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1 Caller 1

University education should remain free so that everyone can benefit from it.
The cost of university education nowadays is greater than its value.
She attributes her success in her career to her university education.
In her experience, going to university was a mistake which she regrets.

2 Caller 2

University gives intelligent people the opportunity to prove their worth above
others.
University is only suitable for intelligent people, as only they can engage fully in
debates.
University provides opportunities to delve deeply into a subject with peers and
experts.
University gives you excellent study skills which will help you in your career.

3 Caller 3

Apprenticeships and college courses should be valued as highly as university


degrees.
University provides little in the way of practical skills and financial security.
Young people choose university because apprenticeships are no longer
available.
Attending university would have allowed him to progress further in his career.

4 Caller 4

A university education improves your career chances and broadens your


horizons.
In many parts of the world, a degree is a necessary pre-requisite in finding a decent
jo
University gives you the chance to meet interesting people who might offer you a
jo
University allows young people to leave their home towns, but live in a safe
environment.

5 Caller 5

University is only available to the privileged, and that is unfair to poorer members
of society.
Too many people are going to university these days -not everyone can be a
professional.
University education has given us politicians and inventors who have made this
country great.
The insight that professionals developed when they were at university affects the
whole society.
Score: 0/0

Radio presenter:
This is Duncan Braithwaite with the Ethics Hour. So, university fees have risen again,
and many people assume that this will mean a drop in student numbers. But
surprisingly, some might say, applicant numbers are in fact rising - an ever-increasing
number of school-leavers is valuing the importance of a university education. That
means that a huge proportion of young people will start their professional lives in debts
mounting to twenty or thirty thousand pounds, which begs the question, is a university
education really worth it? Were inviting you to call in and give us your views. And we
have our first caller on the line now. Debbie Rush - what are your views on a university
education?

Caller1
Well, I got a degree back when university education was free, and I have to say that,
although I had a great time and all that, I dont think it benefitted me in my career in the
slightest, I mean so few of us actually end up in a job that utilises the facts that we pick
up in education, and in hindsight, I think I dont think I would have well I
wouldnt recommend university to a young person as a great way to start off in life
these days - it will get them into too much debt and it just isnt worth the the
investment. I mean, its great. Dont get me wrong, I had a wonderful time and I learned
all sorts of life lessons, and I made lots of mistakes, and I learned from it, and I
wouldnt trade that experience in for the world, but in the long run, I dont think that
it really benefits you, career-wise that is.

Presenter
Thank you, Debbie, for your thoughts. I have to say, Ive heard a number of my own
friends voicing similar views. Lets listen to caller 2 - thats Josie Crane. Josie?

Caller 2
Well, I also studied a few years ago, and granted, I didnt have to fork out the sort of
money that students these days have to, but I would never suggest that someone
someone who is intelligent and has the aptitude for university study - I would never
recommend that they stay away, because because university offers so much. I
mean, its not just about the lectures and the seminars and the study skills, its also
about meeting like-minded people - not just students, but people who are real authorities
on the subject, and having debates and discussions late into the night and really
exploring something that interests you. Its the only chance you ever get to do
that. Once you start a career, that there are no more opportunities for that sort of
thing, unless you can make it happen. So yes, higher education gets my vote every
time.
Presenter
Positive words from Josie there. Lets hear from caller 3, Paul Weston. Paul?

Caller 3
Well, I dont know about university, but I left school at 16, got an apprenticeship with a
local building firm, and picked up some skills along the way, and then, when I was.
When I was in my early twenties, I did a course, a part-time course at the local techie,
you know. And I paid for it myself, out of my earnings. And I never got into debt like
the kids do nowadays, and I bought my own house when I was 23. And I tell you, I see
some kids who have been to university, and done postgraduates courses too, got MScs
and PhDs coming out of their their ears, but get them to wire a plug and they havent
a clue. I think you learn just as much and you get a lot more more nous from
from just getting on with it. I mean universitys supposed to prepare you for life, innit?
But nothing prepares you more than just getting a job and doing it.

