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New words: Axis, Poles (of the earth), Equator, Latitudes, Longitudes, Meridian, Tropic of
Cancer, Tropic of Capricorn, Hemisphere

Answer the following questions:

1. How is the Globe useful?
The Globe is helpful to us to study the shape and location of the continents,countries,
oceans and seas in a smaller scale.
2. Why are Latitudes and Longitudes drawn on the globe?
Latitudes and Longitudes are drawn on the globe to make us easier to locate any country
or city on the globe.
3. What is the Prime Meridian?
The Longitude running through the old Royal Observatory at Greenwich near London is
called Prime Meridian or Greenwich Meridian.
4. If a place has latitude of 10 N, is it in the Northern or Southern Hemisphere?
The place is in the Northern Hemisphere.
5. We know that the nearer a place to the poles, the colder it is likely to be. Which city, in
a) and b) below, is likely to be colder?
a) City X: latitude 30 N, longitude 25 W, or City Y: latitude 60 N, longitude 20 E.
b) City W: latitude 40 S, longitude 75 E, or City Z: latitude 75 S, longitude 50 W.
in a), City Y is likely to be colder
b), City Z is likely to be colder.

6. Name the important latitudes on the earth.

Important latitudes on the earth are: Equator - 0, Tropic of Cancer - 23 N, Arctic
Circle - 66 N, Tropic of Capricorn - 23 S, Antarctic Circle - 66 S.
7. What is an axis? What is the angle of tilt of the earths axis?
The globe is turned around a line passing through it. This line is called the axis. The tilt
of this axis is 23.
Chapter - 2 : MAPS

NEW WORDS: Map Atlas, Scale, Symbol

Answer the following questions:

1. A globe is the most accurate way to represent the earth. However, we generally use a
map rather than a globe to study the earth. Why is this?
We generally use a map rather than a globe to study the earth because globe is difficult to
carry around. It is not possible to see all parts of the earth at the same time. A globe
cannot show detailed information.
2. A map of the earth will have errors in the shape and size of places shown on the map.
Why is that so?
A map of the earth will have errors in the shape and size of places shown on the map
because they cover very large areas.
3. How is direction usually shown in maps?
Usually maps are drawn with North direction at the top. South is at the bottom, East is to
the right and West to the left.
4. What do you understand by the term scale of a map?
The Scale of a map is the ratio between distance shown on the map and the actual
distance on the ground.
5. Which standard colours are used in maps?
Certain standard colours are used in maps to show features such as water bodies are
always shown in blue. Mountains and highlands are shown in brown and yellow. Plains
and lowlands are shown in green.
6. What are symbols?
A symbol is a shape or sign that is used to represent something.

7. What is linear scale?

The scale of a map is often shown as a line with distance marked on it. This is called a
linear scale.
8. What is the benefit of using symbols on a map?
Use of symbols make it easier to read and understand maps.

NEW WORDS: Landforms, Peaks, Passes, Valleys, Plateaus, Peninsula, Delta, Bay, Tributaries,
Distributaries, Cape, Coast, Perennial

Answer the following questions:

1. What are landforms? Name the main landforms of the Earth.
The different features that make up the Earths surface are called landforms. Four main
landforms of the world are mountains, plains, plateaus and deserts.
2. What are Fold Mountains? Give an example.
Some mountains are formed when two large landmasses push against each other. They
are called Fold Mountains. The Himalayas is an example for Fold Mountains.
3. What is the difference between a mountain and a plateau?
Mountains are the rocky masses of land that rise higher than the surroundings but have
high peaks.
Plateaus are large areas of land that are higher than the surroundings but their tops are
more or less flat.
4. What is a peninsula? Give an example.
A landmass which projects into the sea and is surrounded by water on three sides is
called a peninsula. The southern part of India is a peninsula which is covered by the
Indian ocean, the Arabian sea and the Bay of Bengal
5. What is the difference between perennial and seasonal river?
Rivers that flow throughout year are perennial rivers. Perennial rivers flow from icy
Seasonal rivers flow only in certain season and they are fed by rain
6. What is the difference between a tributary and a distributary?
Several smaller rivers that join the main river are tributaries of that river.
The main river breaks into smaller channels while joining the sea. These channels are
called are distributaries.
7. What is a desert? Name some of the important deserts of the world.
Deserts are Large; extremely dry areas of land that get very little rainfall. The Sahara
Desert in North Africa, the Thar Desert in India, the Kalahari Desert in Southern Africa,
the Atacama Desert in South America are some of the important deserts of the world.

