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Summery about optical mineralogy


By the plane polarized light (PP):
9 Color:
Examples of minerals different colors under the polarized:

Hornblend Sapphirine Biotite



9 Relief:
The clear appearance of the outer margin of the mineral, and its dependent
on its density, if it higher than the matrix usually we uses the Canada balsam
it causes medium to high relief, if it lower causes lower relief.

Quartz low relief Biotite medium relief Diopside high relief



9 Pleochroism:
Under the polarized microscope, the character of mineral in which its
color changes by rotation is termed as pleochorism.

Andalusite mineral Orthopyroxene mineral Biotite mineral


Absent= No change in Weak pleocroic= Poor Pleocroic= Clear change
color. change in color. in color
See the beige area only! See the brown area only!

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9 Twinkling:
Under the polarized microscope, the change in brightness by rotating the stage.

ThemarginsoftheOlivine appearanddisappearby
rotatingthestage.

9 Crystalform:
Under the polarized microscope, the regularity of the mineral margins
or edges determined by crystal form:

Zircon mineral Calcite mineral Zircon mineral


Euhedral= Suhedral= Anhedral=
Prefect regular Medium regular Irregular

9 Cleavage:
Under the polarized microscope the cleavage shown on mineral caused
by its crystal weakness composition, and its characters:

Quartz mineral Augite mineral Calcite mineral


No cleavage One set of cleavage Crossed & oblique
cleavage

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9 Parting:
Is such cleavage formed by physical damages down on the mineral and it not
characterizes it.

Well parting shown in Olivine



By the plane crossed polarized light (XP):
9 BirefringenceandInterferencecolors:
Isotropic minerals are minerals that have the same properties in all directions, and
appear dark.
Anisotropic minerals have different properties indifferent directions. So, light travels
through them in different ways and with different velocities, depending on the
direction of travel through a grain, and they gives colors under the crossed polarized
light because of the Birefringes and interference colors.

Quartz mineral Staurolite mineral


Low order of interference color High order of interference color

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9 Extinction:
Under cross-polarized light an anisotropic mineral will change color as the stage is rotated.
Extinction angle is a measure of angle between the darkest of any mineral area and the most
brightness of the same area after rotation. It may be "parallel to the cross hairs,
symmetric between them or oblique.

Darkest Brightest
Extinction angle
9 Twinning:
Under the crossed polarized light the mineral may be appears twins as part being
opposite its typical other part that makes the brightness and optical properties
interchanges between them.

Plagioclase mineral Microcline mineral


Lamellar twinned Cross hatched twinned

9 Birefringes:
Under the crossed Nicole polarized light the interference between O-ray and E-
ray takes place on two phases Uniaxial, and Biaxial like in figures:

Muscovite thin section gives


Muscovite thick section gives biaxial figure
uniaxial figure

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Feldspars: Quartz:
PP XP

Qrtz Qrtz

PP
Chemicalcomposition SiO2
Color The thick section is colorless, but it seams
white under the polarized microscope.
Relief Low relief mineral.
Pleochorism Weak pleochoric from yellow to beige
generally white.
Twinkling Absent
Crystalform Anhedral
Cleavage No cleavage.
Parting Fine cracks.
XP
Interferencecolor Low Order colors usually grey.
Extinction Wavy Oblique to the crossed hairs Every
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Microcline (Potassium feldspars):


PP XP

Micro Micro

PP
Chemicalcomposition KALSi3O8
Color Light brown, beige to dirty white.
Relief Low relief mineral.
Pleochorism Weak pleochoric from beige to slitly dark
beige.
Twinkling Absent
Crystalform Anhedral
Cleavage No cleavage.
Parting Fine cracks.
XP
Interferencecolor Low Order colors usually grey.
Extinction Oblique.
Twinning Cross hatched twinned.

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Plagioclase:
PP XP

Plago Plage
o

PP
Chemicalcomposition Na0.5Ca0.5Si3AlO8
Color White, Gray, Bluish white, Reddish white,
Greenish white. Under the polarizer.
Relief High relief mineral.
Pleochorism Weak pleochoric from yellow to beige
generally white.
Twinkling Weak
Crystalform Sub - hedral
Cleavage Two set cleavage.
Parting Fine cracks.
XP
Interferencecolor Low Order colors usually grey.
Extinction Oblique to the crossed hairs
Twinning Lamellar twinning.

