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SNAME Transactions, Vol. 88, 1980, pp.


A Practical Guide to the Design and Installation of Crude Oil

Washing Systems
W . C. C o w l e s I

This paper is presented as a guide for retrofitting of modern, tankers to incorporate Intergovernmen-
tal Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) and U.S. Coast Guard crude oil tank washing require-
ments. The experiences of a major oil company in implementing the IMCO Tanker Safety and Pollu-
tion Prevention (1978) Conference requirements for crude oil washing installations in its fleet of ul-
tralarge and very large crude carriers is described. The early development of crude oil washing is
recounted and the economic and pollution prevention incentives discussed. IMCO requirements
are described, performance criteria examined, design procedures explained, and numerous exam-
piles of design and installation practices cited.

Introduction several years (see bibliography appended to paper). The op-

It is the objective of this presentation to provide guidelines eration is well summarized in the following excerpts from the
for the design of crude oil washing (COW) installations based introductory section of Guidelines for Tank Washing with
on the experiences to date of a major oil company in retrofitting Crude Oil: "
a representative selection of very large crude carriers (VLCC's) After discharge of cargo, ship's tanks which have held
and uhralarge crude carriers (ULCC's) in compliance with the crude oil usually contain deposits of sediment on the tank
Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization Tanker bottoms and other horizonta! surfaces of the tank's
Safety and Pollution Prevention (IMCO/TSPP) 1978 Specifi- structures. This sediment, which has settled from the
cations. cargo on passage, consists mainly of waxy and asphaltic
The ~essels involved had all been previouslyfitted with ex- substances. If allowed to remain, it will build Up after
tensive installations in keeping with the company objective of several voyages and impede drdinage and also reduce the
complete crude washing of all cargo tanks whenever terminal cargo-carrying capacity. All oil and sediment must be
removed from cargo tanks which are to be used for clean
and discharge conditions permitted. ballast.
The original installations were carried out in the period
Traditionally, tanks have been cleaned by washing with
1976-1977. Most of the installations were retrofits to existing jets of water, but such a method bf washing produces a
ships, though a small number of vessels still under construction large amount of oily water which must be separated.
or in the design state were included. The separation process is complicated by the oil and
The design of these C O W systems was based on extensive water emulsions which are produced during washing.
testing of prototype installations and was considered adequate This has led to the retention on board of large quantities
at the time to achieve significant environmental benefits by way of water along with the slop oil, recovered by the load-
of minimizing water washing of tanks with the consequent on-top procedure. Under the load-on-top procedures,
inevitable discharge of some oil into the seas. Indications at the cargo is subsequentl X mixed with the oil/water and is "
discharged as part otthe, cargo at the receiving port.
time were that the installation of these systems would result in
an acceptable return on investment. In crude oil washing, part of the cargo is circulated
The installations carried out at that time, however, in many through the fixed tank cleaning equipment to remove the
waxy asphaltic deposits.' This is normally carried out
cases fall significantly short of compliance with the IMCO/ during discharge. Crude oil washing has .proved to be
TSPP 1978 C O W Specifications. In addition, experience has more effective than water washing for this purpose,
shown that in some cases the crude oil washing operation re- because the crude oil acts to disperse and suspend the
sulted in excessive terminal delays at discharge. sediments and tends to restore the cargo to its as-loaded
What is crude oil washing? After crude oil washingl water washing of tank bottoms
and flushing of cargo lines is required if the tank is to
The background and philosophy of crude oil washing has receive clean ballast or if gas freeing is required for any
been reported in various papers and publications during the past. reason.
In the past, it has been recognized that crude oil itself
1 Exxon International Company, Florham Park, New Jersey. might be the most effective medium for removing crude
Presented at the March 13, 1980 meeting of the New York Metro- oil sediment from tanks. The advent of tank cleaning
politan Section of THE SOCIETy OF NAVAL ARCHITECTS AND MA- apparatus fitted within the tanks and served by
RINE ENGINEERS. permanent piping make it possible for cargo to be
Author Cowles received the 1980 Vice Admiral E. L. Cochrane circulated through the tank cleaning system without risk
Award for this paper, chosen as the best paper presented before a of escape from hose connections or deck openings. At
Section of the Society. the same time, the introduction of inert gas provided a
means of controlling the tank atmosphere and keeping it ed to segregated ballast tankers or may operate until
outside the flammable range. These innovations paved June 1985 as clean ballast tankers)
the way for a thorough evaluation of the process and it 70 000 dwt and over: June 1981
was found to offer a number of advantages. (Vessels in this class can also operate as clean ballast
POLLUTION AVOIDANCE tankers but only to June 1983, after which they must ei-
The load-on-top procedure has been recognized for ther implement COW or be converted to segregated bal-
several years as an effective method of reducing oil last vessels)
pollution of the sea. Its principal feature is the New Crude Carriers (keel laid after January 1980)
separation and retention on board of the oil content of 20 000 dwt and over
the oil/water mixtures generated by the ballasting and The IMCO/TSPP 1978 requirements for crude oil washing,
water washing of oily tanks. segregated ballast and clean ballast are shown graphically in
Without crude oil washing, large quantities of water are Fig. 1.
needed to clean cargo tanks and the resulting mixtures
and emulsions, together with dirty ballast mixtures, must A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and c e r t i f i c a t i o n
be retained on board until they have been settled and
separated. This process is much simplified when tanks For U.S.-fiag vessels, implementation of the IMCO Specifi-
have first been crude oil washed. The oil content of cations falls under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Coast Guard.
dirty ballast is greatly reduced. Cargo tanks which are Implementing Regulations were published in the Federal
to' be used for clean ballast need only a short rinse with Register of November 19, 1979. Other governments are ar-
water after oil washing but pumps and lines must be ranging for certification to be carried out either by an estab-
thoroughly flushed with water. Tanks which are not lished government regulatory body, as for example the United
required for ballast need not be water washed during Kingdom Department of Trade (DOT); by designation of au-
normal trading as sediment is kept under control by " thority to a classification society as in the case of Liberia, for
crude oil washin~g. Cargo tanks of segregated ballast whom the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) will act; or in
vessels fall into this category.
some cases by a combination wherein a classification body
Thus, not only is the quantity of residue in the ship
greatly reduced, but the quantity of oil/water mixture provides inspection services but the issuance of certificates re-
produced is much smaller and the operation itself is mains a direct function of a governmental body.
shortened. These factors reduce the potential for It should be noted that U.S. regulations become effective in
pollution. accordance with the aforementioned IMCO target dates and
are applicable to any vessel discharging in U.S. ports or U.S.
The salt water content of crude oil cargoes poses a Foreign-flag vessels trading to the United States will be re-
continuing problem for oil refineries. The elimination of quired to have on board a document from the government of
water from cargo only tanks and the reduction in the the vessel's flag state that certifies compliance with Resolution
quantity of slops after crude oil washing reduces salt .
water contamination of the subsequent cargo. 15 of the MARPOL Protocol or appropriate letters of accep-
tance issued by the U.S. Coast Guard.
In the load-on-top procedure, the ship's capacity to load Technical
new cargo is reduced by the weight of retained slops and The SpecificatiOns include five aspects of design as fol-
sediments on board. A typical oil/water quantity for a lows:
215,000 dwt tanker after water washing is 1200/2300 Piping
tons and for a vessel of the same size which has carried Tank wash machines
out a full crude oil wash a typical figure is 360 tons; this
increases the effective cargo capacity of the vessel. Pumps
Stripping systems'
Ballast lines
IMCO requirements Each of these is discussed in detail in following sections.
IMCO crude oil washing requirements were initially set forth
m a document entitled "Specifications for the Design, Opera- O p e r a t i o n a n d e q u i p m e n t m a n u a l
tion and Control of Crude Oil Washing Systems" adopted by Crude oil washing must be carried out in strict compliance
TSPP 1978. In adopting the Specifications, the Conference with a carefully preplanned program. The IMCO Specifica-
recognized that "further improvement may be required in the tions require that a Crude Oil Washing Operation and
Specifications taking into account the development of tech- Equipment Manual be prepared and approved. The manual
nology in this field and in the light of experience gained". must include representative COW programs and the effec-
The Specifications underwent extensive review by IMCO tiveness of the programs must be demonstrated as a part of the
committees and work groups and a number of changes, am- certification procedure.
mendments and interpretations were adopted a( the November The COW program must provide for washing at each dis-
1979 session of IMCO. These amended Specifications and their charge all tanks that will receive ballast water, including those
accompanying interpretations provide the current basis for the that may be required for heavy weather ballast, and also 25
design and installation of crude oil washing systems. percent of all remaining tanks on a rotational basis. Every tank
must be crude washed at least once a year; however, no tank
Applicability and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n need be washed more frequently than once every four months,
The IMCO convention established target dates for imple- except as may be regularly required for cargo/ballast tanks.
mentation of crude oil washing. The applicability and target The standard method of operation is to begin discharging
dates are as follows: groups of wing tanks from forward to aft so that acceptable trim
and stress conditions are maintained. Discharge is conducted
Existing Crude Carriers so that tanks are emptied progressively, thereby allowing crude
40 000 to 70 000 dwt: June 1981 .. oil washing to begin as soon as possible and minimizing delay
(As an alternative to COW, these vessels may be convert- time due to COW. When two or more grades of cargo are
28 A Practical Guide to the Design and Installation of Crude Oil Washing.Systems
1979 1980 1981 -1982 1983 1984 ].985 1986
SOLAS 1974, MARPOL 1973 -~ ]
Target ~ate, Target Date ~ I