Presenter
An interesting response from Paul Weston there. Caller 4, er - Amanda Prior - whats
your opinion on the subject?

Caller 4
Well, I understand what people are saying, about how university doesnt always give
you the useful facts that you need in everyday life, or the skills for a particular
jo But it well, I think it opens up opportunities. Not just in jobs, because, whether
you like it or not, some jobs just are only open to graduates, and HR departments who
get a huge pile of application forms for a job, well theyre not even going to give
someone a look-in if they dont have a degree, if if thats their pre-requisite,
I mean. But its not just that. I think university opens up the world to you, because,
you you stop thinking like a member of your little neighbourhood, or your corner of
your town or city, and you become more worldly, and you meet people from all sorts of
backgrounds and they influence you, and I think they just make you a more fully-
rounded person. And some people say, well, your university of life gives you as good
an education as any real university - but I dont think it does, actually.

Presenter
Thank you, Amand And I think we have time for just one caller before we play some
musi Caller 5, thats Ralph Jordan. What would you like to say?

Caller 5
Well, personally I dont know what everyone is talking about here. Education isnt just
about getting a job, university isnt a job training workshop. Uni... We have, we are
privileged to have, in this country, and in other countries too of course, a long and rich
academic culture, and this culture has brought us a wealth of great minds - not just -
Im not just talking about the famous inventors and politicians among the university
alumni, the ones they like to boast about on their prospectuses, but also the managers,
the teachers, judges, lawyers, executives, everyday people, but everyday people who
have been able to use their experience and learning and understanding to the benefit of
others. And to ask the question is it worth it? Well, that seems to just demean the
whole process really, if you understand me. And if you cant see the value of a
university education, then maybe you shouldnt be going anyway.
Presenter
Thank you Ralph. Well, its already turning into a fascinating debate. Well hear more
views on this topic, after this.

1 What is the best headline for this story?

Eco-home residents see energy bills soar


Government pledges to construct more eco homes
Eco-home construction delayed by financial problems

2 Which of the following is NOT true of the Pavilion Gardens complex?

It was finished two years ago.


It comprises 45 homes.
It cost 6.5 million pounds to build.

3 James Farmers energy bill was

900 for 3 months


1600 for 3 months
1500 for 6 months

4 The company Lovell says that

these boilers have the cheapest running costs in Europe.


the energy bills are not their responsibility.
they were aware of problems with the equipment.

5 Bradford Council will

demand that the energy company reduces the bills.


find out why the bills are so high and try to lower them.
find alternative accommodation for the people of Pavilion Gardens.

6 Bradford Council have promised to


pay the residents bills in full.
give the residents some money back.
pay to replace the faulty boilers.

7 The editor of Build-It is critical about government accreditation schemes which

calculate a homes energy savings.


measure residents satisfaction.
value low construction costs above energy savings.

8 The critic disagrees with the governments pledge to build more eco-homes
because

the homes are poorly designed.


the homes are too expensive to build.
the homes do not significantly cut energy use.
Score: 0/0

Newsreader:
Residents at a complex of new eco-homes, which was heralded as the most
environmentally-friendly housing development in the region when it was completed two
years ago, have received energy bills which are double the national average. The 45
homes, commissioned by Bradford Council, constructed by the firm Lovell and
managed by Yorkshire Housing, cost 5.6 million pounds of public money, funded by
Bradford Council and the Homes and Communities Agency. They were built to the
highest specifications of the Governments Code for Sustainable Homes, and
incorporated a range of eco-friendly features including super-insulation, solar panels,
biomass boilers and heat-recycling systems, which led the residents to believe that their
bills would be considerably lower than usual. Instead they were sent bills of over 900
per quarter. Resident James Farmer describes his experiences.

