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Missouri University of Science and Technology

Scholars' Mine
Wei-Wen Yu Center for Cold-Formed Steel
Steel Deck Institute


Steel Deck Institute, Inc. Design Manual for

Composite Decks, Form Decks, and Roof Decks
Steel Deck Institute

Follow this and additional works at:

Part of the Structural Engineering Commons

Recommended Citation
Steel Deck Institute, "Steel Deck Institute, Inc. Design Manual for Composite Decks, Form Decks, and Roof Decks" (1987). Steel Deck
Institute. 6.

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S teel Deck

MEMBERS, ASSOCIATE Loading Diagrams and Recommended Maximum
MEMBERS . . . ....... . . 3 Bending Moments ....... 21 Spans . .. ..... . . . ..... 31
Steel Deck Applications .. . 4 Loading Diagrams and Cantilever Spans . .... . . . 31
The Steel Deck Institute ... . 6 Deflections ..... . . . .... 21 Installation ............ 32
Design Manual, for Composite Loading Diagrams and Protective Coatings ..... . 33
Floor Decks, Form Decks and Support Reactions . . . .... 21
Site Storage . .... . ... . . 33
Roof Decks .. . .......... 6 Composite Steel Erection .. . .. . ..... .. . 33
Standards ..... . . . . . ... . 6 Floor Deck
Design Example . . ...... 22 Insulation ... . ......... 33
Testing ....... . ........ 7
Certification Program ...... 7 Pour Stop Selection SOl Standard Roof Deck
Table ................ 24 Load Tables ........... 34
Other Publications ....... . 7
Acoustical Deck . . .... . . 38
Advantages of Steel Deck ... 8 SOl Specifications and
Commentary for Long-Span Roof Deck . . .. 39
Code of Recommended Non-Composite Steel
Standard Practice . .. . ... 10 Long Span Cellullar
Form Deck .......... . . 25
General ... . ... . ... . . . . 10 RoofDeck .. . ......... 39
Scope . . .. . .. . ........ 25
Bidding .. . ..... .. ..... 10 SOl Roof Deck
Materials .. ... .. . . . .... 25 Design Example .. . ... . . 40
Drawings and Specifications1 0 Design .... . . . .. . ..... 25
Collateral Material ....... 11 SOl Roof Deck Suggested
Installation and Site Storage 26 Architect's Specifications 41
Construction Practice ..... 11 Loading Diagrams and Accessories . . ..... . ... 41
Advantages of Composite Bending Moments . . ..... 28
Steel Floor Deck ........ 12 Steel Roof Deck Fire
Loading Diagrams and Resistance Ratings ...... 42
Composite Slabs ... . .... 12 Deflections Criteria ...... 28
Special Notice .... . . . .. 43
SOl Specifications and Form Deck Typical Slabs .. 28
Commentary for Composite Weld Patterns .... . .... . 28
Steel Floor Deck ........ 14
Non-Composite Steel
Scope .... . ...... .. ... 14 Form Deck The Steel Deck Institute
Materials ........ . ..... 14 Design Example . . ...... 29 reserves the right to change,
Design ............ . . : 14 SOl Specifications and revise, add to, or delete any
Attachments . ........ . . 16 Commentary for Steel data contained in this manual
RoofDeck . . .. . ... . . . . 30 without prior notice.
As a Composite Unit .. . .. 17
Scope .. . . . ........ . .. 30 P.O. Box 9506
Construction Practice ... . . 19
Canton, Ohio 44711
Additional Information and Materia Is .. .. . . ........ 30 (216) 493-7886
Comments ...... . ... . . 20 Design ............. . . 30 Copyright, 1987 Steel Deck Institute

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Professor Civil Engineering
Advisor for Steel Deck Institute P.O. Box 260 475 Springfield Ave.
Pittsburgh, PA 15230 P.O. Box 662
Summit, NJ 07901
1349 Bryn Mawr Avenue
Columbia, SC 29202
Itasca, IL 60143
11 Talbot Avenue 30 North Park St.
Rankin, PA 15104 P.O . Box 522
Comstock Park, Ml 49321
6808 Harney Road Construction Products Div.
Tampa, FL 33610 62 Whittemore Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02140
268 Summer Street P.0 . Box 45400
Boston, MA 02210 Tulsa, OK 74147
P.O. Box 295 SYSTEMS
Hightstown, NJ 08520 2100 Golf Road
West Building Suite 460
UNITED STEEL DECK, INC. Rolling Meadows, IL 60008
P.O. Box 662
P.O. Box 800007
VULCRAFT, DIV. Dallas, TX 75380
4425 Randolph Road Electrical Products Div.
Charlotte, NC 28211 P.O. Box 1548
Pittsburgh, PA 15230
this manual, please Division Wheeling-Pittsburgh COMPANY
review special notice Steel Corporation Subsidiary of Benjamin Moore
on page 43. 1134-40 Market Street 51 Chestnut Ridge Road
Wheeling, WV 26003 Montvale, NJ 07645