~ I ~ ,
d I
o; I "~ I
New product: I ~ I
". '. IGS ~ I I ', I
20-30 Mdwt ~ I
1 I ....
New product : SBT/PL"
30 + Mdwt, IGS I ~ , I ........ ]
; i. I , J
New crude: SBT/PL
2 0 + Mdwt ......:.:.:.........+:.:.:.:.:.:.;.:.:.............,~ COW* I * .......... . ......................................... ; .......................................................................... ................. , f ,, ,,,,**,:1
IGS ~ P , , . , ~ I
Existing Crude':- I b I
2 0 - 4 0 Mdwt ~ ..............!:.::i..........!..~ I IGS ~ I
I , I
i I I ""
Existing crude:
'CBT o r SBT o r COW " ~ ~ : : : . :
40- 70 Mdwt ~ : :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: i iGs
Existing crude:
CBT o r SBT o r COW ~.'i~?:i:i:i!ii!?:i:i:?:?:?i:i:i:i:i:!i:i?i:i$ii![i!~.~
SBT o r COW!:i~i~i~i~!!i!:~:~$!:
70+ Mdwt ~iiiiiiiii!iiiiiiii!iii:iiiiiiiiii~j~i~ii~iiiiiii~?iiiyiiiiiiiii~ IGS
Existing product:
20-40 Mdwt e ~ I I 7 - . : IGS if HCWM*** i~
l I
Existing product~ I
CBT or SBT ~:~:~:!:i:!:!:i:i:i:!:i:!:i!i!i!~:~i~i~i~i~i~i~i~i~i~i~i!i!i!~!!!iiiii!:i:i:i!i:i!~:>-~i~i~i~i~i~i~i~i!i!i!i~i~i~i~i~i~i~i~i~i~iiiiiiiiiiiiiii
40-70 Mdwt ~ l I - ~/ ! ms I* I
Existing product:
CBT or. SBT '-~...:~:.(.:/...:.::.$:.:-::~ff:.:..~:.::....:.:i$-:....:.:~k~:~:~:~:i~:~$:.:.~.:.~:..::...:.:`:.i:i~i:.:.:ji:i~:.~.~:.:.~:~!:~:.:.:.:.:j.:::.::.:j.:.:;...:;..:.:.:.]
7 0 - F M d w t ~ Ics t- I

*IGS is always required **Ships without HCWM may be exempted ***HCWbl (high capacity washing machines)
when COW is operated. by their flag state from installing have capacities of 60 cubic meters
IGS if this installatign is'considered "per hour or more.

k.. ' Fig. 1 I M C O / T S P P target~implemenlation dates ,

carried, each is discharged separately and tankage is washed Because of the ambiguity of this requirement and the eco-
separately so that in effect independent cargo operations take nomic necessity of initiating the COW retrofit programs during
place. the 1979 repair period in order to achieve compliance with the
1981 target date, a program was undertaken to establish in-
house criteria for cleanliness that could be used with confidence
Design criteria "
that installations would be acceptable to certifying bodies,
IMCO Specifications require compliance with four separate would satisfy the intent of the Conventions as regards the
criteria for tank cleanliness before certification can be achieved. minimizing of pollution with oil, and would be compatible with
These are: existing installations.
The criteria, developed with the background of several years
1. Number and arrangement of tankwash machines so that of crude washing experience and numerous tests and tank in-
85 ~)ercent of tank sides and 90 percent of tank bottom and spections associated therewith, defined four grade~ of tank
horizontal surfaces of major structure be subject to direct im- cleanliness as follows:
pingement from a tank wash machine.
2. A visual inspection after completion of.a programmed EXCELLENT: All parts of tank are clean. Limited water
crude washing shall confirm the tank to be essentially free of rinse (bottom flush) may be necer~saryto remove oil heel if clean
oil clingage and deposits. ballast is to be carried. .
8. The amount of oil floating On top of departure ballast
shall not exceed 0.00085 of the total tank volume. GOOD: All parts 'of tank almost clean. Water rinse is suf-
4. The oil content of arrival (clean) ballast when'discharged ficient to complete cleaning if clean ballast is to be carried.
shall not exceed 15 ppm. FAIR: Tank clean enough for dirty ballast and/0r sludge
Criteria for the definition and interpretation of the first re- elingage control.
quirement are discussed hereafter. The third and fourth re- UNSATISFACTORY: Tank not clean enough for sludge)/
quirements are explicit and no particular interpretations are elingage control.
required. The second requirement is clearly subjective,.
however, and has been the object of considerable discussion. At the time the COW retrofit program was initiated, there
Owners, operators, and certifying bodies are devoting a great was a widely held view that the specifications intended a higher
deal of effort to the development of procedures that will assure degree of cleanliness for ballast tanks than for cargo only tanks.
reasonably uniform interpretation of the "essentially free of oil" In keeping with this view, five.possible interpretations of the
criterion. TSPP Specifications were identified as follows:
A P r a c t i c a l G u i d e to t h e D e s i g n a n d Install~ition of C r u d e Oil W a s h i n g Systems 29
1 2 3 4 5 require that any tank receiving clean ballast first be water rinsed
Clean ballast tanks ood ood good good good or water flushed.
Dirty ballast tanks as t~eCyare* ~a(ir good ood good
Cargo only tanks as they are~/ fair as they are* ~a(ir good Crude oil washing is carried out during cargo discharge or
may to an extent be carried out at sea between discharge ports.
* As previouslynoted, all vesselsin the current program had previously It must be completed before departure from the final discharge
been fully outfitted for crude washing to an extent that provided control port. No ballast can be loaded into a tank that hal not been
of sludge buildup. crude oil washed, and, as noted in the preceding, under the
IMCO Specifications as presently written, clean ballast can be
It was ultimately concluded that Interpretation 4 was most loaded only into tanks that have had a water rinse or a water
reasonable and this wa s accepted as providing the basis for flush.
design. Water rinsing refers to a complete or partial washing of the
It has been our practice to subject one vessel of each class to tanks with seawater using the tank cleaning machines through
be retrofitted to an inspection of representative tanks after a complete or partial cycle. Water flushing refers to the in-
completion of a carefully programmed and monitored crude troduction of a quantity of seawater through the ballast lines
oil wash. The condition of the tank is carefully documented to remove residual oil (heel) that may have remained in the
and this inspection forms the basis for any repositioning of or bottom after crude washing. I n either case the water-oil
'additional tank wash machines. Excerpts from a typical in- mixture is stripped to the slop tanks where normal decanting
spection report are presented in Appendix 1. and load-on-top procedures follow.
The recommended arrangement is then checked by means Crude oil washing is carried out by means of properly de-
of shadow drawings to confirm that the 85/90 percent direct signed, permanently piped fixed-in-place tank cleaning ma-
impingement criterion is satisfied. chines. All or most of these will be high-capacity type--60
The validity of this design procedure has been fairly well m3/hr or greater. There are numerous manufacturers of
substantiated. Vessel inspections carried out in conjunction suitable equipment. Butterworth Systems Inc. is one of the
with representatives of the certifying bodies have confirmed major manufacturers, and as an affiliate firm has been the major
a general consistency ,.'n the interpretation of cleanliness cri- supplier to our vessels. Although we do operate vessels outfitted
teria. with units of other manufacture, most of the present discussion
One of the amendments to the original Specifications states: will relate particularly to Butterworth equipment. Principles
"For e~isting crude oil tankers the Administration may permit of design and installation are equally applicable to machines
the percentages required in (i) and (ii) of this paragraph to be of other manufacture.
exceeded for tanks having complicated internal structural Tank wash machines can be catergorized variously. Of most
members provided that the percentages calculated over all the significance probably is the differentiation between deck-
cargo tanks do not exceed 10 per cent for horizontal areas and mounted machines and those intended for submerged instal-
15 per cent for vertical areas." lation in the tanks. Figures 2 and 3 show typical deck-mounted
In practice, this has been interpreted to balance a deficiency units. These are designed for installation in a standard tank
in cargo-only tanks against an excess in cargo/ballast tanks cleaning opening fitted with a suitable stud ring for mounting
provided that the percentages for total vertical and horizontal and are installed and removed through the deck opening. The
surfaces for all tanks satisfy the 85/90 criterion and that no tank drive unit is located above the deck. The drop pipe typically
is less than 80/85. extends about 3.5 m below the deck, though longer lengths may
Again, this criterion results in tank cleanliness falling in line be furnished under certain circumstances.
with the Grade 4 interpretations and has provisionally been Figure 2 shows a single-nozzle t);pe. Twin-nozzle units, as
deemed to be acceptable by representatives of the certifying shown in Fig. 3, arranged to minimize thrust moments, are also
bodies. \ available. Because single-nozzle units are discretely directional,
they are considered to be more efficient in that effective
cleaning can be realized in a shorter time period with less oil
H o w is c r u d e o i l w a s h i n g c o n d u c t e d ?
Before discussing the crude oil washing operation, it is nec- Figures 4 and 5 show machines intended for submerged in-
essary to have a clear understanding of the purpose. The single stallatious. Figure 4 is a single-nozzle type, Fig. 5 a twin nozzle.
objective of the crude oil wash regulations is to eliminate the Machines of this type can be oriented in any position to provide
introduction of crude oil into the seas as a result of tanker op- maximum effectiveness.
erating procedures. There are two procedural events that in Several variations in deck-mounted machines have been
the past have been the major sources of operational contami- produced. In addition to the single-nozzle/twin-nozzle vari-
nation. These are: ants, machines may be either integrally powered or driven by
1. The routine cleaning of ballast tanks with seawater and portable power units. Contemporary practice is to provide
the subsequent discharge of some or all of the resulting oil-water integral drive units. Many earlier installations utilized ma-
emulsion. chines powered with portable units, either air powered or
powered by the washing medium. The IMCO Specifications
2. Washing of cargo tanks with seawater and subsequent
require that if portable drive uni.ts are installed, sufficient power
hand mucking of solid residues before a shipyard repair period.
units must be provided so that no drive unit need be reposi-
In the past, some or all of the resulting residues have frequently
tioned more than twice during a programmed crude oil
been introduced into the sea.
washing. U.S. Coast Guard Regulations are more specific and
The ultimate goal of the author's firm is to wash the cargo/ require one drive Unit for each three washing machines.
ballast tanks with crude oil to the extent that residual oil is re- Butterworth no longer manufacturers these units; therefore,
duced to a practical minimum. It is expected that ultimately to the limited extent that additional deck-mounted machines
procedures currently under development will make it possible were required in the present program, all are of the integrally
to load clean ballast directly into tanks so washed without the powered type.
need for water rinsing, or water flushing of the bottom. Thus, As with units supplied by other manufacturers, Butterworth
the ultimate goal of eliminating the water oil emulsion will have supplies these in "selective arc" (SA) models and with a "pro-
been achieved. For the present, however, IMCO Specifications gi'ammable" option. The SA option allows the operator to se-