Man:
We werent actually told that our bills would be lower, but with all this fancy eco stuff
like solar panels, and heat exhaust systems, you come to expect it. We couldnt believe
it when we got a bill for one and a half grand for half a year. Thats almost double what
we paid in our last place. We had to take a loan out to pay it. Everyone on the street is
suffering. They want to move out. They cant keep on living here with that sort of
expense. But the council wont find them another place, and of course no-one else
wants to move in, in a hurry.

Newsreader:
A spokesman for the construction company Lovell admits that the supposedly eco-
friendly devices havent been working as well as they should be.

Construction worker:
The heating in the majority of these properties is provided by electric air source heat
pump boilers. These have the potential to be more efficient than conventional boilers,
and have been used to great effect throughout Europe. It would appear that there have
been a number of problems with the boilers in Pavilion Gardens, and the manufacturers
have been called out on a number of occasions to rectify the problems.

Newsreader:
Bradford Councils assistant director of Housing had this to say:

Council Spokesman:
We appreciate that residents of Pavilion Gardens are experiencing problems with energy
usage and billing. We appreciate that this is a serious problem, and we are working with
the building contractor, the energy company and managing agents to find a
solution. We are confident that we will be able to resolve these issues, and want to
reassure residents that we will reimburse them for any costs over and above the standard
charge for their household. We will also do our best to ensure that residents electricity
bills are lower in future.

Newsreader:
The news comes at a time when governments are pledging to pump more money into
constructing homes that cut energy use. But critics argue that the governments standing
is short-sighted. The editor in chief of the online architectural magazine Build-It had this
to say:

Critic:
Its all very well the government pouring more money into eco-homes, but the problem
is, that theyre basing the whole success of these schemes on a points system, whereby
the houses are accredited on how low their carbon footprint is. There is no attempt to
qualify whether these are the types of places where people want to live, or whether the
technology used in them can be understood or used effectively by the home-owners.
And in my opinion, were going to see more and more stories like this one as more
shoddy eco-homes are shoved together by building companies, rather than designed
effectively by real architects.

1 In 1921, people had about __________ leisure time than they had in 1901.

10 hours more
10 hours less
4 hours less
4 hours more
2 The groups which had more leisure time were predominantly...

male and female middle and working class.


male middle class, working class and immigrants.
male and female working class and immigrants.
female middle class, working class and immigrants.

3 Reading, needlecraft and music

became popular pursuits in the period 1901-1921.


were popular in middle class families in the 1800s.
were forms of commercial recreation.
were regarded as immoral by religious groups.

4 Traditional organisations ____ commercial recreation.

supervised
founded
disapproved of
encouraged

5 Commercial recreation venues were forced to

close down
obtain licences
close during the vacations
offer alternative entertainment

6 Schools and churches responded by

preaching against commercial recreation.


offering morally acceptable alternatives.
putting on their own shows and fairs.
adopting a less moral stance.

7 The new voluntary organisations of this era

were mostly geared towards boys and men.


included groups for both children and adults.
were run as extra-curricular school activities.
were all founded by religious groups.

8 The Playground Association of America

believed that children needed unsupervised time away from adults.


was set up to ensure that playgrounds were safe for children.
argued that voluntary organisations reduced childrens opportunities for outdoor
play
trained adults in how to lead children in constructive play.
Score: 0/0

The early twentieth century was a time in America when people started to challenge the
traditional values laid down by homes, schools and the church. For the first time,
women, as well as men, took jobs and had an income of their own, sometimes living
away from home, away from the eyes of prying parents. At the same time, the working
week shortened considerably, giving workers much more free time. Between 1901 and
1921, for example, the average working week dropped from 58.4 hours to 48.4 hours,
an unprecedented decline which has, incidentally, not been equalled since. There was a
quickly emerging middle class which demanded recreation, and a working class with an
increased income and more leisure time. Meanwhile, new immigrant groups brought in
waves of alternative recreational activities that had not been experienced before by the
predominant white population.

