j=1 This section proposes another form of the Dice
 L L U U  measures of SNSs, which is defined as follows.
t1j t2j + t1j t2j + uL1j uL2j
2 Denition 3. Let S1 = {s11 , s12 , . . . , s1n } and
1
n
+uU1j uU2j + v L1j v L2j + v U1j v U2j
= (2) S2 = {s21 , s22 , . . . , s2n } be two SNSs. If s1j =<
L 2
n
j=1
(t1j ) + (uL1j )2 + (v L1j )2 t1j , u1j , v 1j > and s2j =< t2j , u2j , v 2j > (j =
1, 2, . . . , n) are the j-th SVNNs in S1 and S2 respec-
+(t1j ) + (uU1j )2 + (v U1j )2
U 2
tively, then the Dice measure between S1 and S2 is

+(t L )2 + (uL )2 + (v L )2 defined as:
2j 2j 2j
U 2
+(t2j ) + (uU2j )2 + (v U2j )2
2(S1 S2 )
DSVNN2 (S1 , S2 ) =
Then, the two Dice measures DSVNN1 (S1 , S2 ) and |S1 |2 + |S2 |2
n
DINN1 (S1 , S2 ) satisfy the following properties [13]: 2 j=1 (t1j t2j + u1j u2j + v 1j v 2j )
(P1) DSVNN1 (S1 , S2 ) = DSVNN1 (S2 , S1 ) and = n n .
j=1 (t1j + u1j + v 1j ) + j=1 (t2j + u2j + v 2j )
2 2 2 2 2 2
DINN1 (S1 , S2 ) = DINN1 (S2 , S1 );
(5)
(P2) 0 DSVNN1 (S1 , S2 ) 1 and 0 DINN1
(S1 , S2 ) 1;
If s1j =< t1j , u1j , v 1j > and s2j =< t2j , u2j ,
(P3) DSVNN1 (S1 , S2 ) = 1 and DINN1 (S1 , S2 ) =
v 2j > (j = 1, 2, . . . , n) are the j-th INNs in S1 and
1, if S1 = S2 .
S2 respectively, then the Dice measure between S1
Especially when tij = tijL = tijU , uij = uL U
ij = uij , and S2 is defined as:
U
and v ij = v Lij = v ij for i = 1, 2 and j = 1, 2, . . . , n
are hold, Equation (2) is degenerated to Equation (1).
In real applications, one usually takes the 2(S1 S2 )
DINN2 (S1 , S2 ) =
important differences of each element sij (i = |S1 |2 + |S2 |2
1, 2; j = 1, 2, . . . , n) into account. Let W =
L L U U
n t1j t2j + t1j t2j + uL L
1j u2j
(w1 , w2 , . . . , wn )T be the weight vector
for sij (i = 2
j=1
1, 2; j = 1, 2, . . . , n), wj 0 and nj=1 wj = 1. +uU u U
+ v L L
v + v U U
v
1j 2j 1j 2j 1j 2j
Then, based on Equations (1) and (2), Ye [13] fur- = .
L 2 U 2 L 2
ther introduced the weighted Dice measures of SNSs, n (t1j ) + (t1j ) + (u1j )
+
respectively, as follows: j=1
+(uU )2 + (v L )2 + (v U )2
n 1j 1j 1j
 2s1j s2j
DWSVNN1 (S1 , S2 ) = w j  2  2 , L 2 U 2
(t2j ) + (t2j ) + (u2j )L 2
n
s1j  + s2j 
j=1
j=1 U 2 L 2 U 2
n
+(u2j ) + (v 2j ) + (v 2j )
 2(t1j t2j + u1j u2j + v 1j v 2j )
= wj (6)
j=1
2
(t1j + u21j + v 21j ) + (t2j
2 + u2 + v 2 )
2j 2j Obviously, the two Dice measures DSVNN2
(3) (S1 , S2 ) and DINN2 (S1 , S2 ) also satisfy the follow-
ing properties:

n
2s1j s2j (P1) DSVNN2 (S1 , S2 ) = DSVNN2 (S2 , S1 ) and
DWINN1 (S1 , S2 ) = wj  2  2
s1j  + s2j  DINN2 (S1 , S2 ) = DINN2 (S2 , S1 );
j=1
  (P2) 0 DSVNN2 (S1 , S2 ) 1 and 0 DINN2
L L U U
t1j t2j + t1j t2j + uL1j uL2j (S1 , S2 ) 1;
2 (P3) DSVNN2 (S1 , S2 ) = 1 and DINN2 (S1 , S2 ) =

n
+uU1j uU2j + v L1j v L2j + v U1j v U2j
= wj . (4) 1, if S1 = S2 .
L 2
j=1
(t1j ) + (uL1j )2 + (v L1j )2
Proof:
+(t1jU 2
) + (uU1j )2 + (v U1j )2
(P1) It is obvious that the property is true.