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Mica group: Biotite:


PP XP

Biotite Biotite

PP
Chemicalcomposition K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(OH,O,F)2
Color Brown to Dark brown.
Relief High relief mineral.
Pleochorism High pleochoric from Dark brown to beige
or yellow.
Twinkling Medium twinkled.
Crystalform Anhedral
Cleavage One set of cleavage.
Parting Fine cracks.
XP
nd
Interferencecolor 2 Order colors.
Extinction Oblique to the crossed hairs Every 20
Twinning Not twinned.

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Muscovite:
PP XP

Musc
Musc

PP
Chemicalcomposition KAl2AlSi3O10(OH)2
Color Beige to brown.
Relief Medium relief mineral.
Pleochorism Weak pleochoric from beige to green
sometimes yellow.
Twinkling Absent
Crystalform Anhedral
Cleavage One set of cleavage.
Parting Fine cracks.
XP
Interferencecolor High Order colors.
Extinction Parallel to cleavage in all orientations,
BIRD'S EYE.
Twinning Not twinned.

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Mafic Minerals group: Orthopyroxene:


PP XP

PP
Chemicalcomposition (Mg, Fe)2Si2O6
Color Commonly light green, and sometimes
beige.
Relief High relief mineral.
Pleochorism Partially Pleochoric from light green to
beige or Pink generally white.
Twinkling Medium
Crystalform Anhedral
Cleavage Two set of cleavage 88 angled.
Parting Medium cracks.
XP
Interferencecolor Low Order colors usually dark.
Extinction Parallel in longitudinal sections and
symmetrical in basal sections.
Twinning May be Lamellar but sometimes get zoning.

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Olivine:
PP XP

Oliv Oliv

PP
Chemicalcomposition (MgFe)2SiO4
Color Usually colorless or very pale yellow
Relief High relief mineral.
Pleochorism Poor pleochoric.
Twinkling Absent
Crystalform Sub - hedral
Cleavage Poor one set of cleavage seen in the very
thin sections.
Parting Well cracked Y-cracked.
XP
Interferencecolor High Order colors usually Vilote.
Extinction Parallel.
Twinning Not twinned.

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Hornblende:
PP XP

Horn Horn

PP
Chemicalcomposition (Ca,Na)2-3(Mg,Fe+2,Fe+3,Al)5Si6(Si,Al)2O22(OH)2
Color Usually dirty green, sometimes brown.
Relief High relief mineral.
Pleochorism Pleochoric from dirty green to dark brown.
Twinkling Absent
Crystalform Sub - hedral
Cleavage Two set of cleavage.
Parting Medium cracked.
XP
Interferencecolor High Order colors usually Milky to blue.
Extinction Symmetrical to cleavages.
Twinning Simple twinned.


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Augite(clinopyroxene):
PP XP

Augite Augite

PP
Chemicalcomposition Ca (Mg, Fe) [SiO3]2
Color Usually dirty green, sometimes beige.
Relief High relief mineral.
Pleochorism Weak pleochoric from dirty green to light
brown.
Twinkling Absent
Crystalform Sub - hedral
Cleavage Two set of cleavage 90 angled.
Parting Well cracked.
XP
Interferencecolor High Order colors usually irregular.
Extinction Parallel.
Twinning Commonly displays simple and lamellar
twinning.

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Generalaccessoryminerals:
Titanite(Sphene):
PP XP

sphene sphene

PP
Chemicalcomposition CaTiOSiO4
Color Usually light brown.
Relief High relief mineral.
Pleochorism Weak pleochoric from light brown to dark
brown.
Twinkling Good
Crystalform Euhedral
Cleavage No cleavage.
Parting Medium cracked.
XP
nd
Interferencecolor 2 Order colors usually Milky to blue.
Extinction Because of high dispersion, some grains do
not extinguish completely.
Twinning No twinned.

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Classification of Igneous rocks


1) Mode of occurrence:
9 Volcanic:
RocksFormedbysuddenlycoolingoflava,characterizedbyfinegrainscrystallizationthat
onlyseenunderthemicroscope,andglassymass,asnograinsformed.
9 Hybupythal:
RocksthatformedbymediumcoolingofMagmaneartwotheserfeceitcharacterisedgrains
maybefineorclear,dependentonthecoolingmoodandthemineralscompsition.
9 Plutonic:
RocksformedbyslowlycoolingofMagma,characterisedbywellshapecrystalization,to
formbiggrains.
2) According to grains texture:
9 Glassy igneous: 9 Parphiratic:
Ex:Obsidian. Ex:Andisaite
9 Fine grains: 9 Pegmatitec:
Ex:Basalt. Ex:Pegmatite.
9 Cearsegrained:
Ex:Graniet.
3) According to silica contents:
9 Acidic Felsic: >66% silica: 9 Basic Mafic: 52 45% silica.
{FeldsparsMica}Lighttocolorless 9 Ultrabasic Ultramafic: <45%
minerals. silica.
9 Intermediate: 66 52% silica.
4) According to color index:
9 Leucratic: 0 30% silica. 9 Melanocratic: 60 90% silica.
9 Mesocratic: 30 60% silica. 9 Hypermelanic: >90% silica.
5) Texture of igneous rock:
Mutualrelationbetweentherockcomponents(shape,size,andorientation).