30 A Practical Guide to the Design and Installation of Crude Oil Washing Systems
~ ,~Iw_ j MANUALRAj~E

..... (~5~-'I~.
I /
~,. ~
I /
/ ~ - - - -

~-HO~=ES /* O;A. ON ?'I@"_ ~

/.~,~tr~ L--~i~I--~ I~ ,~ ,,r..,~=h t~ . ~ - - - ~ r~ i

+1 ,~

? t



.-~ - /

.'.o( "~o\'i ,A f

--= ~ - - i
osw.J J.-.~,

Fig, 2 b e c k - m o u n t e d , s i n g l e - n o z z l e integrally p o w e r e d S A t a n k w a s h m a c h i n e

A Practical Guide to the Design and Installation of Crude Oil Washing Systems 31
lect the limits of thevertical arc of operation. The allowable
range extends from 150 deg (measured from the vertical down)
to 30 deg past vertical down as shown in Fig. 6. This degree
of control is considered important in optimizing the cleaning
The programmable option built into the machine provides
a preset variation in angular rate of rotation. Thus the machine
can be programmed to revolve more rapidly when the nozzle
is aiming at a nearby area or areas easily cleaned and more
slowly when aimed at distant areas or surfaces considered dif-
ficult to clean.
The SA feature permits the use of either two-phase or sin-
gle-phase tank washing. Two-phase washing involves first a
top wash cycle which utilizes deck-mounted machines only and
may be started when the tank still has significant innage. The
bottom wash cycle, started after the tank has been initially
stripped, washes the lower sides and bottom of the tank. The
bottom wash is normally more intensive than the top wash.
Figure 7 shows the areas covered by top and bottom cycles. A
single-cycle wash, the only kind possiblewhen deck-mounted
machines are of the twin-nozzle type or single-nozzle machines
without the SA feature, washes all parts of the tank in a more
or less random manner. The tank is normally empty before
washing is commenced and stripping must be maintained
throughout the operation.
Figure 8 shows operating areas and approximate times for
typical top and bottom wash cycles. These cycles can of course
be varied to suit conditions such as temperature at time of dis-
charge, tank configuration, and internal structural arrange-
Machine performance characteristics
Figure 9 shows typical.values of throughput volume versus
operating pressure. Characteristics for specific machines can

Fig. 3 Deck-mounted, twin-nozzle tank wash machine powered by

portable unit

l/ .I )1,

. SJ J

Fig. 4 Single-nozzle unit for installation inside tank (shown with

counterweight for horizontal mounting) Fig.'5 ,Twin-nozzle unit for installation inside tank

32 A Practical Guide to the Design and Installation of Crude Oil Washing Systems
of course be obtained from the manufacturer It is our pre-
ferred practice to design a crude washing system to supply the
deck machines at approximately 105 bar (150 psi). At this
pressure, throughput is approximately 100 m3/hr when 29-mm
nozzles are fitted and 150 m3/hr With 88 mm nozzles. This is
applicable to both deck-mounted and single-nozzle (Butter- '
worth MP) submerged machines. .,;;~,:,?;:::~.! ,
. re ,.~,~. , .
~ . i .iT-j~,~-w
The rotational speed of the deck-mounted mach]_nes is
variable from 0 to about 8 rpm. Our normal design operation
is 1.5 rpm. The nozzle advances 8-deg elevation angle per
revolution; thus the approximate time for any wash cycle can
be calculated.
.I II.LIU ,,,,
IMCO specifications require that submerged machines be
nonprogrammable. The Butterworth MP machine rotates at
approximately 1.8 rpm when operated at 10.5 bar. Approxi-
mately 52 min is requiredto complete a full cycle.
The effective horizontal range for the machines we have
installed is approximately 45 m for 88-mm nozzles and 42 m
for 29-mm nozzle units when operated at 10.5 bar.
The IMCO Specifications require that fixed tank cleaning
machines be of a type satisfactory to the certifying authority.
The U.K. DOT and Det norske Veritas (DnV) issue certificates
based on a review of design and performance data supplied b y
the manufacturers. The practice of ABS in acting on behalf
of delegating nations is to require drawings and performance
information to be submitted~ but the Bureau does not have a
policy of certifying equipment. Butterworth and presumably
other manufacturers have furnished ABS with information on
units of their manufacture and have obtained DOT and DnV
Certificates of Approval.
P e r f o r m a n c e monitoring
The IMCO Specifications require that single-nozzle deck
machines be fitted with means external to the tank that will
indicate the rotation and arc of movement of the machine. U.S. Fig. 6 Selective arc tank wash machine
Coast Guard regulations are also explicit in requiring indicators
for twin-nozzle deck-mounted machines.
Operationof submerged machines must be verifiable either
by means of an indicator external to the tank, by checking the
sound pattern or by operating the machines with water during
a ballast passage and checking the performance. The second
alternative is feasible only if each machine is fitted with an
isolating valve; the third, which must be carried out after a
maximum of six usages but not less than annually, requires that
the tank be gas-freed. As it is our operating policy to carry Out
regular inspections of cargo tanks on a rotational basis during
ballast voyages, the third alternative poses no hardship and is
considered advantageous from both operating and maintenance
standpoints as well as resulting in less-expensive installations.
~ --Innage At- .
Start Of
Top Wash

Tank stripping ' Typical Tog Wash Cycle

As essential to satisfactory crude oi! washing as properly
designed and installed tank washing machines is the design and
installation of a stripping system that is capable of maintaining
the tank bottom free of standing oil during the bottom wash
Hydraulic stripping eductors have been found to be far the
best equipment for this service. Figure 10 illustrates a typical
eductor. Representative eductor operating data are shown in
Fig. 11. IMCO Specifications require that the stripping system
have a design capacity, under operating conditions, 25 percent
i n excess of the total throughput of all tank wash machines
programmed to be operating at one time during bottom wash
cycles. For V/ULCC's we assume a value of 7-m suction head Typical ,Bottom Wash Cycle
and 25-m discharge head for assessing eductor performance. Fig." 7 Wash cycles

A Practical Guide to the Design and Installation of Crude Oil Washing Systems 33-
stripping through more than one suction bellmouth into a single
stripping line is not likely to result in satisfactory perfor-
If ,separate stripping mains are not fitted and stripping is
carried out using the main cargo discharge lines, discharge will
be interrupted during periods of bottom washing. In such
cases, the considerable cost of retrofitting separate stripping
lines must be weighted against the value of the delay time for
the remainder of the vessel's life.
Crude oil w a s h i n g / d i s c h a r g e sequences
As discussed earlier, there are two general methods of tank
washing; single stage or two stage. A description and com-
parison of the two methods follows.
The two-stage method utilizes separate top washing and
bottom washing patterns. Top washing commences when the
tank level is low enough, usually about 8 ms innage or one third
of tank capacity. For example, all machines in one center tank,
or one pair of wing tanks, may be operated simultaneously on
a top wash pattern while the tank is being pumped out by the
main cargo pumps. The maximum number of machines that
can be operated simultaneously during top wash is limited by
the ability of the system to maintain adequate line pressure.
Tank Wash Sequence Ideally, the top washing cycles will be completed as the tank
approaches empty. The eductors are then lined up and, when
Pass Deles Time the tank is drained, the bottom wash cycle is commenced. The
Top Wash 1 120 26.6 number of machines in use is then limited to the eductor suction
2 80 17.7 capacity. During completion of bottom washing and draining,
3 80 17.7 a stern trim of at least 5 m is required to assure adequate
Botlom Wash 4 60 13.3
5 80 17.7 The advantages of the two-stage method are (1) washing can
start before the tank is empty and (2) the number of machines
6 80 17.7 that can be operated is limited only by the capacity of the COW
7 30 6.7 supply. The washing time for each tank is reduced corre-
"~90- spondingly. The discharge rate is affected less by this method
otal Time 117.4 than by the single-stage method since most of the tank is washed
while being pumped out by the main cargo pumps. The ed-
uctors are not in service during top wash. For this reason this
method offers a considerable saving in energy.
g The single-stage method is used when a tank is completely
empty, and it requires the use of the stripping eductors during
the entire washing operation. The tank cleaning machines are
N set to cover the entire tank on each cycle, with the number of
t,4 ~ _
o cycles to be determined by the condition of the tank. The
Z maximum number of machines in use is limited by the eductor
suction capacity.
0 ~0 60 90 ; ~' ~'l 150 I~0 Where complete bottom washing of a tank requires the use
of more tank wash machines then the stripping system can
k~ NINV'i'r~.I I ~bNIMt)7$ I accommodate, bottom washing must be carried out in parts,
normally washing the forward part of the tank first.
A typical discharge sequence as developed for a 250 000-dwt
Fig. 8 vessel with two sets of flume (roll stabilization) tanks is given
in Appendix 8.
Eductor selection based on these values has proven satisfactory At various stages during crude oil washing, supplementary
in service. operations must be carried out. It is important that the entire
A typical calculation confirming cargo pump and eductor system be designed to permit these operations and that they be
capacity is presented in Appendix 2. programmed into the schedule.
To assure continued reliable performance without undue After washing of a tank is completed, and the tank wash
maintenance, eductors are specified to have bodies of nickel- machines are shut down, stripping should be continued for
aluminum-bronze and nozzles of Monel Metal. several minutes, or, alternatively, if stripping is switched to
If economical COW programs require simultaneous bottom another tank, suction should again be taken on the first tank
washing of more than one tank, two eductors should be pro- after a sufficient time has passed to permit residual oil to run
vided, each taking suction from its own stripping line and dis- off the structure and collect around the suction bellmouth.
charging through an independent line. It is difficult to obtain After cargo discharge is completed, all cargo pumps, mains
satisfactory operation of two eductors taking suction from a and stripping lines musl~ be drained and stripped and the
common line or discharging into a common line. Similarl~, strippings discharged ashore through a stripping line.
34 A Practical Guide to the Design and Installation of Crude Oil Washing Systems