+(t L )2 + (uL )2 + (v L )2 (P2) It is obvious that the property is true accord-
2j 2j 2j ing to the inequality a2 + b2 2ab for Equations (5)
U 2
+(t2j ) + (uU2j )2 + (v U2j )2 and (6).
666 J. Ye / The generalized Dice measures for multiple attribute decision making

(P3) If S1 = S2 , there are s1j = s2j (j = 1, 2, . . . , 1


n
(t1j t2j + u1j u2j + v 1j v 2j )
n) and |S1 | = |S2 |. So there are DSVNN2 (S1 , S2 ) = 1 = ,
n (t1j
2
+ u21j + v 21j ) + (1 )(t2j
2
+ u22j + v 22j )
and DINN2 (S1 , S2 ) = 1.  j=1

In practical applications, the elements for sij (9)


(i = 1, 2; j = 1, 2, . . . , n) have different weights.
Let W = (w1 , w2 , . . . , wn )T be the weight vec- S1 S2
nfor sij (i = 1, 2; j = 1, 2, . . . , n), wj 0 and
tor GSVNN2 (S1 , S2 ) =
|S1 | + (1 ) |S2 |2
2
j=1 wj = 1. Then, based on Equations (5) and (6) n
we further introduce the weighted Dice measures of (t t + u1j u2j
j=1 1j 2j
+ v 1j v 2j )
= n n ,
SNSs, respectively, as follows: (t 2 + u1j + v 21j ) + (1 )
2 2
(t2j + u22j + v 22j )
j=1 1j j=1
(10)
2(S1 S2 )w where is a positive parameter for 0 1.
DWSVNN2 (S1 , S2 ) =
|S1 |2w + |S2 |2w Then, the generalized Dice measures imply some
n special cases by choosing some values of the param-
2 j=1
w2j (t1j t2j + u1j u2j + v 1j v 2j )
= n n , eter . If = 0.5, the two generalized Dice measures
w2 (t 2
j=1 j 1j
+ u21j + v 21j ) + j=1
w2j (t2j
2
+ u22j + v 22j )
(7)
(9) and (10) are degenerated to the Dice measures (1)
and (5); if = 0, 1, the two generalized Dice mea-
sures are degenerated to the following asymmetric
2(S1 S2 )w measures respectively:
DWINN2 (S1 , S2 ) =
|S1 |2w + |S2 |2w n
1  s1j s2j
L L U U GSVNN1 (S1 , S2 ) =  2
n t1j t2j + t1j t2j + uL L
1j u2j n s2j 
2 j=1
2 j=1 wj
+uU U
1j u2j + vL L
1j v 2j + vU U
1j v 2j 1
n
 t1j t2j + u1j u2j + v 1j v 2j
= . = for = 0, (11)
L 2 U 2
n (t1j ) + (t1j ) + (uL
1j )
2
n t2j
2 + u2 + v 2
j=1
w2 + 2j 2j
j=1 j
+(uU )2
+ (v L 2
) + (v U 2
) n
1  s1j s2j
1j 1j 1j
GSVNN1 (S1 , S2 ) =  2
L 2 U 2
(t2j ) + (t2j ) + (u2j )L 2 n s1j 
n j=1
w2j
n
j=1
+(uU L 2 U 2
2j ) + (v 2j ) + (v 2j )
2
1  t1j t2j + u1j u2j + v 1j v 2j
= for = 1, (12)
(8) n t1j
2 + u2 + v 2
j=1 1j 1j