8. What is a valley?
The lowland between hills or mountains is called a valley.
9. Define Passes.
Low, narrow and natural gaps between mountains are called passes.
10. Name the highest plateau in the world.
The Tibetan Plateau is the highest plateau in the world.
11. What are mountain ranges? Give an example.
Mountains that occur in long rows are called mountain ranges. The Himalas in the north
of India is the highest mountain ranges in the world.
12. Name the largest delta in the world.
The Delta made by the Brahmaputra and the Ganga is the largest delta in the world.
13. Great civilisations in the world are developed along rivers. Why is that so? (HOTS)
Great civilisations are developed along the rivers because the rivers bring down
sediments from the mountains. These sediments make the soil richest. Rivers provide
water for drinking, agriculture and domestic purposes.
Chapter - 2 : INDIA

NEW WORDS: Diverse, Fertile, Union territories, Rugged

Answer the following questions:

1. Where is India located? Who are its neighbours?

India is located in the south of the continent of Asia. Afghanistan, Pakistan, China,
Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Maldives, Indonesia and Srilanka are the
neighbours of India.
2. Which are the ocean bodies that surround peninsular India?
The ocean bodies that surround Peninsular India are the Indian Ocean on the south, the
Arabian Sea on the west and the Bay of Bengal on the east.
3. Why do we say that India is a land of vastly diverse landforms?
There are plains, hills, mountains, a desert, plateaus, a long coastline, forests and islands.
Hence India is called a land of vastly varied landforms.
4. What is the difference between a state and a union territory?
A state has its own government, which is chosen by the people of that state.
A Union territory is directly governed by the central government.

5. What is the position of India among the nations in terms of area?

India is the seventh largest country of the world in terms of area.
6. List the physical features of India.
India can be divided into five main regions. They are the Northern Mountains, the
Northern Plains, the Deccan Plateau, the Coastal plains and islands and the western
7. What is the political division of India?
Politically India is divided into 29 states and 7 union territories.

NEW WORDS: Universe, Constellations, Star, Planet, Solar system, the Great Bear, Orion,
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

Answer the following questions:

1. Describe the Universe.
The Universe is a vast expanse of space
2. What are stars?
Star is a huge ball of hot, burning gases.
3. What are constellations? Name a few well known constellations.
Groups of stars are called constellations. Leo, the Great Bear and Orion are some well-
known constellations.
4. What is the Solar System? Name the different planets of the Solar System?
The Sun and the planets together form the Solar system. Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars,
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are the planets of our solar system.
5. What are planets?
Planets are heavenly bodies that travel around a star. They are usually round in shape.
Some of them are made of rocks.

6. What is the difference between a star and a planet?

A star is a huge ball of hot, burning gasses. Stars have their own heat and light.
Planet is a heavenly body which travel around a star. Some planets are made of rocks.
Planets do not have heat or light of their own.
7. What is the difference between solar system and a constellation?
The Sun and eight planets that travel around the sun together is the solar system.
A group of stars that appear to form a pattern is called a constellation.

NEW WORDS: Unique, Atmosphere, Horizon, Astronaut, Coast

Answer the following questions:

1. Why do we say that the planet earth is unique?
There is no other place in the universe where there is life. Therefore we say earth is a
unique planet.
2. Who was Ferdinand Magellan?
Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese sailor.
3. What is the shape of the earth? Give two ways in which you can prove this.
The shape of the earth is round like a ball. Ferdinand Magellan sailed around the earth.
Astronauts looked at the earth from outer space and found that it looked like a huge ball.
4. What is the horizon?
The place at which the land and sky appear to meet is called the horizon.
5. Describe the sky.
A vast space surrounding the earth is sky.

6. What is an atmosphere?
A layer of air that surrounds the Earth is called an atmosphere.
7. Who is an astronaut?
A person who travels in space in a spacecraft is an astronaut.