130 ~
120 -~""
/ /
-- I00
/ 5
U3 / --

90, . /,~

,o ~ /
7O I
5 G 7 8 ,9 10 11 12 13 1/, 15 5 6 ? 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
PRESSURE Kglcm 2 . : PRESSURE Kg/cm 2

Fig. 9 Throughput values for typical high-capacity tank wash machines: left, 29-mm-dia nozzle; Right.
38-mm-dia nozzle


Fig. 10 High-capacity eductor of type used for tank stripping

P,I 7700 //
1000 /

Driving woter pressure k~/cn~ --I=...-

6 8 9 10 11 12
~ I 'mT f 2 , i0
i i ~
3~0 '1~0 ' ~ 5,0 Driving woter pressure kp//cn~
70/71 ~ I = l = I ----L----,.-----t~
4,0 $,0 6,0 1,0
i I ~ I i I, J I"
6.0 7,0 " 6.0 9.0

2OFt1 " 71,0 ' 8/O ' 91.O ' 30,0t. = 't:0 Fig. 11 High-capacity eductor:
typical operating characteristics
,.o =
,.o I ""
,.o I =
,,;oI .'=
1 '
. i t i = i'
-~ " do ,,,o ,~o tJ,' 0 ' l(,' 0

Oehvery heo~

A Practical Guide to the Design and Installation of Crude Oil Washing Systems 35
Multigrade c a r g o s machines fitted with 38-mm nozzles, because of their greater
When a cargo is made up of two or more grades, it is desirable effective range, may provide more effective cleaning. The
and frequently mandatory that tanks be washed with crude of maximum effective capacity of the largest available eductor
the ~ m e grade as the tanks contained. For this reason, it may , when bottom washing is 600 m3/hr--equivalent to the
sometimes be necessary to have more than one tank available throughput of four machines fitted with 38-mm nozzles or six
for eductor discharge, thus permitting final washing by taking machines fitted with 29-mm nozzles.
suction from the discharge tank and recirculating it through Due to the structural configuration of many of our vessels,
the tank cleaning machines. it has been our general policy to remove previously installed
small- or medium-capacity twin-nozzle submerged machines
(for example, Butterworth K and SK models) and replace them
Design with larger-capacity single-nozzle machines (Butterworth MP
With objectives clearly established and design criteria de- models).. These are considered to be more effective and more
. fined, the COW design can be undertaken. The essential first efficient than the smaller, nondirectional two-nozzle machines.
step is the siting of tank wash machines and the selection of However, it is recognized that in smaller boxlike shadowed
machine types and operating characteristics. areas, twin-nozzle machines may be advantageous.
System design
Siting of machines
With the arrangement and type of tank Wash machines es-
Our practice has been to develop an initial arrangement on tablished, it is possible to explore various discharge sequences
the basis of the previously described on-board inspection with to determine what modifications, if any, may be desirable in
heavy reliance on the judgment and experience of the inspec- the arrangement of pumping and piping systems supplying
tion personnel. At this time, primary consideration is given crude oil to the tank wash machines and also to the stripping
to the achievement of the desired standards of cleanliness. For eductors..
example, shell and bulkhead longitudinals on some classes of In developing operating scenarios, the following values,
ships pose a significant cleaning problem. Many Japanese-built appropriate to the types of equipment installed and based on
vessels, in particular, incorporate one or more horizontal ring operational experience, have been utilized. -
girders in the wing tanks. These effectively shadow the lower Throughput per fixed tank wash machine:
sides and bulkheads from deck-mounted machines. As a fur- 29-ram nozzles--100 m3//hr
ther detriment to effective cleaning, the face bar of the shell 38-mm nozzles--150 m3/hr
and bulkhead longitudinals extends 15 to 20 mm above the top Stripping capacity per eductor:
of the web, thereby inhibiting drainage. The criteria for the 600 m3/hr (for largest available eductor)
preparation of shadow drawings exclude shell and bulkhead Time allowed per cycle2
stiffeners from consideration either as shadowed or shadowing top wash 11/4 hr
areas; thus credit may be given for areas to be substantially . bottom wash 11/4 hr ,.
unshadowed where, in effect, significant areas are shadowed Required vessel trim when bottom washing: 5 to 6 m
by adjacent members.
Further consideration is given in locating submerged ma- Many of the vessels currently being retrofitted were origi-'
chines to assure that they can be reasonably supported and, at nally provided with only a single tank washing eductor. Others
the same time, will be clear of structure that might interfere were fitted with relatively small eductors. An economic as-
with the motion of the nozzle or unduly block the discharge sessment for a 250 000-dwt vessel indicates that the present'
stream. In the vessels so far retrofitted, only minimal modi- value, in 1980, of a reduction in discharge time of 1 hr each
fications or additions to the arrangement of the previously in-'. voyage over the period 1980 to 1989, discounted at 12 percent
stalled deck machines have been necessary. per annum, is about $30 000. Thus, a cost in the order of
This tentative arrangement is checked by means of shadow $90 000 could be justified for stripping system modifications
drawings to confirm compliance with the IMCO 85//90 percent if the discharge delay can be reduced by as much as 3 hr. On
criterion for direct impingement. Actual preparation of this basis, where physical arrangements permit, we have found
shadow drawings has been carried out for us by the supplier of the cost of installing a second eductor, for example, to be well
the tank wash machines.. Criteria for the preparation of justified. The preceding economics, takes no account of the
shadow drawings and a typical example are presented in Ap- value of terminal time, now judged to be about equivalent to
pendix 4. The shadow drawings may show that the addition the value of the vessel, nor does it take account of berthing and
of some machines or some relocation of machines is necessary. queuing problems associated with excessive discharge time.
There are occasions when shadow drawings indicate a re- As noted previously, where separate stripping lines are not
quirement for more machines than is indicated by inspection fitted, discharge ashore may be limited during bottom washing
results as necessary to achieve a satisfactory degree of cleanli- because any suction main used for stripping is not available for
ness. If these cases occur in a cargo-only tank, tradeoff against
a cargo/ballast tank may be possible in keeping with Section COW piping and pump room piping arrangements
4.2.8 (iii) of the IMCO//TSPP Specifications (see Appendix
4). Distribution of crude oil to tank wash machines is accom-
plished by branch lines either from one of the existing cargo
Selection of tank wash machines discharge mains with an extension forward of the manifold or
Critical to minimizing discharge delays due to crude washing from one or two independent tank cleaning mains The first,
is the limiting of the amount of oil utilized for tank cleaning, while clearly less costly, poses operating constraints. With this
as this is a direct diversion from cargo discharged ashore. Also, arrangement, the pressure available in the discharge main, as
when bottom washing, the stripping capability is stringently determined by shore back pressure, may not be adequate to
volume-limited by eductor capacity. Forthis reason we have satisfactorily operate the tank wash machines. In this event,
utilized 29-ram nozzles for all submerged machines and in the affected main and its. associated pump are either not
general for deck-mounted machines in wing tanks. In center 2 Allows for tank draining, machine testing, tank dryness confir-
tanks, relatively free of major internal structure, deck-mounted mation and starting and stopping of machines. '
36 A Practical Guide to the Design and Installation of Crude Oil Washing Systems
availabl e for discharge ashore or discharge must be throttled, --~ 'r t C.O. C)~c_~
a generally unsatisfactory arrangement.

The distribution problem is further complicated by the need
for high-flow low-pressure eductor driving fluid, Which is
generally taken from this same source. . .
The IMCO Specifications require thattwo alternative means
l~e available for supplying the tank washingmachines. All
vessels in the current retrofit program are arrffn~i;so that tank

wash machines are supplied by cargo pumps." In some ~,essels,
it has been necessary to modify pump i'oom piping to provide
for one or more alternative pumps to supply the tank washing
machines. In some cases, where cargo pumps have been more
or less paired, it has been found desirable to further modify the
arrangements so that any one of two or, more pumps could be
isolated for crude oil washing and eductor.driving while leaving
the remaining pumps full:, available for cargo discharge.
Pumproom modifications
Major modifications within the.pumproom }~aVeincluded
installation of a second stripping eductor or i'eplacing existing
eductors with larger models or both; piping modifications to
provide more pumping flexibility or improved discharge rates
during crude oil washing or both; and modifications to eductor
discharge piping to permit selective discharge into either slop
taiak and in some cases also into the aft center cargo tank~
Ideally, it is desirable to be able to isolate any one of.the cargo
pumps for crude oil washing. To attain this, modifications in
pump roompiping arrangements may be necessai'y to provide
greater flexibility or improved discharge capacity or both. "
The following are typica! of distribution piping system ar-
The piping arrangement for a 300 000-dwt vessei.originally
fitted withtwo low-capacity eductors and a tank cleaning main
supplied from either one of the two cargo oil mains is shown Fig. 12
schematically in Fig. 12. This arrangement requires that either
discharge ashore be limited to two pumps or that the shore
connection be throttled to provide adequate opei,afing pressure.
Current modifications entail replacement with larger-gap~iqity C.O DIS~7
/" - fSTPd ppi N ~
eductors and the provision of a manifold connection to all four TC ~IN
cargo pumps, allowing the isolation of any one pump to supply
the eductors and the tank cleaning main. This arrangement
is shown in Fig. 13. I
Figure 14 shows the arrangemen( of a 255 000-dwt vessel
fitted with one eductor supplied from either of two of the four.
cargo pumps and a tank cleaning main supplied from either one
of the two cargo oil mains. Current modifications include the
addition of a second eductor, and provide for one of the two
cargo pumps to supply the tank cleaning main and eductors
while allowing the other three cargo pumps to discharge ashore.
This arrangement is shown in Fig. 15.
In another typical arrangement shown in Fig. 16, two cargo -- CO.
pumps are used to simultaneously driVe one eductor and supply
one discharge main while the other two pumps drive the second
eductor and supply the second discharge main. - Tank wash . !

machines are supplied from one Of the cargo mains. With this : i
arrangement the manifold valves mast be throttled to raise
sufficient pressure to operate the tank cleaning machines. This CO.
has proven to be generally unsatisfactory, and current modi-
fications shown in Fig. 17 provide fOr isolation of any one pump I
to supply the eductors with the remaining pumps discharging
ashore. One main may have to be blocked from shore dis-
charge or throttled to pressurize the tafik cleaning machines.
Although numerous vessels in the program have cast iron
cargo piping in the pumproom, only steel pipe has been used
for pumproom modifications. Where it is necessary to tie in 01SCHO TO S L O ~
to existing lines of cast iron, the affected portion of the existing
line is removed and replaced by a fabricated pipe section. In Fig. 13

A Practical Guide to the Design and Installation of Crude Oil Washing Systems 37
"~"' , TC WL~IN ) ~ , --C O. O~SCHARGE
//"x--- c ' O OISCH GE


.~LOP T~NK L . . ~ - \

STP, I~I~IN G - - -

EDUCTO P" --% l

S T F:IIPPlNG--I----- ~

. I :

Fig. 15
Fig. 14

z~"(zoo) zB" zB"(zoo) z~"

2B" (700) /TANK CLEAN.HEATER ZB" ~ \
o~o~ .o; ~ , o ; ~'P: i I ~fA~%o,
, ~-<~---~,~_..~_~,~ -

z I0" (,?.50) ' 'z

i~ Zv TO

o ~ ZO"
_L ~
.---~'~'G~ O FT.
! ...~ I. l(~oooco.~/,,.-,,,.,,,.) ~ (500L 0 _CARGO PUMPS I}2IOGPM-4BOFT.