S1 S2
GSVNN2 (S1 , S2 ) =
4. The generalized Dice measures of SNSs |S2 |2
n
j=1 (t1j t2j +u1j u2j + v 1j v 2j )
In this section, we propose the generalized Dice = n for = 0, (13)
j=1 (t2j + u2j + v 2j )
2 2 2
measures of SNSs to extend the Dice measures of
SNSs. S1 S2
As the generalization of the Dice measures of GSVNN2 (S1 , S2 ) =
|S1 |2
SNSs, the generalized Dice measures between SNSs n
are defined below. j=1 (t1j t2j +u1j u2j + v 1j v 2j )
= n for = 1. (14)
j=1 (t1j + u1j + v 1j )
2 2 2
Denition 4. Let S1 = {s11 , s12 , . . . , s1n } and
S2 = {s21 , s22 , . . . , s2n } be two SNSs, where Obviously, the four asymmetric measures are the
s1j = (t1j , u1j , v 1j ) and s2j = (t2j , u2j , v 2j ) (j = extension of the relative projection measure (the
1, 2, . . . , n) are considered as the j-th SVNNs in improved projection measure) of interval numbers
the SNSs S1 and S2 . Then the generalized Dice mea- [2], hence the four asymmetric measures can be con-
sures between S1 and S2 are defined, respectively, as
sidered as the projection measures of SNSs.
follows:
For practical applications, the elements of sij
(i = 1, 2; j = 1, 2, . . . , n) imply different weights.
1
n
s1j s2j
GSVNN1 (S1 , S2 ) =  2  2 Assume that W = (w1 , w2 . . . , wn )T is the weight
n s1j  + (1 ) s2j 
j=1 vector for sij (i = 1, 2; j = 1, 2, . . . , n), wj 0
J. Ye / The generalized Dice measures for multiple attribute decision making 667


and nj=1 wj = 1. Thus, based on Equations (9) and where is a positive parameter for 0 1. Espe-
(10) we further introduce the following weighted cially, when tij = tijL = tijU , uij = uL U
ij = uij , and v ij =
U
generalized Dice measures of SNSs, respectively, as vL
ij = v ij for i = 1, 2 and j = 1, 2, . . . , n are hold,
follows: Equations (17) and (18) are degenerated to Equations

n
s1j s2j
(9) and (10).
GWSVNN1 (S1 , S2 ) = wj   2  2 Similarly, if = 0.5, the two generalized Dice
j=1

s1j + (1 ) s2j 

measures (17) and (18) are degenerated to the Dice

n measures (2) and (6); if = 0, 1, then the two gener-
t1j t2j + u1j u2j + v 1j v 2j
= wj , alized Dice measures are degenerated to the following
(t1j
2
+ u21j + v 21j ) + (1 )(t2j
2
+ u22j + v 22j )
j=1 asymmetric measures respectively:
(15)
n n
1  s1j s2j 1
GINN3 (S1 , S2 ) =  2 =
n j=1 s2j  n j=1
(S1 S2 )w
GWSVNN2 (S1 , S2 ) = U U
|S1 |2w + (1 ) |S2 |2w
L L
t1j t2j + t1j t2j + uL1j uL2j + uU1j uU2j + v L1j v L2j + v U1j v U2j
n L 2
(t2j U 2
) + (uL2j )2 + (v L2j )2 + (t2j ) + (uU2j )2 + (v U2j )2
j=1 wj (t1j t2j + u1j u2j + v 1j v 2j )
2
= n . (16) for = 0, (19)
w2j (t1j
2
+ u21j + v 21j )+
j=1 n
 s1j s2j
n

n 1 1
GINN3 (S1 , S2 ) =  2 =
(1 ) w2 (t 2 + u22j + v 22j ) n s1j  n
j=1 j 2j j=1 j=1
U U
L L
t1j t2j + t1j t2j + uL1j uL2j + uU1j uU2j + v L1j v L2j + v U1j v U2j
Denition 5. Let S1 = {s11 , s12 , . . . , s1n } and U 2
S2 = {s21 , s22 , . . . , s2n } be two SNSs, where
L 2
(t1j ) + (uL1j )2 + (v L1j )2 + (t1j ) + (uU1j )2 + (v U1j )2
s1j = (t1j , u1j , v 1j ) and s2j = (t2j , u2j , v 2j ) (j = for = 1, (20)
1, 2, . . . , n) are considered as the j-th INNs in the
SNSs S1 and S2 . Then the generalized Dice mea-
sures between S1 and S2 are defined, respectively,
S1 S2
as follows: GINN4 (S1 , S2 ) =
|S2 |2
1 n L L U U
n
s1j s2j 1 (t t + t1j t2j + uL1j uL2j + uU1j uU2j + v L1j v L2j + v U1j v U2j )
GINN3 (S1 , S2 ) =  2  2 = j=1 1j 2j
n s1j  + (1 ) s2j  n = n L 2 U 2 L 2 U 2 L 2 U 2
j=1
j=1
[(t2j ) + (t2j ) + (u2j ) + (u2j ) + (v 2j ) + (v 2j ) ]