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9 Cooarse grain
ned texturre: Fewlarggrainsintheegroundmaass.
Ex:GraniteGabbro. EX:Gabb
bro.
9 Fin
ne grained
d: 9 Amygd
dula:
Ex:Basalt. AsinPummice(womanlegsofter))
9 Gllassy grain
ned: whenith holosfullsoffsedimentessit
Ex:Obsidian. willcalled,ifitnotitcalled
9 Poorphyritic:: vessecu ulertexturre.
9 Th
he diagra
am is shoowing sch
hem of th
he Igneou
us rock:

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Pegmaatitic texture Aphaniitic Glassy Phaneritic texture Ex:


Ex: Pegmatite
P texture Ex:
E Obsidian n Graanite

Porphyrretic texture Graphic texxture: Perthitic teexture:


Ex: Andesite
A Texture in w
which the quartzz is being Texture in which
w the Plagiooclase is beingg
b K-feldspars Microcline. surrounded by
surrounded by b K-feldspars Microcline.

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PPL PXL

Rocktype Igneousrock
Rockname Granite
Mineralcomposition QuartzKfeldsparPlagioclaseMaybesome
micaminerals
Occurrence Plutonic
Ratioofsilica Felsic
Texture Coarsegrained Phanaretic

PPL PXL

Rocktype Igneousrock
Rockname Rhyolite
Mineralcomposition QuartzKfeldsparPlagioclaseMaybesome
micaminerals
Occurrence Volcanic
Ratioofsilica Felsic
Texture fine grained Phanaritic perithitictexture


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PPL PXL

Rocktype Igneousrock
Rockname Granodiorite
Mineralcomposition QuartzFewkfelpsparPlagioclaseMica
mineralsMaficepyroxeneandolivine
Occurrence Plutonic
Ratioofsilica Intermediate
Texture Medium phaneritic

PPL PXL

Rocktype Igneousrock
Rockname Basalt
Mineralcomposition Plagioclase MicamineralsMaficepyroxene
andolivine
Occurrence Volcanic
Ratioofsilica Felsic
Texture Medium phaneritic

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PPL PXL

Rocktype Igneousrock
Rockname Gabbro
Mineralcomposition Plagioclase MicamineralsMaficepyroxene
andolivine
Occurrence Plutonic
Ratioofsilica Basic
Texture Large phaneritic

PPL PXL

Rocktype Igneousrock
Rockname Basalt
Mineralcomposition Plagioclase MicamineralsMaficepyroxene
andolivine
Occurrence Volcanic
Ratioofsilica Basic
Texture Medium grained phaneritic directive
texture

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PPL PXL

Rocktype Igneousrock
Rockname Basalt
Mineralcomposition Plagioclase MicamineralsMaficepyroxene
andolivine
Occurrence Volcanic
Ratioofsilica Basic
Texture Veryfine grained aphanitic

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Classificatiion off Sedim
menta
ary ro
ocks
Sedimen
ntary roccks:
Are form
med from rock
ks and soils that came frrom other locations and have
h becom
me cemented
together with
w the remaains of dead organisms.
o
9 CL
LASTIC
Clastic orr detrital sed
dimentary rocks are formmed from thee weathering of existing rocks, whichh have
been carrieed to a differrent spot from
m where theey were origiinally and thhen turned innto rock. Theey
have a classtic (broken)) texture madde up of classts (bigger piieces, like saand or graveel) and are grrouped
according to
t their grain n size.
Grain size and sort of grains:
g

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Shape of the grrain:
The shape of grains can
c also be a diagnostic tool,
t which usually
u impllies somethinng about thee
distance annd mode of transport.
t
Well-rounde
W d. Sub-an ngular.
Su ub-roundedd. Angulaar.