This led to a rise in what may be called commercial recreation - that is, a recreation
industry that generated money. Prior to this, people made their own fun with pursuits
such as reading, needlecraft, music and so on. The religious middle classes had
preached the values of self-control, moral integrity and industriousness, and their leisure
pursuits were supposed to be morally upright and useful to society. It was these people
who had founded museums, libraries, art galleries and symphony orchestras in the late
eighteen hundreds. Now, there were increasing numbers of dance halls, theatres,
cinemas, social clubs and amusement parks. People frequented beaches, parks and
picnic areas where there were band pavilions and outdoor games, and they went to
shows - circus shows, vaudeville theatre, burlesque and travelling fairs with daredevil
rides. This hedonistic lifestyle more often than not involved drinking alcohol, and gave
limitless opportunities for unsupervised socialising between the sexes, and the
traditional, long-established organisations - churches and so on, feared for the
corruption of their youth.

They had to respond, and respond they did. There was, primarily, a call for the new
recreational establishments - the dance halls, bowling alleys and pool parlours - to
require permits in order to operate, which limited, to some extent, the spread of these
new, morally-corruptible establishments. The traditional organisations also began to
offer alternatives - alternatives to the dance halls and theatres - that would keep the
populace, both young and old, in morally acceptable pursuits. Until that time,
establishments such as schools, museums, libraries and so on, had closed for long
periods of the year, such as throughout the summer holidays, but now they remained
open all year round, and began to promote organised activities such as sport, music,
games and drama in a bid to lessen the urge for unacceptable behaviour. Schools began
to run vacation clubs, and an extensive range of extra-curricular activities, especially in
sports, publications - creating a school newspaper, and hobbies - chess, stamp-collecting
and the like. This was also the era when voluntary organisations such as the Boy Scouts
were set up to encourage healthy, active and moral pursuits for children - the National
Association of Boys was another, the Camp Fire Girls, the Girl Scouts were others.
Some had roots in the church, such as the St Johns Ambulance and the Boys Brigade.
For young adults, there was the YMCA - the Young Mans Christian association, another
religious group, and the YWCA for women; and there were also community service
groups for adults, like the Rotary Club and Lions Club. Another important player at this
time was the Playground Association of America. This was a national group led by
Luther Halsey Gulick, which had the backing of the US president, Roosevelt. The
purpose of this was to assist people of all ages to use their recreation time to good
effect. Remember that in the eighteenth century, childrens play was not encouraged -
children would get arrested for playing on the street together. There were no
established parks and playgrounds for children. The Playground Association of
America, however, acknowledged that play was important and necessary, and a vital
part of childrens learning, but that it required effective leadership. The organisation
worked nationwide to develop playgrounds in towns and cities, and also put on
recreational programs, as well as running courses to train adults in effective play
leadership.

1 According to the teacher, tourism damages the things that tourists come to see.

true
false

2 Most people who visited Goa before 1986 were poor.

true
false
3 Before 1986, about 250,000 foreign tourists visited Goa per year.

true
false

4 From 1986, there was an increase in package holidays to Goa.

true
false

5 Local people welcomed the increase in tourism.

true
false

6 Local people benefit from all-inclusive holiday packages.

true
false

7 The removal of mangrove swamps increases the risk of coastal flooding.

true
false

8 Tourism has led to an increase in crime.

true
false
Score: 0/0

Tourism is an important industry for a large number of countries, in particular less