n L L
t1j t2j + t U t2j
U
+ uL1j uL2j + uU1j uU2j + v L1j v L2j + v U1j v U2j for = 0, (21)

1j
L 2
 ,
(t1j ) + (uL1j )2 + (v L1j )2 S1 S2
j=1 GINN4 (S1 , S2 ) =
|S1 |2
U 2
+(t1j ) + (uU1j )2 + (v U1j )2 n L L U U
(t t + t1j t2j + uL1j uL2j + uU1j uU2j + v L1j v L2j + v U1j v U2j )
 L 2 
L 2 L 2
(t2j ) + (u2j ) + (v 2j ) j=1 1j 2j
= n
L 2 U 2 L 2 U 2 L 2 U 2
[(t1j ) + (t1j ) + (u1j ) + (u1j ) + (v 1j ) + (v 1j ) ]
+(1 ) j=1
U 2
+(t2j ) + (uU2j )2 + (v U2j )2 for = 1. (22)
(17)
Then, the four asymmetric measures are also con-
S1 S2
GINN4 (S1 , S2 ) = sidered as the extension of the relative projection
|S1 |2 + (1 ) |S2 |2
n measure (the improved projection measure) of inter-
U U
j=1
L L
(t1j t2j + t1j t2j + uL1j uL2j + uU1j uU2j + v L1j v L2j + v U1j v U2j ) val numbers [2], which are also called the projection
=   ,
measures of SNSs.
n L 2
(t1j U 2
) + (t1j ) + (uL1j )2
+ For practical applications, the elements of sij (i =
j=1 +(uU1j )2 + (v L1j )2 + (v U1j )2 1, 2; j = 1, 2, . . . , n) imply different weights.

  Assume that W = (w1 , w2 , . . . , wn )T is the weight
n L 2
(t2j U 2
) + (t2j ) + (uL2j )2
vector sij (i = 1, 2; j = 1, 2, . . . , n), wj 0
(1 ) for
n
+(uU2j )2 + (v L2j )2 + (v U2j )2 j=1 wj = 1. Similarly, based on Equations
j=1 and
(18) (17) and (18) we also further introduce the weighted
668 J. Ye / The generalized Dice measures for multiple attribute decision making

generalized Dice measures of SNSs, respectively, as be used to help identify the best alternative in the
follows: decision set [13]. Hence, by an ideal SVNN

n
s1j s2j
GWINN3 (S1 , S2 ) = wj  2  2 sj =< tj , uj , v j >=< max(tij ), min(uij ), min(v ij ) >
j=1 s1j  + (1 ) s2j  i i i

 L L U U

t1j t2j + t1j t2j + uL1j uL2j or an ideal INN

n
+uU1j uU2j + v L1j v L2j + v U1j v U2j sj =< tj , uj , v j >=< [max(tijL ), max(tijU )],
= wj  L 2
 , i i
j=1
(t1j ) + (uL1j )2 + (v L1j )2
[min(uL U L U
ij ), min(uij )], [min(v ij ), min(v ij )] >
U 2
+(t1j ) + (uU1j )2 + (v U1j )2 i i i i

 L 2 
(t ) + (uL 2
) + (v L 2
) for j = 1, 2, . . . , n and i = 1, 2, . . . , m, we can
2j 2j 2j
+(1 ) determine a simplified neutrosophic ideal solu-
U 2
+(t2j ) + (uU2j )2 + (v U2j )2 tion (ideal alternative) S = {s1 , s2 , . . . , sn }, where
(23)
sj =< tj , uj , v j > is the j-th ideal SNN.
In the decision-making process, decision makers
(S1 S2 )w take some value of the parameter [0, 1] accord-
GWINN4 (S1 , S2 ) =
|S1 |2w + (1 ) |S2 |2w ing to their preference and/or real requirements, the
 L L U U
 weighted generalized Dice measure between Si (i =
n t1j t2j + t1j t2j + uL1j uL2j
j=1 w2j 1, 2, . . . , m) and S is obtained by using one of Equa-
+uU1j uU2j + v L1j v L2j + v U1j v U2j tions (15), (16), (23) and (24) to rank the alternatives.
=  L 2 U 2
 .
n (t1j ) + (t1j ) + (uL1j )2 Thus, the greater the value of the weighted gener-
w2j + alized Dice measure between Si (i = 1, 2, . . . , m)
j=1
+(uU1j )2 + (v L1j )2 + (v U1j )2
and S is, the better the alternative Si is.
 