Steel Deck

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Steel Deck

Since 1939, the Steel Deck The purpose of these func- In 1975, SDI members con-
Institute has provided uniform tions is three-fold: cluded that the Institute should
industry standards for the
engineering, design, manufac-
1 To develop steel decks that expand its design manual to
include floor decks used either
are engineered for struc-
ture, and field usage of steel tural soundness, that main- in composite slab design or as
decks . tain consistent quality, that a permanent form.
The SDI is concerned with adapt to a wide range of The result is this publication,
cold-formed steel products, designs and systems, and the Steel Deck Institute Design
with various configurations that are economical in both Manual for Composite Decks,
distinctive to individual initial and life-cycle costs . Form Decks and Roof Decks, a
manufacturers, used to sup- definitive guide to the proper
port finished roofing materials 2 To initiate design and instal-
design and specification of
or to serve as a permanent lation procedures that
steel decks .
form and/or positive reinforce- conform to good construc-
ment for concrete floor slabs. tion practices and that Standards
meet cost requirements.
Members of the Institute are The SDI developed the fol-
manufacturers of steel floor 3 To make this information lowing standards for steel
and roof decks . Associate readily accessible to floor decks, roof decks, and
members are manufacturers of designers and owners. related products :
fasteners, coatings, and other Replaced gage with design
related components, contrac - Design Manual for thickness as the unit of
tors, and others in the field Composite Decks, Form measure in references to
who share SDI interests. Decks and Roof Decks material thickness;
The Institute is managed by an Since steel decks were Established manufacturing
executive director who super- originally used only for roof tolerances;
vises the programs developed construction, the Steel Deck
through the combined efforts Institute traditionally limited its Developed site storage and
of the total membership. erection recommendations;
attention to roof assemblies.
Continuing SDI functions For more than a decade, how- Standardized accessories -
include preparation, review, ever, SDI members have been sump pans, ridge and valley
and distribution of literature, manufacturing steel decks for plates, and cant strips;
referral of inquiries to appro- floor assemblies. These com- Developed specifications
priate sources, coordination of panies have developed floor for Composite Steel Floor
research and testing, and deck engineering data and Deck, Non-Composite Steel
liaison with other construction have established performance Form Deck and for Steel
industry associations on standards through laboratory Roof Deck;
matters of common interest. testing and field usage.

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Defined standard roof deck SDI manufacturers can OTHER PUBLICATIONS:

sections and issued stand- furnish fire ratings, load test The Steel Deck Institute
ard load tables for narrow, results, and other perform- Diaphragm Design Manual
intermediate, and wide rib ance test reports for their
decks. own products . An essential, comprehensive
and practical reference for
Testing Roof Deck Certification Engineers, Architects,
Independent tests are the best Program Detailers, Draftsmen, Contrac-
guide to product performance tors, Building Officials and
The Steel Deck Institute offers
and reliability, a philosophy to people engaging in the design
deck manufacturers (both
which Steel Deck Institute and use of Steel Deck and
members and non-members)
members subscribe . Their sup- Steel Structures.
certification of product design
port for an ongoing program is through an engineering analysis This hard-bound manual repre-
indicated by the number and by independent consulting sents a full-scale diaphragm
scope of tests already per- engineers . To receive design study conducted over the past
formed and by their policy of certification for a roof deck 20 years by Dr. Larry Luttrell at
sponsoring new tests when section, a manufacturer must the Major Units Laboratory of
new products or applications submit a profile with dimen- West Virginia University.
are introduced by the industry. sions and a load table (either This is publication No . DDM01
his own or the SDI Standard and may be purchased from
Following are completed Load Table) to the SDI.
roof deck tests for which theSDI.
A computer program analyzes
published results are the profile and dimensions and Comprehensive Steel Deck
available; produces a load table. If the Institute Binder
U.L.Fire Ratings: manufacturer's stated safe A complete, hard-bound
two-hour steel deck loading is verified by the com- encyclopedia containing
assembly; acoustical ceiling puter analysis, the SDI issues a valuable, tabulated material for
with wide joist spacing; certificate which states that Composite Decks, Form,
steel roof assembly with the product is designed in Decks, and Roof Decks .
directly applied insulation; accordance with S Dl Specifi-
This manual provides State-of-
National Bureau of Stand- cations and also verifies the
the-Art product catalogs of
ards fire tests on various manufacturer's load tables .
SDI Member Manufacturers,
steel roof deck and publications of Associate
constructions; Members who furnish items
Steel Deck Diaphragms . used in steel deck construction.
This publication is available
through the SDI.

Steel Deck


Versatility range of projects and structural Attractive Appearance
Steel decks complying with designs . Although steel deck is primarily
SDI Specifications are avail- a structural component, it is
able from the member com- Structural Strength with visually attractive when left
panies in 1%, 2, 3, 4%, 6, and Less Weight exposed in other applications .
7%-inch depths; 6, lV2, 8, 9, The properties of steel are With the properly specified
and 12-inch rib spacings; with used with maximum efficiency factory and field coatings, steel
and without stiffening in the design and fabrication of deck is easy to maintain, dur-
elements, with and without steel decks, resulting in able, and esthetically pleasing .
acoustical material, cellular products with a high strength-
and non-cellular, and in varying to-weight ratio. As a result, All-Weather Construction
material thicknesses. This delivery, erection, and struc- Steel deck can be erected in
extensive choice makes steel tural framing costs can be most weather conditions, elim-
deck applicable to a wide lower than with other systems . inating the costly delays that

Steel Deck
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can occur with other types of Uniform Quality Economy and Value
roof systems. Through engineering and con- Value is determined by com-
tinuously refined production bining initial costs, life-cycle
Required Fire Ratings techniques, SDI manufacturers costs, and overall perform-
U. L. fire resistance ratings on produce decks that conform to ance. Steel deck assemblies
standard roof assemblies have specified standards. are the best value in roofing
been obtained by the Steel designs . They combine low
Deck Institute. Individual SDI Proven Durability cost with top performance.
manufacturers have ratings on Steel deck in place and per-
their own products . Most fire forming satisfactorily for more
resistance requirements can be than a half-century is indicative
met with products manufac- of the product's durability.
tured by SDI members.