economically developed ones. Why do tourists want to travel? Often its about
exploration and discovery - adventure - the yearning to discover places of natural and
cultural significance, or great beauty - the desire to encounter a new way of life. The
irony is that often it is these precise values which become threatened when an area
opens up to tourism. Were going to have a look at a case study today of Goa in India,
and see how tourism has changed and shaped that area, for the good, and for the bad.
As for the numbers of visitors, until 1986 tourism was quite limited here. The type of
people who frequented Goa were hippies and backpackers, like these fellows here, are
very wealthy tourists from overseas, and Indian tourists. The annual total reached about
er ... 500,000, about half of those from overseas. They would stay in family homes
and locally-run hostels, not very luxurious, but which gave visitors a more cultural
experience, and because they were all locally run, their money would be injected into
the local economy.
Since 1986, theres been a huge boom in tourism in Goa, principally with the arrival of
package holidays. There was a demand for a new sort of accommodation - three and
four star hotels with pools and gardens. Tourism spread from the small fishing villages
and started to sprawl along the coastline.
Since 1987, the region started to see action groups protesting against the growth of
tourism. There were protests at the airport - people with banners saying Tourists go
home, and throwing cow dung. These had little effect. The growth of tourism
continued. Communication routes improved - airports, railways, roads, and these
opened up areas to the north and south, invading further into the natural environment.
Large multinational chain hotels opened up, and these of course, take money out of the
country, rather than giving it to local people. Obviously, some money reaches the local
people - there are more jobs available in the big hotels, reducing unemployment and
raising wages and standards of living, and then local people open up small businesses of
their own, shops, bars, restaurants, boutiques, construction businesses and so on. But at
the same time, a lot of the profit just disappears, especially as more and more of these
hotels offer all inclusive package deals that include accommodation, full board,
excursions, transportation, spas, the lot. The tourists need never leave their resorts.
The traditional industries of fishing and agriculture fell into decline. There was large-
scale deforestation, and valuable farm land was lost too. Some locals claim they have
been forced off their land. Obviously, where the natural environment has been built up,
this means there are huge pressures on natural resources. Mangrove swamps are
removed and replaced by hotels. Do you know what mangroves are? They are trees with
long, twisting roots that grow in the salty coastal waters, partly underwater. These
mangrove swamps are really important for reducing coastal flooding, so their removal is
really damaging. The disposal of rubbish and sewage is also an issue, and much of it is
dumped at sea, destroying the marine ecosystem.
There is also a loss of traditional values, as young Indians are influenced by Western
ways. Festivals become Westernised - tourist shows - losing their cultural significance.
Goa in particular has become a centre for drugs, prostitution and nudity. Crime is also
on the increase, where tourists are threatened, assaulted and robbed by members of the
local population.
So as you can see, there is no stopping the inevitable tide of tourism that is sweeping
through more and more corners of the world. And although there are a number of
advantages to tourism, you can clearly see that there are severe negative implications
too.

1 What is the problem on the M1 southbound?

road closure
breakdown

2 What is the problem on the M25 clockwise?

roadworks
heavy traffic

3 What is the problem with the East Coast rail line?


fallen tree
engineering works

4 Will the following people experience delays? Choose Yes or No.


Harry plans to travel eastbound along the M8 between junctions 16 and 15.

Yes
No

5 Denise wants to travel southbound along the M1 between junctions 24a and 24.

Yes
No

6 Archie plans to travel westbound between junction 20 and junction 21.

Yes
No

7 Ruth intends to travel clockwise around the M25 between junctions 25 to 28.

Yes
No

8 Louise wants to travel on the Northern Rail route between Haydon Bridge and
Bardon Mill.

Yes
No

9 Carlos is planning to travel on the East Coast rail line between Edinburgh Waverley
and Kirkcaldy.

Yes
No
Score: 0/0

Man:
Its a wet Friday and everyones heading home, so lets go over to Paula for the travel
news.