! bl I ..... ~ 2o" (Too) ;~"~ ~-sEA
~7 o
~ ~
r~ L ~'~ ~
/(3000 cu M/~R.-t4e.4 u.)
~ z4"~'.

"1 ~
~_o--(')~ ''~
~ " " ~ NO, zB" 7o0) z~- CARGO

, ~, & , I ~ I l- "-~OJr--NEWX'ONN. ZO'~

. , , ~ zs"(7oo)(~)' z4"~',,,
- ~ -,- . ,~v ~ . - - F " i - - . ~ < ~ - - - - ~ - "
2B" = Z8'"
L ~o' .z~o) ~ ' o , ,.It.,'-"--'-"
/N= / ....... .~ NO. ZB" , ; ' 0 0 ) ( ~ ) . " ~ . . _ .
~o ' 28"

' ;~'~ ~,~^. - MODIFIED - sE[/X

Fig. 16 Fig. 17

38 A Practical Guide to the Design and Installation of Crude Oil Washing Systems

such cases the new sections are fully coated inside and out after88-mm nozzles, nor less than 800 m m if the units are fitted with
fabrication. 29-mm nozzles. Table 1 provides a ready reference for sizing
mains and branches.
All valves are specified as cast steel with stainless steel trim,
neoprene lined. Due in part to space restrictions, new valves In the aftermost portion of the tank cleaning main at the
are generally wafer-type butterfly valves. Where arrange- upper deck level, a cast steel gat e valve is provided to isolate the
ments permit, a gate valve.of a type suitable for throttling is complete tank cleaning system from the main cargo oil pumps.
provided in the eductor driving lines. In general, valves are Immediately forward of this, a valved drain line is provided to
arranged for local operation only. ,.. permit draining the tank cleaning system into a slop tank.
Where additional eductor capacity is provid~tJ~ th'e entire "Strategic point" ~onnections to provide for the use of por-
stripping system is reviewed to assure that stripping mains, table tank wash machines when supplementary water-washing
driving fluid lines and discharge lines are adequately sized. A is. required for predrydock cleaning are so located as to permit
800-mm stripping line is considered the minimum suitable for reaching any tank cleaning opening with a 20-m length of hose.
a nominal throughput of 600 m3/hr. They are located on top of branch pipes and arranged to be
Other modifications include the provision of remote readout self-draining.
for eductor performance gages as required by 4.4.8 of the At the forwardmost end of the tank cleaning main, a 1/2-
IMCO Specifications and the provisions of drain lines as re- in.-steel valved connection is provided for fitting a pressure
quired by 4.4.5. All vessels under consideration have already gauge.
been provided with small-diameter stripping discharge lines Branch lines are sized to serve the maximum number of
also as required by 4.4.5. machines that will 'be operated at one time.
Operationally, it may be considered desirable to fit a root
Eductor instrumentation valve at each branch line. This can permit placing several
In those vessels provided with centralized cargo control . machines in operation with a single valve. IMCO Specifica-
rooms, it is considered desirable to provide the remote eductor tions require, however, that each deck machine be fitted with
monitoring instrumentation in the cargo control room. Ac-
cordingly it is necessary to provide pneumatic transducers. The.
arrangement used is shown schematically in Fig. 18. Indicator(Located
~ i n CargoControl
Section 4.4.5 of the IMCO Specifications also requires that Room)
means be provided for draining all cargo pumps and cargo and 1/4" Tubing
crude oil wash mains. Most of our vessels as constructed were
fitted with drain lines to the suction side of the stripping
pump. ) ~ Ball Valve

Weather deck piping

As noted in the preceding, the provision of one or more in- UpperDeck
dependent tank cleaning mains is preferred. The choice of One
or two mains is clearly one of economics and arrangement on
the vessel. In general, our vessels were initially provided with Fig. 18
a single main, branch lines being provided to serve port and
starboard wing tanks. 1/4" Tubing
A typical tank cleaning arrangement on the upper deck of
a 800 000-dwt tanker is shown in Fig. 19/
Mains should be sized to provide for the maximum number
of tank wash machines that will'be operated at one time. O n
our VLCC's this is normally 12 machines. To limit flow to a
maximum of 5.5 m/s, a single main supplying 12 machines \
should not be less than 850 m m if the units are fitted with
TransmitterUnit I" ~ 1/4"

e~p i P I ~ , F~ressureReducingValve
Sediment F 2/4" Pipe
/ Cha mber

'/k Ball Valve
i- ~ 4-' " Pipe
i , Ball 1/2" Pipe
Valve ~"

~ \
f , x...~
/ -''
~ Air

\ L Check
~- Strainer Valve
I , 1/2" Pipe/ 1/2" Pipe
"-, Valve
Ball Va!ve

A Practical Guide to the Design and Installation of Crude Oil Washing Systems 39
, . I t I

o o,

........ c-,-,~J _)
-!u~ _

Deck-MountedTank Cleaning Machine

(-- SubmergedTank Cleaning Machine

Fig. 19 Arrangement of tank cleaning system on upper deck of typical 300 000-dwt tanker

an independent stop valve. When root valves are fitted, all drainage. Flanges are fitted where necessary to limit pipe
machines feeding from one branch should be in the same tank. lengths to about 6 m to facilitate maintenance and replace-
Also, a drain connection should be provided between the root ment.
valve and the individual stop valves so that tightness of the root Pipe supports are spaced 2 to 21/2 m forward of the cargo
valve can be periodically confirmed. manifold and 3 to 31/2 m aft of the manifold. Pipe supports
If root valves are not fitted, the number and size of branch should have a minimum height of about 150 m m to provide
lines may be reduced by supplying machines in adjacent tanks access underneath for maintenance.
from the same branch. In practice, adjacent tanks will not be All tank cleaning piping on the upper deck is Schedule 40
washed simultaneously, so branches need only be sized to supply seamless carbon steel pipe coated externally. The first coat is
the machines in one tank. typically inorganic zinc with second and third coats of poly-
In laying out deck piping, every effort should be made to amide epoxy and modified acrylic, respectively.
make the lines self-draining. Pockets should be avoided and
at least one machine on each branch should be located aft of the In-tank piping
transverse run to permit draining the line through a machine In laying out pipe runs for in-tank piping serving submerged
when crude washing has been completed: A spool piece is machines, first consideration is given to ease and economy of
fitted in the supply line adjacent to each deck machine to fa- installation. An effort is made to group drop lines to the extent
cilitate machine removal. possib!e and to locate them relative to bulkheads and webs, with
All valves are cast steel, neoprene lined. Butterfly types are due regard to local stiffeners and brackets so that requirements
preferred to assure drainage and for ease of maintenance. for staging and elaborate supports are minimized. Drops are
Handwheel-operated valves are specified to eliminate the as direct as possible to minimize the use of bends and elbows,
possibility of rapid operation with resultant shock-loading. and available structure is used to the best advantage to provide
Eccentric reducers are specified for all deck lines to facilitate proper support.

Table 1 Ready reference for sizing mains and branches

Required pipe diameter d = 8.02

where Q is the flow volume in cubic meters per hour when flow rate is 5.5 m/s
Design flow rate for machines:
38-mm nozzles = 150 m3/hr
29-mm nozzles = 150 m3/hr
29-mm Nozzles 38-mm Nozzles
No. of Flow Required Standard Pipe Size, Flow Required Standard Pipe Size,
Machines Quantity Diameter, mm mm in. Quantity Diameter, mm him - in.
1 100 80.0 100 4 150 98 100 4
2 200 113.0 125 5 300 139 150 6
3 300 139.0 150 6 450 170 200 8
4 400 160.0 200 8 600 196 200 8
5 500 179.0 200 8 750 220 250 10
6 600 196.0 200 8 900 241 250 10
7 700 212.0 250 10 1050 260 300 12
8 800 227.0 250 10 1200 278 300 12
9 900 241.0 250 10 1350 295 300 12
10 1000 254.0 300 12 1500 311 350 14
11 1100 266.0 300 12 1650 326 350 14
12 1200 278.0 300 12 1800 340 350 14