Code of Recommended
Standard Practice
For Composite Deck,
Form Deck, and
Roof Deck Construction
1. General 1. 5 Responsibility for 2.21ncomplete Plans and
1.1 Scope: This code is Design: When details of Specifications: Incomplete
intended to promote safety design are specified, the plans and specifications
and quality construction in seller shall assume no shall be bid on the basis
accordance with good engi- responsib ility other than to that the seller shall provide
neering practice . It is furnish materials as speci- material in agreement with
designed to assist in th e fied. Wh en details of design th e provisions of this code.
preparation of the sales are not specified, the seller
co ntract by providing con- shall furnish all materials 2.3 Special Details: Any
tract details which can be req uired in accordance with material required to support
adopted by reference. Section 1.3 of this code. the steel deck sha ll not be
incl ud ed.
1.2 Application: This code 2. Bidding
sha ll govern wh ere building 3. Drawings and
codes, architects' and engi- 2.1 Base Bids: Specifications
neers' plans and spec ifi- 2.1.1 Roof Deck: Base bids
catio ns, or contracts are shall include roof deck, 3.1 Furnished by Buyer:
not complete or clear. ridg e and valley plates, and Th e buyer shall furnish
There sha ll be no conflict sump pans per arc hitects complet e architectural
between this code and any plans and spec ificat ions. plans and specificatio ns,
legal building regulation; No other accessories shall structu ral steel drawings,
it sha ll only suppleme nt and be included unless and purlin placing plans, all
amplify such laws . spec ified. correctly dimensioned.
1.3 Design: In the absence 2.1.2 Composite Floor 3. 2 Furnished by Seller:
of ordin ances or specifica- Deck and non Composite The se ller shall furnish erec-
tions to the contrary, des ign Form Deck: Base bids shal l tion layouts clearly showin g
sha ll be in accordance with include deck and only those the locat ion of all sheets .
the current Specifications accessories specifically Th e seller shal l also furnish
of the Steel Deck Institute . designated on the plans as many prints as may be
and ca lled for in the appro- reasonably necessary, but
1.4 Plans and Specifica- the tracing sha ll remain the
tions for Bidding: Plans
priate division of the
specificat ion s. property of the seller.
and specifications sha ll
c learly show details and 3.3 Discrepancies:
sha ll be complete as to The architect's plans shall
extent of deck and acces- be assumed to be correct in
sories to be furnished by the absence of written
the se ller. notice from th e buyer to the

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contrary. When structural 4. Collateral Material 4.2 Roof Coverings:

steel or purl in placing plan? Although certain collat~ral A suitable roof covering
do not agree with the archi- materials are not supplied shall be applied over the
tect's plans, the structural by the steel deck manufac- insulation.
plans shall be considered as turer, it is the desire of the
a written notice of change 4.3 Sheet Metal Work:
Steel Deck Institute to have
of plans. All closures, flashings, etc .,
certain principles follo_w~d
in specifying and furn1shmg used in roof deck construc-
3.4 Approval: The erection tion unless otherwise
these collateral materials
layouts shall be submitted
in order to provide a satis- spe~ified, shall be detailed
to the buyer for approval and furnished by the sheet
factory deck assembly.
unless the buyer instructs metal contractor.
This code is not intended to
the seller to submit same
encroach upon the stand- 4.4 Field Painting:
directly to the architect
ard practices of the related Any field painting or touch-
or waives his right of
industries, but is intended up of abrasions or deterior-
approval. The buyer (or
to supplement and ~mplify ation of the primer coat or
architect) shall return one specifications pert a 1n 1ng to
copy marked with his other protective finishes
their products . shall be the responsibility
approval or with such cor-
rections as he may deem of the buyer.
4.1 Insulation: All steel roof
necessary. The seller shall decks shall be covered with 4. 5 Shear Connectors:
not start shop work prior to a material of sufficient insu- The layout, design, num-
final approval of his draw- lating value to prevent bering or sizing of shear
ings unless such approval condensation under normal connectors is not the
is waived . occupancyconditions.lnsu- responsibility of the deck
lation shall be adequately manufacturer.
3. 5 Changes by Buyer
attached to the steel roof
After Approval: When any
deck by adhesives or mech- 5. Construction Practice
changes are made by the anical fasteners . Insulation
buyerafterapprovalor materials shall be protected The Steel Deck Institute
when any extra materials from the elements at all recommendations for site
are required, the cost of times during the storage storage, installation, and
such changes and extra and installation . construction practices are
materials shall be paid by addressed specifically in
the buyer at a price agreed the appropriate deck speci-
upon between the buyer fications in this design
and seller. manual and are an integral
part of this Code of Recom-
mended Standard Practice.

of Composite
Steel Floor Deck

Composite Act ion: Steel floor Improved Composite Beam Working Platform: Where
decks, engineered for use in Construction: In a composite many floor designs require
composite slab design, furnish beam assemb ly, a composite temporary safety f loors for
positive reinforcement for the floor slab and a steel beam are tradesmen, f loor deck with
concrete slab and can elim - joined by shear connectors to appropriate design and insta l-
inate the need for any addi- create one structural unit lation can be a safe working
tional positive reinforcing . which has greater strength platform.
Composite floor decks are than a separate slab and beam .
designed to interlock positively Floor decks eng ineered for Permanent Forms: Steel floor
with the overlying concrete fill, composite beam design sim- decks eliminate the need for
resulting in unit action . plify connector installations erection and removal of tem-
The interlocking process is and enhance concrete cover- porary forms .
achieved by mechanical age around shear connectors.
means, deck profile and sur- In some cases, fu ll A ISC shear
face bond, or a combination . connector values and solid slab
design can be app lied .