9 Noon clasticc sedimen


ntary rocck:
Chemiccal and biocheemical sedimeents and sedim
mentary rockks can be classsified by theirr chemical maakeup
and prooperties.
The moost common examples of non-clastic roccks are dolosttone and limeestone:

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Lim
mestone

Microssparite:whhich
Miccrite:thessortof
themmicritefinee SSparite:Inwhichthee
veryyfinegrain
nedof
crystalsandtheb big crystalsarebig.
c
calcitecrysstals
spaariteone.

Rocktyppe Sedime
entaryrock
Sedimen ntarytypee Clastic
Typeofcementattion Argellacceous
Rocknaame Argillaceeoussandstone
Grainsize Sand
Shapeoofgrains SubAnggular
Typeofsorting poorlyssorted
Minerallcomposittion Quartz& &glocionite
e

Rocktyppe Sedime
entaryrockk
Sedimen ntarytypee Clastic
Typeofcementation Ferrugin nous
Rockname Ferrugin noussandstoone
Grainsizze Sand
Shapeoofgrains SubAnggular
Typeofsorting poorlysorted
Mineralcomposition Quartz& &Ferricoxid
des
Hematiite

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Rocktype Sedimentaryrock
Sedimentarytype Clastic
Typeofcementation Ferruginous
Rockname Ferruginoussiltstone
Grainsize Silt
Shapeofgrains SubAngular
Typeofsorting poorlysorted
Mineralcomposition Quartz&Ferricoxides
Hematite

Rocktype Sedimentaryrock
Sedimentarytype Clastic
Typeofcementation Argellaceous
Rockname Argillaceoussiltstone
Grainsize Silt
Shapeofgrains SubAngular
Typeofsorting poorlysorted
Mineralcomposition Quartz&glocionite

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Rocktype Sedimentaryrock
Sedimentarytype Clastic
Typeofcementation Quartzite
Rockname Quartzarenite
Grainsize Sand
Shapeofgrains SubAngular
Typeofsorting poorlysorted
Mineralcomposition Quartz

Rocktype Sedimentaryrock
Sedimentarytype Clastic
Typeofcementation Quartziteandrock
fragments
Rockname Graywake
Grainsize Sand
Shapeofgrains SubAngular
Typeofsorting poorlysorted
Mineralcomposition Quartz&Fragmentminerals

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Rocktype Sedimentaryrock
Sedimentarytype Clastic
Typeofcementation Quartziteandrock
fragments
Rockname Lithigraywake
Grainsize Sand
Shapeofgrains SubAngular
Typeofsorting poorlysorted
Mineralcomposition Quartz&fragments
minerals

Rocktype Sedimentaryrock
Sedimentarytype Clastic
Typeofcementation Quartziteandrock
fragments
Rockname Conglomerate
Grainsize pebbles
Shapeofgrains Subrounded
Typeofsorting poorlysorted
Mineralcomposition Quartz&fragments
minerals

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Rocktype Sedimentaryrock
Sedimentarytype NonClastic
Typeofcementation Chemicalcementing
Rockname Micriticlimestone
Grainsize Micrite
Shapeofgrains
Typeofsorting
Mineralcomposition Calcitecrystales

Rocktype Sedimentaryrock
Sedimentarytype NonClastic
Typeofcementation BioChemicalcementing
Rockname Micriticlimestone
Grainsize Micrite
Shapeofgrains
Typeofsorting
Mineralcomposition Calcitecrystales

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Rocktype Sedimentaryrock
Sedimentarytype NonClastic
Typeofcementation Chemicalcementing
Rockname Dolostone
Grainsize Micrite
Shapeofgrains
Typeofsorting
Mineralcomposition Magnesiumcarbonate

Classification of Metamorphic rocks


Metamorphic rocks are classified on the basis of texture and composition (either mineralogical or
chemical)
Unlike igneous rocks, which have been plagued by a proliferation of local and specific names,
metamorphic rock names are surprisingly simple and flexible
May choose some prefix-type modifiers to attach to names if care to stress some important or
unusual textural or mineralogical aspects.

Rocktype Metamorphic rock


Metamorphismtype Slate
Rockname Micaschist
Texture slaty
Mineralcomposition Maficmaybepyroxeneor
Olivine

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Rocktype Metamorphic rock


Metamorphismtype Contactthermal
Rockname Marble
Texture Phyllitic
Mineralcomposition Calcitemineral

Rocktype Metamorphic rock


Metamorphismtype Slate
Rockname Gniess
Texture slaty
Mineralcomposition Maybefeldsparsquartz
calciteandmicaminerals

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Rocktype Metamorphic rock


Metamorphismtype Slate
Rockname Serpentinite
Texture slaty
Mineralcomposition Serpentineatransformer
mineralfromOlivinebye
heatandPressure

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