a Q = d2/4.0 X 5.5 X 3600 - - 1


40 A Practical Guide to the Design and Installation of Crude Oil Washing Systems
All horizontal runs are pitched approximately 4 percent
(adjusted for trim) to assure drainage.
All tank cleaning piping within tanks is Schedule 80 seamless
carbon steel pipe. Experience with existing installations in-
dicates that corrosion is not a problem.
Deck penetrations for drop lines serving wing tanks are
preferred near the longitudinal bulkhead, in part to avoid un-
necessary cluttering of the weather deck with extb~le~ branch
lines This also follows from the principle of grouping drop
lines together as noted in the foregoing, and also groups stop
valves for convenient operation.
As several classes of vessel are very "neatly scantlinged,"
requiring compensation for all deck openings, we adhere to a
standard of 100 percent compensation for all penetrations. All
dropline penetrations are flanged, long-radius Schedule 80 pipe
elbows. Although all penetrations are fully compensated,
transverse alignment of drop pipe penetrations is avoided.
Collar plates are of the same quality steel as the deck plate
Consideration must be given to the arrangement of existing
tank access ladders and platforms, not only to avoid interference
but also to use existing access in lieu of staging where pos-
A straight run of at least 1 m should be provided ahead of the
tank wash machines to assure the uniform flow necessary for Fig. 20 . Typical mounting for submerged machine
proper operation of the machines
Machine mountings arrangements for hand dipping in at least four locations "unless
In designing machine mountings, consideration must be other approved means are fitted for ascertaining that the bot-
given to the strength of the foundation not only to support the toms of cargo tanks are dry."
weight of the machine, but also to resist the approximate 500-1b "Other approved means" has been interpreted to include a
thrust reaction. Supports should be designed to utilize the properly installed and operational tank gaging system Existing
materials commonly available or readily attainable by repair- ullage openings also qualify as acceptable hand-dipping
type shipyard facilities, and should be economical to fabricate openings Where additional openings are required, an existing
and arrange for installation with a minimum of staging. A tank cleaning opening can be modified by insertion of a
typical support is shown in Fig 20. As it is frequently not small-diameter pipe plug so that the escape of inert gas is
feasible to provide direct, permanent access to submerged minimized.
machines, an arrangement such as that shown has been adopted
wherein the machine is supported by a 1-m to 2-m length of the S t r u c t u r a l drainage
supply pipe which in turn is supported by a bolted connection To facilitate the washing of large horizontal girders it is
in association with a pipe flange, all located where access is considered desirable in some cases to provide additional
possible from existing structure It is then possible to remove drainage openings. Typical arrangements are shown in Fig.
the machine with its attached length of supply pipe to a con- 21. Openings 100 mm in diameter have been found to provide
venient platform in the tank or to remove it from the tank en- satisfactory results without posing any hazard to personnel in
tirely for maintenance or replacement. the tanks, or requiring any reinforcing.
In developing machine supports, care must be taken to assure
that no member of the support structure or any adjacent
structure or fitting will encroach On the operating sphere of the Installation e x p e r i e n c e
nozzle. 'At the time of writing of this paper, four vessels had been
retrofitted and a fifth was in the shipyard. The first vessel, the
Machine designation Esso Tokyo of 400 000 dwt, was in the yard about 30 days and
For many reasons associated with design, installation and the COW installation was completed only to the extent of
operation, it is desirable to have discrete designations for the carrying out all modifications to deck piping, all deck pene-
tank wash machines To assure uniformity, throughout the trations, and installation of 29 submerged machines in nine of
fleet, a system has been adopted which identifies each machine the cargo-ballast tanks. It is planned to install the remaining
by the tank in which it is located and its relative position in the 63 machines at sea.
tank. For example, the designation 2PA-8 would identify the The installation of 15 machines was successfully completed
third machine from the forward bulkhead in number two aft during a shipyard period of 84 days in the second vessel, a
port wing tank. Each operating valve is labeled with the des- VLCC of 250 000 dwt.
ignation of its associated tank wash machine. The third vessel, also a VLCC, was completed during the
scheduled shipyard availability This installation included the
Tank dryness verification fitting of 57 submerged machines and was accomplished within
To achieve successful results when bottom washing it is im- 48 days, a period that was extended due to work not related to
portant that the bottom remain free of standing oil. It is also COW.
essential that only minimal oil remain in the bottom after All-inclusive costs for installations in Far East ship repair
stripping and before any ballast is loaded. To provide for yards have been in the order of $10 000 to $15 000 per unit for
confirmation of bottom dryness, Section 4.4.4 of the IMCO deck-mounted machines.and $15 000 to $20 000 per unit for
Specifications requires that each tank be provided with suitable submerged machines.

A Practical Guide to the Design and Installation of Crude Oil Washing Systems 41
HOLES - MAX. HOLE SIZE 150 ~ " "~[D.+t,vL.
I ~L;OWE? ~[LO~ P~TS. ALLOWE? j~
' SHOW. /!
I 200- 200 ~ ~ --~ ' I

, 'i I 'l" 'o I

.I . I
:, :i ; I Ir ' o
. . . . A
~--V-,- *~- - -]- - ~+ I-~ i- il j J
/; , I : f S T R I ONLY 5TR IONLY'~ i\ II J
I I , I I , ' + i \: o
- ~ ! I 1 I I ; .l ,s, .
I , ,r "+ : + o / J\x
,~I~/ STRINGERS2.5&4 .~ :;~\
( ,t" ~ , N ~ E . , / "!,-) J ~ -" \- 0
- - ~~[,b L,b"


Fig. 21 Oil tank transversebulkhead

The number of additional machines retrofitted or to be must be thoroughly familiar with t h e l M C O Specifications and
retrofitted as well the total number of machines installed is implementing regulations as promulgated by the nation of
summarized in Table 2 for tankers varying in size from 250000 registry. He must also obtain detailed information on the
to 500 000 dwt. subject vessels relative to all existing installations and fittings
Typical results achieved in a 400 000-dwt vessel by instal- that will in any way be related to the C O W system.
lation of additional machines are indicated in Figs. 22 through W e have described the manner in which one group has ap-
25. proached and resolved various aspects of crude oil wash designs.
The work has been carried out even as interpretations of the
rules h a v e b e e n evolving. Almost every aspect of design is
Tests and trials modified as we progress from one design to the next and we in
All C O W piping is hydrotested in compliance with the no way anticipate that the evolutionary process is at an end.
IMCO Specifications. During pestrepair sea trials, the system
is pressurized with seawater and each newly installed tank wash Acknowledgments
machine is operated through a full cycle to confirm proper
operation of the drive unit and to assure that no structure or This paper has been prepared in collaboration with the staff
fittings interfere with the motion of the nozzle. of M. Rosenblatt & Son, Inc., including the particular assistance
of AI Isaacson and John Kron.
The development and implementation of the program as
Conclusion described reflects the experience and contributions of numerous
A s suggested by the title, the foregoing remarks are intended. individuals at Exxon. In particular, members of the Fleet
only as a guide. While they cover numerous aspects of the Technical Services Group have been instrumental in organizing
design and installation of crude oil washing systems, they should the inspection program, developing the cleanliness criteria and
in no way be considered as comprehensive. Any designer re- providing primary guidance in implementing the current
spousible for the development of crude oil washing installations program. The Petroleum Products Division of Exxon has been

Table 2 Tank wash machine installations

Deck-Mounted Machines In-Tank Machines Total

Dwt Existifig Added Total Existing Added Total Added Total
500d00 92 0 92 42 a 98 98 98 190
450 000 78 0 78 130 130 0 208
400 000 82 2 84 40 a "92 92 94 176
378 000 69 13 82 16 a 22 22 35 104
300 000 64 5 69 18 a 38 38 43 107
280 000 56 6 62 8a 57 57 63 119
255 000 64 2 66 4a 24 24 26 90
250 000 78 5 83 2 10 12 15 95
250 000 68 25 93 35 1 2 26 95

a SK machines removed.
b 1 MP; 2 SK removed

42 A Practical Guide to the Design and Installation of Crude Oil Washing Systems

V/E.I a r ~a,~Jzoara* a i a o # # ,'#o. ~ _~z~.~'#"~ ]~TP~o,~/r" V',;~=W .~7" wa~,jzo,','r, ez ~,;,e,p~,~ ,,7~.3 ~/:::: T E ~.' ~? ~ " ~ / d :. t': ,' 7"

L 1 2
@I I,
1 J
q~ 97 ~lV Io4, $O,a -
V,"#~ 4~r//D~rJzoNrAZ of~,e',e ~a.~

2 t 1 1 k

q3 9~ FK 95 .97 9~' ~03 .tO~. .ZO,E 106 ,107 .ZO,y

~1,,9 7" 7"O,~r~' V Y'ELd S O r T O ~ Si~a~

~.." q--}t: - I - - , , ~
'~.~::::: ' .-F-f.- ~,~,:~,~

,'~','w, -~//- . . . . . . . . . . .
- - , . . . . . + _ _ _
IV~.'.([I --2f' " --2"-1 ....... x). ..~__ ---T" -', ......... - -~..- ~_
. - "

93 94 ~ ~$ 77 q~ Zo3 .z#~ 1oS 206 1o7 " .lo5'

Fig. 22

I(Pigs. 2 2 - 2 5 overleaf)

a prime mover in the development and implementation Of the Cowley, J. E., "Design, Construction and Operation of Oil Tankers:
Ci'ude Oil Washing Specifications and their assistance in Crude Oil Washing," Seminar on Tanker Safety and Pollution Pre-
preparation and review is acknowledged. The assistance o f vention, London, 16-17 Oct. 1978.
Butterworth personnel is also acknowledged. Many of the Cowley, J. E., "Crude Oil Washing: Its Development Use and
Results," MSC/MEPC/INF 17.
specific examples of installation details reflect the suggestions Cowley, J. E., "Questions and Answers on C.O.W. Requirements,"'
and recommendations of Exxon repair superintendents and Seminar/INF 1, Tokyo, 19-23 Feb. 1979.
derive from their experiences in the field. Gray, W. O., "Cr.ude Oil Washing (C.O.W.) Systems," Seminar on
Presentation of the paper is in keeping With Exxon's corporate Tanker Safety.and Pollution Prevention, Tokyo, 19-23 Feb..1979.
policy of encouraging and assisting in the timely and effective Hatley, K. J., "The Application of Crude OilWashing,:' IGS/COW
implementation of crude oil washing procedures. Seminar, Houston, Tex., 24 Jan. 1979.
Snider, W. D., "IMCO Conference on Tanker Safety and Pollution
Butterworth and Lavomatic are registered trademarks of Prevention," M a r i n e Technology, Vol. 15, No. 3, July 1978.
Butterworth Systems Inc. Snider, W. D., Sheehan, D. F., and Johnson, E. K., '~Tank Vessel
Safety and Pollution Prevention," Spring Meeting/STARSymposium,
Bibliography SNAME, 1979.
"Crude Oil Wash Progress Report," Exxon Corp., 29 Aug. 1978.
Mayborne, R., "Crude Oil Washing," Presented at the International "Crude Washing," Final Report on Task 1 of Contract No. C-5'-
Tanker Safety Conference, Bergen, Norway, Oct. 1975. 38000 Prepared by Exxon International Co. for U.S. Department of
"Guidelines for Tankwashing with Crude Oil," Oil Companies In- Commerce, Maritime Administration, June 1976.
ternational Marine Forum (OCIMF), London, 1976. "Revised Specifications for the Design, Operation and Control of
Kirk, J. T., "Crude Oil Washing--A Practical Approach to Pollution Crude Oil Washing Systems," MEPC X1/21, Annex 5.
Prevention," The Institute of Marine Engineers, Eastern U.S. Branch, "Tank Vesselsof 20,000 DWT or More Carrying Oil in Bulk; Design,
New York, 26 Jan. 1977. Equipment, Operating and Personnel Standards," Federal Register,
"Tanker Safety and Environmental Protection," A position paper Part 5, Department of Transpor.tation, U.S. Coast Guard, 88 CFR Part
by Exxon Corp., Jan. 1978. 157, 19 Nov. 1979.