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Required Fire Rat ings: UL fire

res istance ratings for floor
deck assemblies have been
obtained by SDI manufacturers
for their own products . Ratings
are avai lable for steel deck
both with and without spray-
app lied fireproofing and w ith
regular weight, lightwe ight,
and semi-lightweight concrete .

and Commentary for
Composite Steel Floor Deck

1. Scope less than 95% of the design Commentary: Since the

This specification pertains thickness. composite deck is the
to composite steel floor positive bending reinforce-
Commentary: Most of the ment for the slab it must be
deck. composite steel floor deck is designed to last the life of
Commentary: Composite manufactured from steel the structure; a minimum
steel floor deck is cold- conforming to ASTM Desig- recommended finish is gal-
formed steel deck which nation A611, Grades C and D vanized coating conforming
acts as a permanent form or from A446 Grades A, C, to ASTM A 525 G60.
and as the positive bending and E. If the published prod-
reinforcement for the struc- uct literature does not show 2. 2 Concrete: Concrete
tural concrete . When the uncoated steel thickness shall be in accordance with
suitably fastened the steel in decimal inches (or milli- the applicable sections of
deck also acts as a working meters) but lists gage or chapters 3, 4 and 5 of the
platform for the various type numbers, then the ACI 318 Building Code
trades. After the concrete thickness of steel before Requirements for Rein-
hardens the steel deck and coating with paint or metal forced Concrete . Minimum
the concrete are interlocked shall be in conformance compressive strength (f' c)
by the shape of the deck, with the following table : shall be 3000 psi. Admix-
mechanical means, surface tures containing chloride
bond, or by a combination Design Minimum salts shall not be used.
Type Thickness Thickness
of these means . No . In ches Inches Commentary: The use of
2. Materials 22 0 .0295 0.028 admixtures containing
chloride salts is not allowed
2.1 Composite Steel Deck: 21 0 .0329 0 .031 because the salts may cor-
Composite steel floor deck 20 0 .0358 0.034 rode the steel deck which
shall be fabricated from 19 has been designed as the
0 .0418 0.040
steel conforming to Section slab reinforcement.
1. 2 of the latest edit ion 18 0.0474 0 .045
( 1980), of the Am erican Iron 17 0.0538 0.051 3. Design (Deck as a Form)
and Steel Institute, Specifi- 16 0.0598 0.057 3.1 The section properties
cation for the Des ian and of the steel floor deck (as a
Cold -Form ed SteelStruc- 2.1a. Finish: The finish on form in bending) shall be
tural Members. The steel the steel composite deck computed in accordance
used shall have a minimum shall be as specified by the with the American Iron and
yield point of 33 ksi . The designer and be suitable for Steel Institute Specification
delivered thickness of the the environment of the for the Design of Cold -
uncoated steel shall not be structure.

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Formed Steel Structural construction load simultane- especially if composite

Members, 1980 edition . ously applied over all spans; beams and girders are being
the loading situations of used.
3.2 Stress in the deck shall Figure 1 are more severe
not exceed 0.6 times the than the old uniform load 3.4 The bearing lengths
yield strength with a max- method. It is recommended sha ll be determined in
imum of 36 ksi under the that clear spans be used in accordance with the AISI
combined weights of wet the equations of Figure 1. spec ification; a uniform
concrete, deck, and the loading case of wet con-
following construction live 3.3 Calculated theoretical crete plus deck weight plus
loads : 20 pounds per square deflections of the deck, as a 20 psf construction load
foot uniform load or 150 form, shall be based on the sha ll be used. See Figure 3.
pound concentrated load weight of the concrete (as
on a 1'-0" section of deck. determined by the design Commentary: In the past,
See Figure 1. slab th ickness) and the 1% inches of end bearing
weight of the steel deck, was the minimum; this is
Commentary: The loading uniformly loaded on all still a good "rule of thumb"
shown in Figure 1 is repre- spans and sha ll be limited to that will, in general, prevent
sentative of the sequential L/180 or % inch, whichever slipoff.lflessthan 1Vz
load ing of w et concrete on is smaller. Deflections shall inches of end bearing is
the form. The 150 pound be relative to supporting available, or if high support
load is the arithmetic result members. See Figure 2. reactions are expected, then
of 200 lb . (man's weight) x the design engineer should
% . The philosophy here is to Commentary: The deflec- ask the deck manufacturer
allow a % increase in stress tion ca lculations do not take to check the deck web
due to the temporary nature into account construction stress . In any case, the deck
of a man load. Decreasing loads as these are con - must be adequately
the load by 25% is the sidered to be temporary attached to the structure to
mathematical equiva lent of loads; the deck is designed prevent slip off.
all owing a 33% increase in to always be in the elastic
stress . Also the 150 pound range so removal of tem - (CONTINUED)
load is considered to be porary loads should allow
applied to a one foot width the deck to recover. The
-experience has shown structura l steel also deflects
that a greater distribution under the loading of the wet
really occurs. In the past, concrete. The designer is
many manufacturers have urged to check the deflec- Figures 1, 2, and 3 are found
recommended using a 20 psf tion of the total system on page 21.