n L 2
(t2j U 2
) + (t2j ) + (uL2j )2

(1 ) w2j
j=1
+(uU2j )2 + (v L2j )2 + (v U2j )2 6. Decision-making example
(24) of manufacturing schemes

A real example about the decision-making prob-


5. Decision making-methods based lem of manufacturing schemes with simplified
on the generalized Dice measures neutrosophic information is given to demonstrate
the applications and effectiveness of the proposed
In this section, we propose multiple attribute decision-making methods in realistic scenarios.
decision-making methods by using the generalized To select the best manufacturing scheme (alter-
Dice measures of SNSs under simplified neutro- native) for the flexible manufacturing system in a
sophic environment. manufacturing company, the technique department of
For multiple attribute decision-making problems, the company provides four manufacturing schemes
let S = {S1 , S2 , . . . , Sm } be a set of alternatives and (alternatives) with respect to some product as a set
R = {R1 , R2 , . . . , Rn } be a set of attributes. Then, of the alternatives S = {S1 , S2 , S3 , S4 } for the flex-
the weight of the attribute
Rj (j = 1, 2, . . . , n) is ible manufacturing system. A decision must be made
wj , wj [0, 1] and nj=1 wj = 1. Thus, the fit judg- according to the four attributes: (1) R1 is the improve-
ment (satisfaction evaluation) of an attribute Rj (j = ment of quality; (2) R2 is the market response; (3)
1, 2, . . . , n) for an alternative Si (i = 1, 2, . . . , m) R3 is the manufacturing cost; (4) R4 is the manu-
is represented by a SNS Si = {si1 , si2 , . . . , sin }, facturing complexity. The weight vector of the four
where sij =< tij , uij , v ij > is a SVNN for 0 tij + attributes W = (0.3, 0.25, 0.25, 0.2)T is given by
uij + v ij 3 or an INN for 0 tijU + uU U
ij + v ij decision makers.
3 (j = 1, 2, . . . , n and i = 1, 2, . . . , m). Therefore, In the decision-making problem, the decision mak-
we can establish a simplified neutrosophic decision ers are required to make the fit judgment (satisfaction
evaluation) of an attribute Rj (j = 1, 2, 3, 4) for an
matrix D = (sij )mn .
alternative Si (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) and to give simplified
In the multiple attribute decision-making problem, neutrosophic evaluation information, which is shown
the concept of an ideal solution (ideal alternative) can in the following decision matrix with SVNNs:
J. Ye / The generalized Dice measures for multiple attribute decision making 669

D= Table 1
The measure values of Equation (15) and ranking orders
(0.75, 0.2, 0.3) (0.7, 0.2, 0.3) (0.65, 0.2, 0.25) (0.75, 0.2, 0.1)
GWSVNN1 GWSVNN1 GWSVNN1 GWSVNN1 Ranking order
(0.8, 0.1, 0.2) (0.75, 0.2, 0.1) (0.75, 0.2, 0.1) (0.85, 0.1, 0.2)
(S1 , S ) (S2 , S ) (S3 , S ) (S4 , S )
.
(0.7, 0.2, 0.2) (0.78, 0.2, 0.1) (0.85, 0.15, 0.1) (0.76, 0.2, 0.2) 0 0.8895 0.9517 0.9361 0.9287 S2
S3
S4
S1
(0.8, 0.2, 0.1) (0.85, 0.2, 0.2) (0.7, 0.2, 0.2) (0.86, 0.1, 0.2) 0.2 0.9157 0.9667 0.9558 0.9472 S2
S3
S4
S1
0.5 0.9612 0.9924 0.9876 0.9816 S2
S3
S4
S1
Then, the developed decision-making methods can 0.7 0.9966 1.0119 1.0104 1.0100 S2
S3
S4
S1
be used for the decision making problem. 1 1.0594 1.0455 1.0475 1.0641 S4
S1
S3
S2
According to
sj =< tj , uj , v j >= < max(tij ), min(uij ), min(v ij ) >
Table 2
i i i The measure values of Equation (16) and ranking orders