A Practical Guide to the Design and Installation of Crude Oil Washing S y s t e m s 43


+ + I
I i
+1-~ i +
~3 ? ~v 9,K 96 q8


P+++ I

+ +...+~! ..'
~7 8 Jo3 2o,+ 2o~" ./O6 1o7 ,1o~
7v'te.__.~ Of #o~t~zoaf#c ,;~aea; ,,vo. Z

F~,m,++++T, ++

I "+

' ' Ll
I+~.Ft~;i,'~,'~'~. .Y1 T i +.
#o ,2; ~ . o x~ Zoaa~roa/wa, srt'~t~v~R. ~eo~ / / m i a ~ Fig. 23
4~m,3 7"o ~ o T T a M .

--+--+-+- ...-t- --
F.-.....--. ~;o: d,,. x,,

/4. 6: dv 3

d . a to #. H0a. ~'o 2

#. a. ,,-/o.*

:~ :T ~T ,~ I
~., ......~+~.,.+~+l-2:+:-J
5,,-I 9'2, ~.~ 9~" ~7 P . Fig. 24 ,o3 J'o+ :o~" ,too JOT Jo~

44 A Practical Guide to the Design and Installation of Crude Oil Washing S y s t e m s







Fig. 25

(Appendices 1-4 follow through page 53)

A Practical Guide to tl~e Design and Installation oCrude Oil-Washing Systems 45

Appendix 1
~. $ $ o E..T 3 O

~erro.o VJ~.,J "~#*/a" .3 ~ * a r a , r -

I -~9--


o [ I
I1) _+ -- ~ I - - ~- -

I I 1 I
I t t I
0 +

R2 86'
7g RO 7G 78 gO 8Z @@ ~

~ y;.c o , .
:aw *t ~oa;aoa~a* ~;~,oat ~ura# ~ a ~ " ,vb 3

I 1 ~I I ', ~ ] U. I ~ll d_
I I [ I' t[



/i Z ~IP

1 ,Y:##~
I t .,'T .,'I .,, / i / ! ;

7~ 72 ~0 B2
I ~ #
7g J 70 ~0

Fig. 26
Appendix 1 (cont'd) UNDERDECK oil sludge in small
quantities adhered over 70
percent of this area: fair
Excerpts from a preretrofit inspection report FWD BULKHEAD good on port side--dirty
C O W Inspection Report with sludge on the ,
ESSO. ; Center Tank No. 8 starboard side over the
Top Cycles: Start washing at 1130 (February 7, 1979). transverse stiffeners
Finish washing at 1240 (February 7, 1979) SWASH BULKHEAD same as forward bulkhead
Machine No. 1 Machine No. 2 Machine 3 Machine No. 4 SIDE BULKHEADS good
RPM 2.0 RPM 1.8 RPM 2.0 RPM 2.0 LONGITUDINAL STIFFENERS sludge on cvk stiffeners
ON BULKHEADS between frames 70-72 and
150 150 150 150 150150 150150 81-88
HORIZONTAL GIRDERS good on port side--dirty
+301+30 +30'+30 +30 +30 +30 +30 w i t h sludge on starboard
Bottom Cycles: Start washing at 1145 (February 8, 1979) . VERTICAL STIFFENERS good
Finish washing at 1800 (February 8, 1979) WEB FRAMES good
Machine No. 1 MachineNo. 2 Machine 8 Machine No. 4 BOTTOM large quantities of sludge
+50 +50 . +50+50 +50 +50 +50 ~'50' between frames 80 and 81
and 85 and 86--moderate
+30~//~ 0 + 3 ~ 0
quantities between frames
--30 ~30 -30 ,-30 -30 -30 " -30-30 79 and 80 84 and 85

VESSEL Esso Date: February 12, 1979 Throughput/Stripping: Sample Calculation.

,TANK # 3 Center
Confirmation of Eductor and Cargo Pump Capacity
RION) Eductors (2)
design suction lift 7 rri
Four Lavomatics are too few machines for this size tank. The design delivery heard 25 m
underdeck horizontal area cannot be covered due to obstruction design driving pressure 12.2 kip/cm 2
'of the frames. The horizontal girders on the starboard side of rated suction capacity 1 800 m3/hr
the tank have a large quantity of sludge as the washing ma- driving fluid consumption 1400 m3/hr
chines are far.away. Bottom areas have large quantities of
sludge between Frames 80-81 and 85-86 due to shadowing by. Tank wash machines: maximum of six in operation in one tank
the horizontal girders. Also some sludge in the longitudinal during programmed bottom wash. i
stiffeners over the keel plate between Frames 70-72 and 81-83 rated consumption at 10.5 kg/cm2: 100
on the port side. X6
total 6 machines 600
required stripping capacity 750 m3/hr
Cleanliness l"esults can be considered fair: " satisfactory for
cai'go-only tank with the installation of four submerged ma- rated capacity of cargo pumps
chines. at 165"m total head (16.5 kg/cmZ): . 4000 m3/hr


good eductor driving fluid: 1400 2: 2800
required pump output: 4000 m3/hr
2 Lavomatic SA
4 Submerged MP (Appendix 2 fi'guresfollow overleaf)
A Practical Guide to the Design and In'stallation of Crude Oil Washing Systems 47

~o ~3o._.~o



/ L/"
Orivin~7 water ~ressure kl)/cn~.,._~
6 8 9 ~0 11 72 13 14
I ~ I ~ I--
~ m ;',o 3~0 ~; 0 i! 5~0 ~riving wore'," pressure k.p//cm "
I ~ I ' ,-, I ~ - - ' ~ 4 ~
~o0 $,0 ~,0 { ?,O
Fig. 27

l ~ I ' l' ' .... I .....

~,0 7,0 d,O { 9.0
I i
,'.o ' sJo ' ~'.o ' ~',o I ,,J~-
, ,
9,0 , ,
~,0 i
" )lJO '
12 I#' ~'
13,0 Appendix 2 (cont'd)
._,~.~ ' I t I ' I ' ' .I ' ' I '' ' '
~0 lt, O 12,0 13,0 I~,0

Order No. : "" ])ate:

];'or M c s s r s : Set~ial No. ])ump.

Particulars : S e r i a l No

~J 11 .~,o] ~...: !:i~-:: ~ i:~:." ' : : .. 11 . ..~ ....~1'...~.~ ~. .i .

. . . . . . .

~,0. uJ=~e,,
.! ,

c~" = t.o~
. ..

8O I"~t" t

'S 1l ~,:t 1


. -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~'o .... z ~ , ( , .
.>'9 "l " " " " ' ' : " -" -:- = . ' "
501 ~t" J -I ' , ' . . , ' ., : ' ': ' : - pl:~ III1"

Z _,oj r

a I
0 loo zopo 1~0 ,WNO r#t0
Capacity ( m~ )

Fig. 28

48 A Practical Guide to the Design and Installation of Crude Oil Washing Systems
/ \
Metrlc/U. S. Customary Conversion Table 2 8 2
Some measurements in this paper are given in U. S. customary units;
others are metric. Following is a short list of common conversion
1 dwt (long ton) = 1.016 047 metric tori
1 short (2000 lb) ton 0.9 metric ton 3 3
1 mm = 0.04 in. @ 4 @
1m = &28 ft
1 m3 = 1.315 yd 3
1 psi = 6.8948 k N / m 2

Appendix 3 B
TYpical d i s c h a r g e / C O W s e q u e n c e as e x c e r p t e d
f r o m an e q u i p m e n t a n d o p e r a t i o n s m a n u a l 6
1 1

Fig, 29 Tank washing sequence f o r ~ X - TOP ~.IASHIi'IC- SEQUEi';CE

single-grade/single-port discharge. (~)- BOTTO;'I I!ASHIrIG SEQUEIiCE

1 G r a d e 1 Port
Cargo aboard: Any crude L / T 2 4 0 000
Amount Elapsed
Discharged Hours Pump Cargo Operation Pump COW Operation
0000 1-2-3-4 Start discharge
from lWS, 3WS, 6WS
6C and slop tanks
70 000 0700 2-3 Discharge from lWS, 1-4 Start COW into
3WS, 6WS, 6C and slop both slop tanks.
tanks. Ballasting Eductors discharge
by gravity into 7 into 6 center
cross deep tank (4 machines)
0730 2-3 Discharge from lWS, 1-4 Start top washing lWS
3WS, 6WS, 6C--slop fwd. part (total
tanks dry machines in use 12)
75 000 0800 2-3 Discharge from lWS, 1-4 Start bottom washing
3WS, 6WS, 6C--slop slop tanks
tanks dry
0830 2-3 Discharge from lWS, 1-4 Start top washing
3WS, 6WS, 6C--slop 1WS aft part (total
tanks dry machines in use 10)
80 000 0900 2-3 Discharge from lWS, 1-4 Finish COW into
3WS, 6WS, 6C--slop both slop tanks
tanks dry
0910 2-3 Discharge from 1WS, 1-4 Start top washing 3
6WS--1C. Start wings (total machines
ballasting by gravity 12)
into 2 wings
.0930 2-3 Discharge from lWS, 1-4 Finish top washing lWS
6 W S - - 1 C . Start - eductors start draining
ballasting by gravity lWS, and discharge into
into 2 wings port slop tank
85 000 1000 2-3 Discharge from 1C, 1-4 Start bottom washing
3C, 3WS, 6WS and lWS ~'wd port (8 machines)
port slop