and Commentary for
Composite Steel Floor Deck

4. Installation In general, stronger welds 4.3 Lapped and Butted

4.1 Welding: Floor deck are obtained on 0.028 Ends: Deck ends may be
units shall be anchored to inches or thicker deck either butted or lapped over
supporting members, without weld washers. supports. Standard tolerance
including bearing walls, with Welds on decks less than for ordered length is plus or
nominal 5/8 inch diameter 0 .028 inches are stronger minus 1/2 inch .
puddle welds or equ ival ent with washers.
at all edge ribs plus a suffi- Commentary: If stud shear
cient number of interior ribs 4.2 Mechanical Fasteners: connectors are used, deck
to provide a maximum aver- Mechanical fasteners units shou ld be butted and
age spacing of 12 inches. (powder-actuated, screws, not lapped. Gaps are accept-
The maximum spacing pneumatically driven fas- able at butted ends . If the
between adjacent points of teners, etc.) are recognized tape or taping of butted
attachment shall not exceed as viable anchoring methods, ends is requested, it is not
18 inches. providing the type and spac- the responsibility of the deck
ing of the fasteners satisfies manufacturer.
Welding washers shall be
used when welding steel the design criteria. Docu - Staggering floor deck end
floor deck of less than mentation in the form of test laps is not a recommended
0 .028 inch thickness . data, design calculations, or practice. The deck capacity
design charts shou ld be as a form and the load
Commentary: The layout, submitted by the fastener capacity of the composite
design, numbering or sizing manufacturer as the basis deck/slab system are not
of shear connectors is not for obtaining approval . increased by staggering the
the responsibility of the deck The deck manufacturer may end laps; layout and erec-
manufacturer. If studs are recommend additional tion costs are increased .
being applied through the fasteners to stabilize the
deck onto the structural given profile against sideslip 4.4 Differential Deflection:
steel the stud welds can be of any unfastened ribs. Shall be controlled by fas-
used to replace the puddle tening together sidelaps of
welds . (The deck should be floor deck units as recom -
welded to act as a working mended by the steel deck
platform and to prevent manufacturer.
blow off.

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5. Design Deck and Concrete Care should be used during 5.2a Elastic Flexural (work-
As A Composite Unit the placement of loads on ing stress) analysis for
5.1 General: rolled in hanger tabs for the unshored construction.
The composite slab shall be support of ceilings so that Under the superimposed
designed as a reinforced approximate uniform loading (live) load the tensile stress
concrete slab with the steel is maintained. The individual of the deck, between sup-
deck acting as the positive manufacturer should be ports, shall not exceed 0.6
reinforcement. Slabs sha ll consulted for allowable times the yield strength of
be designed as simp le or loading on single rolled in the steel. Under the com-
continuous spans under hanger tabs. Improper use bination of superimposed
uniform loads . of rolled in hanger tabs (live) load, the weight of the
could result in the over concrete and the weight of
Commentary: High concen- stressing of such tabs the deck, the tensile stress
trated loads, diaphragm and/or the over loading of of the deck, between sup-
loads, etc. require additional the composite deck slab. ports, shall not exceed 0.8
analysis. times the y ield strength of
5.2 Testing: The deck man-
Most published live load the steel.
ufacturer shal l have per-
tables are based on simp le
formed or witnessed by a 5.2b Elastic Flexural (work-
span analysis of the com-
licensed engineer, a suffi- ing stress) stress analysis for
posite systems; that is, the
cient number of tests on the shored construct ion.
slab is assumed to crack composite deck/slab system
over each support. If the Under the total loading, the
to have determined load/
designer wants a contin- tensile stress of the deck,
deflection characteristics
uous slab, then the negative between supports, shall not
and the mode of failure
reinforcing shou ld be exceed 0.6 times the yield
under uniform or symmet-
designed using conventional strength of the steel with a
rically placed point loads.
reinforced concrete design maximum of 36 ksi.
Based on the test informa-
techniques-the welded
tion the design load ration- (CONTINUED)
wire mesh, chosen for
ale shall be established by:
temperature reinforcing
(Section 5.5), does not 1.) Elastic flexural analysis or
usually supply enough area 2.) Ultimate strength anal-
for continuity. The deck is ysis based on shear bond
not considered to be com- failure or flexural failure .
pression reinforcing.

and Commentary for
Composite Steel Floor Deck

5. 2c Ultimate Strength For most applications the 5.3 Concrete: (Working

analysis based on flexural or deck thickness and profile is Stress Analysis).
shear bond failure shall be selected so that shoring is 5.3a For unshored con-
based on a minimum safety not required; the live load struction the compressive
factor of 2 . capacity of the composite stress in concrete shall not
system is then usually more exceed 0.45 f' c under the
Commentary: By using one than adequate for the super-
of the appropriate anaylsis applied live load. For shored
imposed (live) loads . In construction the compres-
techniques (either working calculating the section
stress or ultimate strength) sive stress in the concrete
properties of the deck (under shall not exceed 0.45 f'c
the deck manufacturer section 3. 1 of these specifi-
determines the uniformly under the total dead and live
cat ions) the AISI provisions loads .
applied live loads that can be may require that the com-
applied to the deck/slab pression flange be reduced 5.3b The allowable shear
combination. to an effective width, but stress shall conform to ACI
when used as tensile rein- specifications.
forcement the total area of
the cross section may be 5.3c Minimum Cover of
used . Concrete above the top of
the floor deck shall be
2 inches . When additional
(negative bending) rein-
forcement is placed over the
deck, the minimum cover of
concrete above the rein-
forcement shall be % inch.