Woman:
Thanks, Neil. Theres a lot to get through today. First of all, to the M8 westbound in
Glasgow, now theres been an accident between junctions 17 and 18, and theres one
lane shut, and that means that there are very, very long delays heading west, back as far
as junction 14, and if youre heading onto the M8 at the junctions between 14 and 18,
expect heavy congestion on the slip roads and the roads leading onto the motorway.
Eastbound is moving pretty slowly as well, between 18 and 14.
Now the M1 southbound, weve still got the breakdown between junctions 25 and 24a,
affecting traffic and causing long delays in that direction, and traffic in the other
direction is also moving slowly.
The M1 is also closed northbound between junctions 42 and 43 and a diversion is in
place, which means traffic is practically at a standstill from junction 40 onwards.
Theres still no reopening time on the M1 so these delays arent likely to clear soon.
Further along the M62, westbound, there was an accident between junctions 20 and 21.
This has now been cleared, and all lanes are now open, but there are still long tailbacks
all the way from Leeds to Manchester.
On the M6, southbound, the accident between junctions 14 and 15 has also been
cleared, but there are patchy queues still there, all the way down to junction 5.
Northbound, traffic is very heavy along this stretch. It is moving, but again, there are
patchy hold-ups all the way up.
Now there are problems on the M25 due to roadworks - really long queues clockwise
between junction 8 all the way to junction 16, where it meets the M40. Theres a brief
respite, then there are long queues again between junctions 19 and 24, and again from
junction 29 over the QE2 Bridge. Anticlockwise, queues start at junction 17 and they
dont really let up until junction 5 where it meets the M6. Theres hardly a break in the
queue. All lanes are open anticlockwise - the congestion is just due to the solid weight
of traffic.
On the trains, there is disruption on South West trains between Epsom and Ashtead due
to people walking on the line causing delays of up to two hours. A signal failure on
Arriva trains between Ludlow and Craven Arms is causing minor delays of up to 20
minutes. Normal service has resumed on the Northern Rail route between Haydon
Bridge and Bardon Mill which was disrupted earlier following a fallen tree. There are
also delays on the East Coast line between Edinburgh Waverley and Kirkcaldy due to
engineering works.
On the ferries, there is a reduced service on the Red Funnel service between
Southampton and the Isle of Wight due to a technical problem. Thats all from me, Ill
be back in half an hour.

1 The proportion of the worlds children receiving vaccinations is...

a. just over two thirds.


b. just under three quarters.
c. just over four fifths.

2 One achievement mentioned by the expert is that...


a. measles cases have fallen by one quarter.
b. polio has almost been eradicated.
c. there are 200,000 fewer tetanus cases since the 1980s.

3 The expert warns against...

a. investing too heavily in immunisation and neglecting other health issues.


b. assuming that recent achievements are sufficient and withdrawing funding.
c. giving children one vaccination and not delivering a full course of injections.

4 According to the expert, many children do not get immunized if they...

a. are already sick.


b. live in isolated rural areas.
c. do not live within an established system.

5 Leaflets are not effective means of advertising immunisation programmes because...

a. some people cannot read.


b. they are expensive.
c. they do not reach people in isolated areas.

6 To ensure that vaccinations reach everyone, it is necessary to...

a. have an education programme in place as well.


b. pinpoint where the system fails and address these issues.
c. only hire health workers who are well trained and trustworthy.

7 To solve the storage problem, the experts organisation is...

a. training health workers how to store vaccines properly.


b. building cheap fridges that work reliably without mains electricity.
c. creating vaccines that can be stored at any temperature.

8 The expert mentions that computers are necessary to...

a. manage distribution.
b. maintain communications.
c. keep knowledge up-to-date.
9 The expert advises against using vaccines which are...

a. cheap.
b. unbranded.
c. not pre-qualified.

10 A DALY is...

a. the amount of time lost when a person is ill or dies prematurely.


b. the amount of money a country spends on its health service.
c. the loss of earnings due to ill-health and caring for relatives,
Score: 0/0

Interviewer: What proportion of children are currently benefitting from immunization