A Practical Guide to the Design and Installation of.Crude Oil Washing Systems 49
Amount Elapse(t
Discharged Hours Pump Cargo Operation Pump c o w Operation

1010 2-3 Discharge from 1C, Finish top 3WS

3C, 3WS, 6WS and
port slop .
90 000 1100 2-3 Discharge from 1C, 1-4 Start bottom ~vashing 1WS
3C, 4 flume, 6WS and aft part (8 machines on)
port slop tank
95 000 1200 2-3 Discharge from 1C, 1-4 Finish bottom 1Ws
3C, 4 flume, 6WS and
port slop tank

1220 2-3 Discharge from IC, 1-4 Start bottom 3 wings

3C, 4 flume, 6WS and (8 machines)
port slop tank
1230 2-3 Discharge from 1C, 1-4 Start top 6 wings
3C, 4 flume, 6WS, (total machines on 18)
. and port slop tank.
Start ballasting by
pump into 7 AX and 2
1320 2-3 Discharge from 1C, 1-4 Finish botgom 3 wings
3C, 4 flume, 5 flume, (total machines on 10)
and port slop tank
1330 2-3 Discharge from 1C, 1-4 Finish top 6 wings.
3C, 4 flume, 5 flume, Start draining
and 15ort slop tank
1350 2-3 Discharge from 1C, 1-4 Start bottom 6 wings r
3C, 4 flume, 5 flume, fwd part (8 machines on)
and port slop tank
110 000 1450 2:3 Discharge from 1C, 1-4 Continue bottom washing
3C, 4 flume, 5 flume, 6Ws aft part (6 machines
and port slop tank on)
1550 2-3 Discharge from 1C, 1-4 Finish bottom washing
3C, 4 flume, 5 flume, 6Ws
and port slop tank
116 000 1600 1-2-3-4 Discharge from 1C,
3C, 4 flume, 5 flume,
and port slop tank
1800 1-2-3-4 Finish ballast into
7AX and 2Ws
180 000 2230 2-3 Finish ballast into 1-4 Start top washing 1C
7AX and 2Ws (10 machines on).
Eductors into 1C
2330 2-3 Finish ballast into 1-4 Finish top washing 1C
7AX and 2Ws Start top washing 3C
(6 machines on)
192 000 2400 2-3 Discharge from 3C, 1-4 Start bottom 1C
4F, 5F, port slop (total machines.on 16)
2430 2-3 Discharge from 3C, 1-4 Finish top 3C
4F, 5F, port slop
197 000 2500 2-3 Discharge from 3C, 1-4 Finish bottom 1C
4F, 5F, port slop
2530 2-3 Discharge from 4F, 1-4 Start bottom 3C
5F, 6C and port slop (6 machines on)
202 000 2600 2~3 Discharge from 4F, 1-4 Start top 5 flume
5F, 6C and port slop (total machines on 15)
2630 2-3 After inspection 1-4 Finish bottom 3C
start ballasting into (machines on 9)
1WS and 6WS through
overdeck ballast line
in order to maintain
good trim for COW
50 A Practical Guide to the Design and Installation of Crude Oil Washing Systems
Amount Elapsed
l)iscliarged Hours Pump Cargo Operation Pump " COW Operation

207000 2700 2-3 Discharge from 4F, 1-4 Start bottom 5 flume
6C and port slop (machines on 11)
212000 _2800 2-3 Discharge from 4F, 1-4 Finish bottom 5 flume
6C and port slop draining all empty tanks
2830 2-3 Discharge from 4F, 1-4 Start top 4 flume
6C and port slop (10 machines on)
2930 2-3 Discharge from 6C 1-4 Finish top 4 flume.
and port slop " Start draining
222 000 3000 2-3 Discharge from 6C 1-4 Start bottom 4 flume
and port slop (12 machines on)
After inspection
start ballasting
also into 5 flume
through overdeck
ballast line
227 000 3100 2-3 Discharge from 6C 1--4 Finish bottom 4 flume
and port slop
3115 2-3 Discharge'from 6C 1-4 Start top 6C "
and port slopr (8 machines on)
3215 2-3-4 Discharge from 6C 4 Finish top 6C. Draining
and port slop all empty tanks
238 000 3300 Stop discharge ashore 1-4 Start bottom 6C
(8 machines on)
3400 ... 1-4 "Finish bottom 6C
3415 4 Resume discharging ashore ...
240 000 3500 "'' \ Finish discharging ...
351~ Stripping Start draining ashore cargo lines, pumps and washing line ...
3630 Finish draining.
Discharge complete
After tanks inspection is complete, load departure ballast by COP or ballast pump as requested.

Appendix 4 of the tank's sides shielded from direct impingement by deck

or bottom transverses, main girders, stringers or large
Criteria for siting tank wash machines and "primary structural members shall not exceed 15 percent of
preparing shadow drawings from I M C O / T S P P the total area of the tank's sides.
1978 "Specifications for the Design, Operation
and Control of Crude Oil Washing Systems" (iii) For existing crude oil tankers the Administration may
4.2.8 The number and location of the machines in each cargo permit the percentages required in (i) and. (ii) of this para-
'tank shall be Such that all horizontal and vertical areas are graph to be exceeded for tanks having complicated internal
washed by direct impingement or effectively, by deflection or structural members provided that the percentages calculated
splashing of the impinging jet. In assessing an acceptable de- over all the cargo tanks do not exceed 10 percent for hori-
gree of jet deflection and splashing particular attention shall zontal areas and 15 percent for vertical areas.
be paid to the washing of upward facing horizontal areas and
the following parameters shall be used: In some installations it may be necessary to consider the fit-
ting of more than one type of tank washing machine in order
(i) For horizontal areas of a tank bottom and the upper to effect adequate coverage.
surfaces of a tank's stringers and other large primary struc- 4.2.9 At the design stage the following minimum procedures
tural members, the total al"ea shielded from direct im- shall be "used to determine the area of the tank surface covered
p!ngement by deck or bottom transverses, main girders, by direct impingement:
stringers or similar large primary structural members shall
not exceed 10 percent of the total horizontal area of tank (i) Using suitable structural plans, lines are set out from the
bottom, the upper surface of stringers, and other large pri- tips of each machine to those parts of the tank within the
mary structural members. range of the jets.

(ii) For vertical .areas of the sides of a tank, the total area (iii Where the configuration of the tanks is considered by
A Practical Guide to the Design and Installation of Crude Oil Washing Systems 51
the Administration to be complicated, a pinpoint of light Include Disregard
simulating the tip of the tank washing machine in a scale (v) main bracket (v) pipe Work
model of the tank shall be used. (vi) transverses
WASHING SYSTEMS -verified by tank inspection
Guidelines for the assessment of shadow diagrams (4.2.8) that their presence does .
(1) The shadow diagrams must be on drawings the scale not affect thecleanliness of
of which must be at least: the tank. However, for
the purpose of making an
(i) for tankers less than 100 000 dwt 1:100 initial assessment where
(ii) for tankers of 100 000 dwt and above 1:200 there are no more than two
crossties and each is less
(2) The drawings must provide at least a plan view, a profile than 1/15of the total depth
view and an end elevation for each tank or tanks considered to of the tank, they may be
be similar. ignored.
(3) Sufficient detailed drawings of the vessel must be pro-
vided to check that all large primary structural members have (5) Shadows cast upon the underside of decks, web frames,
been included. center and side girders can be ignore d .
(4) The term "large primary structural members" is to be (6) Calculations must be provided either on the drawing
construed as those components of a tank structure Which con- or separately to show how the percentages required by" section
tribute significant strength to the ship such as web frames and 4.2.8 have been arrived at. The calculations should be itemized "
girders. It is intended that smaller components such as those so that it is possible to relate each item with a particular shadow
that contribute to plate stiffening be excluded. In general the area. ---
following list in conjunction with the diagram may be used to (7) Where a curved surface is presented to jets it is not
amplify this construction. necessary to provide exact geometric projections to determine
the resultant shadow. A reasonable estimate is acceptable.
(8) For the purpose of determining the bottom area of wing
tanks the breadth Of the tank is to be taken as the horizontal
Include Disregard distance measured across the top of the bottom longitudinal
frames to the inside of the shell plating, midway between the
(i) web frames (i) longitudinals tank bulkheads:
(ii) girders (ii) brackets (9) A swash bulkhead may be taken as a tank boundary.
(iii) stringers (iii) stiffeners However, in this event the bulkhead must be assumed to have
(iv) webs (iv) ladders no openings in it.


/'laln ~r~cket



i i
t !

Fig. 30

52 A Practical Guide to the Design and Installation of Crude Oil Washing Systems
. ~,,.~, FOR'D.


:~-", ~ t!i! ~
- f ,.. .~ i ' ~ , 11 ~ . . : ~ '

0 .... . , i t~ - I ~ -e-:

o J ~ ' tzm-- .... Ii i ' ~-"-": ~ ' d~ --- ~ ~ ~
\ i ,7~ )


' . . . . . iir
g ~. (7) ;- @ , ~]

7_t__,: ..... ,



- Fig. 31 '

I111o il, viii ll#~;~l WINO .IF 2A ~,F ~.A 5 A

I I1 ii il t II ill 't~,~ i~ I1 Ill Illl iO II11 I l i l _ _ I: )~4IL,. t i ! I li(I II

I I~l 1 o II Ii U il li lit # w e I J l I ill *- - - il
I l l l} ioo II II I It !) li " ~.. i l ~ 1 ! ' i l l ill