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5.4 Deflection: Deflection of Commentary: If welded wire Prior to concrete placement,

the composite slab shall not mesh is used with a steel area the steel deck shall be free of
exceed L/360 under the super- given by the above formula, it soil, debris, standing water,
imposed load. will generally not be sufficient loose mill scale or coa ting,
to be the total negative rein- and all other foreig n matter.
Commentary: Live load forc ement: however, th e mesh Care mu st be exerc ised
deflections are se ldom a has shown that it does a good when placing concrete so
design factor. Th e deflection of job of crack control espec ially that the deck will not be
the slab /deck combination can if kept near the top of the slab subjected to any im pact that
best be predicted by using the ( 314 inch to 1 inch cover). exceeds the design capacity
average of the cracked and of the deck . Concrete shall
uncracked moment of in ertia 6.0 Construction Practice be placed in a uniform man -
as determined by th e trans- ner over the supporting
The need for t empora ry
formed section method of structure and spread
shoring shall be investigated
analysis . towards the center of the
and, if required, it shall be
designed and installed in deck span . If buggies are
5. 5 Temperature and
accordance with th e applic - used to place the co ncrete,
Shrinkage reinforcement, con- runway s shall be planked
sisting of w elded wire fabri c or able ACI code and shall be
left in place until the slab and th e buggies sha ll only
reinforc in g bars, sha ll have a operate on pl anking . Planks
minimum area of 0.00075 attains 75% of its spec ified
compressive strength. shall be of adequate stiffness
times the area of concrete to tra nsfer loads to the steel
above the deck , but sha ll not deck without damaging the
be less than the area provided deck. Deck damage ca used
by 6 X 6- 10/10 (6 X 6 -W1.4 X by ro ll bars or careless place -
W1.4) w elded wire fabric . For
ment must be avoided.
those products so manufac-
tured, shear tran sfer wires (CONTINUED)
welded to th e top of the deck
may be co nsidered to act as
shrinkage or temperature
reinforce m ent.

and Commentary for
Composite Steel Floor Deck

7. Additional Information and bottom surface of the 7.5 Fireproofing: The metal
Comments: deck should be protected deck manufacturer shall not
7.1 Parking Garages; Com- with .a durable paint . be responsible for the clean-
posite floor deck has The protective measures ing of the underside of metal
been used successfully in must be maintained for deck to ensure bond of fire -
many parking structures the Iife of the building. proofing. Adherence of fire -
around the country; If the protective measures proofing materials is depen-
however, the following ca nnot be assured, the dent on many variables; the
precautions should be steel deck can be used as deck manufacturer (supplier)
observed: a stay in place form and is not responsible for the
1. slabs should be the concrete ca n be rein - adhesion or adhesive ability
designed as co ntinuous forced with m esh or bars of the fireproofing.
spans with negative bend - as requ ired.
7.6 Dynamic Loads:
ing reinforci ng over the 7. 2 Cantilevers: When Dynamic loading, e.g., fork
supports; cantilevers are encountered, lifts, can, over a long period
2 . add itional re inforci ng the deck acts only as a of time, interfere with the
should be included to permanent form; top rein - mechanical bond between
deter crack ing caused by forcing steel mu st be the concrete and deck which
large temperature differ- designed by the stru ctural achieves its composite action
ences and to provide load engineer. via web indents. Reinforcing
distribution; and, steel running perpendicular
7.3 Composite Beams and to the deck span and placed
3. in areas where sa lt Girders: Most compos ite
water, either brought into on top of the deck ribs is
f loor deck section s are su it- often used with this type of
the structure by cars in able for use with composite
winter or ca rried by the loading to distribute co ncen-
beams. The new (1 980 ) trated loads.
wind in coasta l areas, may AISC Specification has spe-
deteriorate the deck, pro- cifically provided for the use
tective measures must be of deck in this type of
taken . The top surface of co nstru ction.
the slab must be effec -
tively sea led so that the 7.4 Fire Ratings: M any dif-
sa lt water cannot migrate ferent fire rated assemblies
through the slab to the that use compos ite floor
steel deck; a minimum deck are available. Consult
G90 galvanizing is recom- each manufacturer for a list
mended, and , th e exposed of rating s.