for j = 1, 2, 3, 4 and i = 1, 2, 3, 4, we can obtain GWSVNN2 GWSVNN2 GWSVNN2 GWSVNN2 Ranking order
(S1 , S ) (S2 , S ) (S3 , S ) (S4 , S )
an ideal solution (ideal alternative) as follows:
0 0.8908 0.9503 0.9387 0.9372 S2
S3
S4
S1
S = {s1 , s2 , s3 , s4 } 0.2 0.9175 0.9667 0.9587 0.9557 S2
S3
S4
S1
  0.5 0.9605 0.9924 0.9903 0.9849 S2
S3
S4
S1
< 0.8, 0.1, 0.1 >, < 0.85, 0.2, 0.1 >, 0.7 0.9915 1.0102 1.0126 1.0054 S3
S2
S4
S1
= . 1 1.0419 1.0383 1.0479 1.0378 S3
S1
S2
S4
< 0.85, 0.15, 0.1 >, < 0.86, 0.1, 0.1 >
By using Equation (15) or (16) and different values the alternative S2 is the best choice among all
of the parameter , the weighted generalized Dice the alternatives.
measure values between Si (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) and S (3) When = 1, the two weighted generalized
can be obtained, which are shown in Tables 1 and 2 Dice measures are reduced to the weighted
respectively. projection measures of S on Si . Thus, the
From Tables 1 and 2, we can see that different rank- alternative S3 or S4 is the best choice among
ing orders are indicated by taking different values of all the alternatives.
the parameter and different generalized Dice mea- Obviously, according to different values of the
sures. Then we can obtain that the best alternative is parameter and different measures, ranking orders
S2 or S3 or S4 . may be different. Thus the proposed decision-making
Furthermore, for the special cases of the two gener- methods can be assigned some value of and some
alized Dice measures we obtain the following results: measure to satisfy the decision makers preference
(1) When = 0, the two weighted generalized and/or real requirements.
Dice measures are reduced to the weighted If the fit judgment (satisfaction evaluation) of an
projection measures of Si on S . Thus, the attribute Rj (j = 1, 2, 3, 4) for an alternative Si
alternative S2 is the best choice among all the (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) is given in the decision making
alternatives. problem by the following decision matrix with INNs:
D=

< [0.7, 0.8], [0.1, 0.2], [0.2, 0.3] > < [0.7, 0.8], [0.1, 0.2], [0.2, 0.3] >

< [0.7, 0.9], [0.1, 0.2], [0.2, 0.3] > < [0.7, 0.8], [0.1, 0.3], [0.1, 0.2] >

< [0.7, 0.8], [0.1, 0.3], [0.2, 0.3] > < [0.8, 0.9], [0.1, 0.2], [0.1, 0.2] >

< [0.8, 0.9], [0.2, 0.3], [0.1, 0.2] > < [0.8, 0.9], [0.2, 0.3], [0.2, 0.3] >

< [0.6, 0.7], [0.1, 0.2], [0.2, 0.4] > < [0.7, 0.8], [0.1, 0.2], [0.1, 0.2] >

< [0.7, 0.8], [0.2, 0.3], [0.1, 0.2] > < [0.8, 0.9], [0.0, 0.1], [0.2, 0.3] >
.
< [0.8, 0.9], [0.1, 0.2], [0.1, 0.1] > < [0.7, 0.8], [0.1, 0.2], [0.1, 0.2] >

< [0.7, 0.8], [0.1, 0.2], [0.1, 0.3] > < [0.7, 0.9], [0.0, 0.1], [0.1, 0.3] >

(2) When = 0.5, the two weighted generalized


Dice measures are reduced to the weighted
Dice similarity measures of Si and S . Thus,
670 J. Ye / The generalized Dice measures for multiple attribute decision making