programmes?
Expert: A huge amount. Around 83% of children are receiving vaccinations, preventing
over 2 million deaths per year. This is due to an enormous push over the last ten or
twenty years to make sure that vaccinations are getting out to the poorest people and
into the most isolated regions. Vaccination programmes have the widest reach of all
public health programmes worldwide. And weve had great success. Measles is down
71% since 2000, the number of polio cases last year was just 223 so the eradication
programme is well on its way to achievement. Weve also made huge strides in our
campaign to reduce tetanus. In the 1980s, there were 800,000 cases last year there
were less than 60,000.
Interviewer: Thats a great achievement.
Expert: It is, and its easy to sit back... rest on your laurels and think great what
next? but that fact is, vaccinations are an ongoing process. If the momentum isnt
maintained, if there isnt continued investment into these programmes, the number of
cases will steadily rise again. The other point is that these great achievements are
meaningless to those 17% of children who dont receive vaccinations. That amounts to
20 million children. And these are inevitably the poorest, those with the worst access to
health care, and those who are most likely to get sick through poor living conditions,
inadequate clean water and so on. More work needs to be done to ensure we are
reaching everybody. And Im not just talking about those in isolated rural areas. They
may live in a slum, for example. Because theyre outside any system, theyre
overlooked.
Interviewer: How can you go about rectifying that?
Expert: Well, several ways really. First, we need to identify where these children are,
and then digging deep to find out why the children arent being immunized. We know,
for example that there is a definite correlation between a mothers level of education
and the childs immunization status. In which case, its a matter of reaching these
women by whatever means is most effective bear in mind that these women may be
illiterate and so just delivering leaflets everywhere isnt necessarily going to work. Or it
could be a totally different reason the health worker doesnt have time, or money, or
transport to reach certain places. Its about identifying the reasons and putting practices
into place to address these bottlenecks directly.
Interviewer: What else is your immunization programme focussing on at the moment?
Expert: Well, as well as making sure vaccines get out to people, we also need to pay
consideration to the logistical aspect. Its not just about manufacturing lots of vaccines
and training nurses to deliver them. These are vaccines you cant just stick them in a
cupboard until you need them. They need to be stored properly, at specific cool
temperatures. And factor into this the fact that poor countries often have unreliable
power systems. Thats why weve been doing a lot of work in the area of solar
refrigeration, to make them more reliable and affordable. There also needs to be an
effective computer system, to monitor consumption and supply and ensure the right
number of vaccines reaches the right places at the right time.
Interviewer: How can poorer countries keep the cost of vaccination programmes low?
Expert: A very good point, and one which at the heart of our work. Vaccinations can be
acquired cheaply by using generic ones that do not go by a brand name perhaps. But
its vital that all drugs are pre-qualified. That means, that theyve been tested and do
what they say they will do. Counterfeit drugs are not uncommon, sadly, and so there
needs to be a quality assurance procedure in place. But vaccination programmes are
undoubtedly cost-effective, on a national as well as a family level. Less money needs to
be set aside for treatment, and it also reduces a countrys disability-adjusted life year, or
DALY, that is, the number of years lost as a result of ill-health and early death, as well
as the loss of earnings, or in the case of a child, the loss of education, to both the sick
person and their carer.

The caterpillars of the oak processionary moth are harmful to trees because...
a. they spread disease.
b. they eat leaves.
c. they weaken the wood.

2 The caterpillars of the oak processionary moth...

a. cannot harm human health.


b. can cause minor health problems in humans.
c. can cause serious health problems in humans.

3 The forester is aiming to stop the most infestation...

a. in all parts of London.


b. in the west and south west of London.
c. in and around Croydon.

4 The nest of the oak processionary moth caterpillar is...


a. round and grey, with a diameter of a few centimetres to a couple of feet.
b. round and grey, and can be seen about 2 feet up the side of a tree.
c. round and grey, and no bigger than a golf ball.

5 Mike sets traps for adult moths...

a. all year round.


b. over a 2km area.
c. 2km from infested trees.

6 Mike blames new insect infestations on...

a. imports and climate change.


b. climate change and new agricultural practices.
c. imports and new agricultural practices.

7 The pine processionary moth...

a. has not yet been seen in the UK.


b. is another serious problem in the UK.
c. has so far been contained in the U.K.

8 Mike mentions the citrus longhorn beetle as an example of...

a. a pest which was contained thanks to government funding.


b. a pest which was contained thanks to help from the public.
c. a pest which was not contained due to lack of funding.