Steel Deck
l diJ

FIGURE 1 Loading Diagrams FIGURE 2 Loading Diagrams FIGURE 3 Loading Diagrams

and Bending Moments and Deflections and Support Reactions

jP Simple ~ W1 Simple ~ W2
Simple ~ W1 Span 1_.e_1 Span ~ W1
i_ . _i
6. = .0130W1. ' (1728)
Condition j_ .e
+ M = .25P. + 125W1. 2 EI Pext Pext
Pext = .5 (W1 + W2) f
~ W2
Double ~ W1
~ W1
i___:{ J Condition !_ .e_!_.e_!
~ ~~
+ M = .125 (W1 + W2). 2
6. = 005~~1. ' (1728) Span
lp l .e I .e I
Pext Pint Pext
Double ~ W1 Triple ~~ W1
Span ! !
Condition _._ _____:{_
~~~~ilion i_.e_ !_.e_! _e 1
Pext = .375 (W1 + W2) f
Pint = 1.25 (W1 + W2) f

+ M = 203P. + .096W1. 2 1\ _ .0069W1. '
Ll EI (1728)
~ ~~
!_ .e -L .e_! Span
+ M = .096 (W1 + W2). 2 j.eJ.eJ.ej
Pext Pint Pint Pext
~ ~~ Pext= .4(W1 +W2) f
L.e _!_.!_! Pint = 1.1 (W1 + W2)f
- M = .125 (W1 + W2). 2

Triple ~ W1
Condition !___L__i_L__I .t 1
+ M = .20P. + .094 W1. 2


+ M = .094 (W1 + W2). 2

Note for Figures 1, 2 and 3
W2 P = 150-pound concentrated load
W1 W1 =slab weight+ deck weight
W2 = 20 pounds per square foot
- M = .117 (W1 + W2).i 2 construction load
f =span length (ft.)

Floor Deck
Design Example

A. Bay Size= 26' x 26' 1. Review deck manufacturer's literature for available
B. Superimposed deck types.
load= 155 psf.
C. Fire rating required= In shoring tables, choose deck that will not require temporary
2 hour. shor in g during construction.
D. Concrete cover required on Check the allowable super imposed load tables for the requ ired
deck= 3%" lightweight. loading .
E. Composite beam -----------------------------------------------
construction. 2. Review deck manufacturer's literature for combinations
F. Temporary shoring not that meet requirements .
13'-0" Beam Spacing
Embossed Deck: Form ed and reinforced with 3 " x 0 .0474"
design thickness composit e stee l deck . Determ in e required
shrinkage and temperature rei nforcemen t . Multi-span sheets
requ ire no temporary shoring.
8'- 8" Beam Spacing
Embossed Deck: Formed and reinforced with 2 " x 0.0358"
design thickness composite stee l deck . Determine required
shrinkage and temperatu re reinforcement .

Steel Deck [
Institute S
d iJ

Deck with Wires: Formed and reinforced with 2 11 x 0.024 11 Hanging requirements.
design thickness composite steel deck with wires welded to top of Composite beams and
deck at 6 11 c . to c. studs.
Multi-span sheets in both deck types require no temporary Rib width-to-height ratio to
shor ing. determine stud values.
Compatibility of coating to
6"-6" Beam Spacing stud welding.
Embossed Deck: Formed and reinforced with 1 Y2 11 x 0.0295 11 Electrical requirements .
design thickness composite stee l deck. Determine required Future flexibility.
shrinkage and temperature reinforcement.
Deck material and erection
Deck with Wires; Formed and reinforced with 1 Y4 11 x 0.024 11 costs. (Obtain from Steel
design thickness composite stee l deck with wires we ld ed to top of Deck Institute member
deck at 7 11 c. to c . companies.)
Overall floor depth.
Multi-span sheets in both deck types require no temporary
Cost of temporary shoring if
shor in g.
shored forming is se lected .
Note: Deck fireproofing cost if pro-
For al l of the above, no spray-applied fireproofing of the deck is tected deck is selected .
required for a 2-hour rating. Concrete availability and
cost: (lightweight) (semi-
lightweight) (regular
Concrete volume required .
Various beam spacings .
REVIEW OF PRODUCT 3. Factors that should be Total material cost.
LITERATURE SHOWS considered in selecting a
composite floor deck Steel erection cost.
systems: Steel fireproofing cost.
REQUIREMENTS MOST Compatibility of deck to
EFFICIENTLY. tota I structure.

SDI Pour Stop
Selection Table
DEPTH 0 1 2 3 4 5 I 6 I 7 8 9 10 11 12

4.00 20 20 20 20 18 18 16 14 12 12 12 10 10
4 .25 20 20 20 18 18 16 16 14 12 12 12 10 10
4 .50 20 20 20 18 18 16 16 14 12 12 12 10 10
4.75 20 20 18 18 16 16 14 14 12 12 10 10 10
5.00 20 20 18 18 16 16 14 14 12 12 10 10
5.25 20 18 18 16 16 14 14 12 12 12 10 10
5.50 20 18 18 16 16 14 14 12 12 12 10 10
5.75 20 18 16 16 14 14 12 12 12 12 10 10
6.00 18 18 16 16 14 14 12 12 12 10 10 10
6.25 18 18 16 14 14 12 12 12 12 10 10
6.50 18 16 16 14 14 12 12 12 12 10 10 DESIGN
6.75 18 16 14 14 14 12 12 12 10 10 10
7.00 16 16 14 14 12 12 12 12 10 10 10 20 0 .0358
7.25 16 16 14 14 12 12 12 10 10 10 18 0.0474
7.50 16 14 14 12 12 12 12 10 10 10 16 0.0598
7.75 16 14 14 12 12 12 10 10 10 10 14 0 .0747
8.00 14 14 12 12 12 12 10 10 10 12 0 .1046
8 .25 14 14 12 12 12 10 10 10 10 10 0 .1345
8 .50 14 12 12 12 12 10 10 10
8.75 14 12 12 12 12 10 10 10
9.00 14 12 12 12 10 10 10
9 .25 12 12 12 12 10 10 10
9.50 12 12 12 10 10 10
9.75 12 12 12 10 10 10 ~
10.00 12 12 10 10 10 10
10.25 12 12 10 10 10
@12" O.C. POU~~ '!
10 \ \
11 .00
11 .25
10 ~ERHAN~~
2 "MIN . -
11. 50 10 10 10
11 .75 10 10 SEENOTE5 - -
12.00 10 10
NOTES : The above Selection Table is based on following criteria:
1. Normal weight concrete 1150PCFl.
2. Ho rizontal and vertical deflection is limited to 1/4" maximum for concrete dead load.
3. Design stress is limited to 20 KSI for concrete dead load temporarily increased by one-third for the construc tion live load of 20 PSF.
4 . Pour Stop Selection Table does not consider the effect of the performance, deflection , or rotation of the pour stop support wh ich may include both the supporting
composite dec k and /or the fram e.
5. Vertical leg return lip is recommended for type 16 and lighter.
6 . This selection is not meant to replace the judgement of experienced Struc tural Engineers and shall be considered as a reference only.
SOl reserves the righ t to change any information in this selection witho ut notice .

Steel Deck
c d.J
S 1

and Commentary for
Non-Composite Steel Form Deck
1. Scope (ASTM A611 or A446); this Centering materials are usu-