Then, according to Table 3


The measure values of Equation (23) and ranking orders
sj =< tj , uj , v j >=< [max(tijL ), max(tijU )], GWINN3 GWINN3 GWINN3 GWINN3 Ranking order
i i
(S1 , S ) (S2 , S ) (S3 , S ) (S4 , S )
[min(uL U L U
ij ), min(uij )], [min(v ij ), min(v ij )] > 0 0.9085 0.9770 0.9861 1.0159 S4
S3
S2
S1
i i i i 0.2 0.9325 0.9819 0.9860 1.0015 S4
S3
S2
S1
0.5 0.9737 0.9903 0.9901 0.9863 S2
S3
S4
S1
for j = 1, 2, 3, 4 and j = 1, 2, 3, 4, we can
0.7 1.0053 0.9966 0.9955 0.9797 S1
S2
S3
S4
obtain the ideal solution (ideal alternative) as follows: 1 1.0601 1.0072 1.0075 0.9746 S1
S3
S2
S4

S = {s1 , s2 , . . . , sn }


< [0.8, 0.9], [0.1, 0.2], [0.1, 0.2] >,

Table 4


The measure values of Equation (24) and ranking orders
< [0.7, 0.8], [0.1, 0.2], [0.1, 0.2] >,
GWINN4 GWINN4 GWINN4 GWINN4 Ranking order
= . (S1 , S ) (S2 , S ) (S3 , S ) (S4 , S )

< [0.8, 0.9], [0.1, 0.2], [0.1, 0.1] >,



S4
S3
S2
S1



0 0.9035 0.9726 0.9790 1.0109
< [0.8, 0.9], [0.0, 0.1], [0.1, 0.2] > 0.2 0.9306 0.9795 0.9833 1.0011 S4
S3
S2
S1
0.5 0.9743 0.9901 0.9900 0.9867 S2
S3
S4
S1
According to Equations (23) or (24) and different 0.7 1.0059 0.9972 0.9945 0.9774 S1
S2
S3
S4
1 1.0572 1.0082 1.0013 0.9637 S1
S2
S3
S4
values of the parameter , the weighted generalized
Dice measure values between Si (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) and
S can be obtained, which are shown in Tables 3 and methods based on generalized Dice measures.
4 respectively. Therefore, in the decision-making process, the
From Tables 3 and 4, different ranking orders are decision-making methods developed in this paper
shown by taking different values of and different are more general and more flexible than existing
measures. Then we can obtain that the best alternative decision-making methods under simplified neutro-
is S1 or S2 or S4 . sophic environment.
Furthermore, for the special cases of the two gener-
alized Dice measures we obtain the following results:
7. Conclusion
(1) When = 0, the two weighted generalized
Dice measures are reduced to the weighted
This paper proposed another form of the Dice
projection measures of Si on S . Thus, the
measures between SNSs and the generalized Dice
alternative S4 is the best choice among all the
measures of SNSs and indicated the Dice measures
alternatives.
of SNSs and the projection measures (asymmetric
(2) When = 0.5, the two weighted generalized
measures) of SNSs are the special cases of the gen-
Dice measures are reduced to the weighted
eralized Dice measures of SNSs corresponding to
Dice similarity measures of Si and S . Thus,
some parameter values. Then, we developed multi-
the alternative S2 is the best choice among all
ple attribute decision-making methods based on the
the alternatives.
generalized Dice measures of SNSs under simplified
(3) When = 1, the two weighted generalized
neutrosophic environment. According to different
Dice measures are reduced to the weighted
parameter values and some measure preferred by
projection measures of S on Si . Thus, the
decision makers, by the weighted generalized Dice
alternative S1 is the best choice among all the
measure between each alternative and the ideal
alternatives.
solution (ideal alternative), all alternatives can be
Therefore, according to different values of the ranked and the best alternative can be selected as
parameter and different measures, ranking orders well. Finally, a real example about the selection
may be also different. Thus the proposed decision- of manufacturing schemes (alternatives) demon-
making methods can be assigned some value of strated the applications of the developed methods
and some measure to satisfy the decision makers under simplified neutrosophic environment, and then
preference and/or real requirements. the effectiveness and flexibility of the developed
Obviously, the decision-making methods based decision-making methods were shown corresponding
the Dice measures and the projection measures are to different parameter values. In the decision-making
the special cases of the proposed decision-making process under simplified neutrosophic environment,
J. Ye / The generalized Dice measures for multiple attribute decision making 671

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