9 Mike mentions elm trees as an example of...

a. another tree species which is affected by moths.


b. a tree species which was saved when a disease was intercepted.
c. a tree species which completely died out in the U.K.

10 Mike recommends logging onto his website in order to...

a. see pictures of moths and other pests.


b. get details of a training programme.
c. report the health of trees in your local area.
Score: 0/0
Presenter: Now, I have with me in the studio today Mike Douglas, who has been out
and about earlier this week collecting caterpillars from oak trees, is that right?
Mike: Yes thats right.
Presenter: And I understand that you arent collecting these caterpillars in order to
conserve them, are you?
Mike: Absolutely not. The caterpillars Ive been collecting are from a kind of moth
called the oak processionary moth. These caterpillars can cause huge amounts of
damage to trees they can strip all the leaves from an oak tree leaving it completely
bare, weakening the tree considerably.
Presenter: A whole oak tree?
Mike: Yes, they are extremely destructive. They can also harm humans. Touching them
or their nests can give you a nasty rash, and even give you a sore throat, or cause
breathing difficulties and eye problems.
Presenter: They sound nasty. How come Ive never heard of them before?
Mike: Well, theyve been in and around London since 2006. In some parts of west and
south west London, unfortunately, weve lost the battle. The moths are here to stay and
theres nothing we can do about it. Were working in the area around Croydon, where
theres been another outbreak, and were trying to contain it so it doesnt spread any
further.
Presenter: So how do you spot an oak processionary moth?
Mike: Well, the easiest thing to look out for is their nests. These look like a grey wart
on the side of a tree. Some are about the size of a golf ball, while larger ones can be up
to two feet in diameter.
Presenter: Thats huge!
Mike: It is. You can imagine how many caterpillars you can find in a nest that big. The
other thing we are doing is setting traps for the moths, between July and September, to
attract the adult moths. Were doing this over a 2km area so we can monitor how far the
moths are spreading, and make sure they arent flying beyond where we would expect
them to be.
Presenter: Now, I understand that the oak processionary moth is not the only pest that
you are worried about.
Mike: No, its not. There are many hundreds of pests that could have a terrible affect on
our wildlife if they are not monitored correctly. As more and more products are brought
in from other countries, rather than being produced here in the UK, more and more
fungi, beetles, and moths are allowed to travel into new areas, while warmer
temperatures are allowing them to survive and flourish where previously they were
unable to. Its believed that such pests as these are moving closer to the poles at a rate of
around 3km a year. Some insects are moving even faster at about 10km a year. The
Pine processionary moth, for example, is gradually moving north through France and is
now breeding close to Paris. Weve already had outbreaks in the UK, which weve
managed to contain. But if we dont keep up the vigilance, it means that we could see
the decline of some of our most important tree species.
Presenter: What can be done about that?
Mike: Its hard. Theres very little government funding for this, so we are encouraging
the public to be our eyes and ears.
Presenter: How can they do that?
Mike: Well, the public can help us spot these pests while theyre in their gardens, in
parks, woodlands, generally out and about, and help us control the threats before they
become too serious a problem. Its not the first time weve asked the public to do this.
Not long ago, there was an outbreak of citrus longhorn beetles, which sometimes arrive
on trees and shrubs from Asia, or in packing crates, and a number of these were spotted
by vigilant members of the public and the threat was intercepted.
Presenter: And if youre unable to contain the oak processionary moth problem?
Mike: Well, we may well face a real problem. In the 1970s Britain lost all its elm trees
to Dutch elm disease, altering the landscape significantly. We could see the same thing
happen again.
Presenter: But are the general public really knowledgeable enough to identify what is a
tree disease, or a threat to a tree, and what is just natural dieback?
Mike: No, in most cases not, and thats why weve launched a training programme to
train volunteers in what to look out for so that we can put together a national picture of
tree health. People who are interested in becoming a volunteer can log onto our website
for details of their nearest training programme.
Presenter: Thanks very much indeed, Mike, for coming in to talk to us about this very
worthy programme. Now its time for our weekly ...