This specification and com- steel has a minimum yield ally available galvanized or
mentary pertains to the use strength of 80 ksi and is uncoated. When unshored
of non-composite steel deck generally over 90 ksi. In the galvanized material is used
as a form for reinforced past, 30 ksi design stress to support a reinforced con-
concrete slabs. was used for grade E crete slab, the weight of the
material; however, the AISI slab is considered to be per-
Commentary: This specifi- specifications now allow a manently carried by the deck;
cation is not intended to design stress of 36 ksi. when uncoated or painted
cover highway bridges deck is used to support a
(where AASHTO specifica- 2.2 The delivered thickness reinforced concrete slab the
tions may govern), siding of the uncoated steel shall form is considered imper-
applications, or exposed not be less than 95% of the manent and the weight of the
roofs. In the past, most of design thickness. concrete should be deducted
the steel decking used in the Des ign M inimum
from the load capacity of the
manner that this specifica- Type Thic kn ess Thic kn ess reinforced slab .
tion covers, was referred to No . In c hes In ches
For any permanent load
as "centering", however, 28 0 .0149 0 .014 carrying function, a mini -
various roof deck units have 26 0.0179 0.017 mum galvanized coating
successfully been used as conforming to ASTM A525,
non-composite forms and 24 0 .0238 0 .023
G60 is recommended .
the specification is intended 22 0 .0295 0.028
to also include these 20 0 .0358 0 .034 3. Design
applications. 18 0 .0474 0 .045 3.1 The section properties
2. Materials 16 0.0598 0 .057 of the steel deck unit shall
be computed in accordance
2.1 The steel deck units Commentary: Finishes with American Iron and
shall be manufactured from available are: Steel Institute, Specification
steel conforming to ASTM 1. Galvanized (Conforming for the Design of Cold-
designation A611 Grades C, to ASTM A525); Formed Steel Structural
D, orE, or A446 A, B, C, D, 2 . Uncoated (Black); Members, 1980 edition .
or E; or equal having a 3. Painted with a shop coat
minimum yield strength of of primer paint (one or 3.2 Deck used as a form for
33 ksi . The unit design structural (reinforced)
both sides) .
stress shall not exceed the concrete slab:
yield strength multiplied by The uncoated finish is, by
3.2a Stress shall not exceed
0.60, with a maximum of custom, referred to as
"black" by some users and 0 .60 times the yield
36 ksi. strength with a maximum of
manufacturers; the use of
36 ksi under the combined
Commentary: Most of the the word "black" does not
refer to a paint color on the weights of wet concrete,
"centering" materials are
offered in grade E steel product. (CONTINUED)

and Commentary for
Non-Composite Steel Form Deck

deck and the following con- Working Stress Design or bonds, can and do, develop.
struction live loads: Ultimate Strength Design
4. Installation and
20 pounds per square may be used. The cover
Site Storage
foot uniform load or 150 over the top of the deck
pound concentrated load shall not be less than 1 Vz ". 4.1 Site Storage: Steel
on a 1'-0" wide section of Deck shall be stored off the
deck. Loads shall be Commentary: In following ground with one ( 1) end ele-
applied in a manner which the AC1 318 requirements vated to provide drainage
simulates the sequence of for temperature reinforce- and shall be protected from
concrete placement. ment, the designer may the elem ents with a water-
See figure 1. eliminate the concrete area proof cove ring, ventilated to
that is displaced by the deck avoid condensation .
3. 2b Calculated Form rib.
Deflection shall be based on 4.2 Welding
the weight of the wet con- For slabs with total depth of
3" or less, the reinforcing 4. 2a Deck sheets sha ll be
crete (as determined by the welded to supporting stee l
design slab thickness) and mesh may be considered to
be at the center of the immediately after align-
on the weight of the steel ment. Welding washers
deck, uniformly loaded on concrete above the deck.
See figure 3. If uncoated or shall be used on all deck
all spans, and shall be units with metal thickness
limited to L/180 or% inch, painted deck is used as the
form, the weight of the con- less than 0.028 in c hes
whichever is smaller. thick; welding washers shal l
Deflection shall be relative crete slab must be deducted
from the allowable live load be a minimum thickness of
to supporting members . 0 .0568 inches (16 gage)
See figure 2 . of the reinforced concrete
slab . If galvanized form is and have a nominal 3fs"
Commentary: The deflec- used, the weight of the slab diameter hole . Where weld-
tion limitation of L/180 or% is considered to be perma- ing washers are not used, a
inches are intended to be nently carried by the deck nominal 0.625 inch (5fs")
minimum requirements. and need not be deducted diameter arc puddle weld
Architectural or other con- from the live load. If tempo- shall be used.
siderations may influence rary shoring is used, the 4.2b Deck units with spans
the designer to use a more weight of the slab must be greater than five feet shall
stringent limitation . deducted from the allowable have side laps fastened at
live load of the reinforced midspan or 36" intervals-
3. 2c Minimum bearing shall slab regardless of the deck whichever is smaller.
be 1%" unless otherwise finish .
shown. 4.2c Laps and Butted Ends:
Except for some diaphragm Deck ends may be either
3. 2d Design of the concrete values, the deck should not butted or lapped over sup-
slabs shall be done in be assumed to act compos- ports . Standard tolerance for
accordance with the ACI itely with the concrete even ordered length is plus or minus
318 Building Code. Either though strong chemical 1/2inch.

Steel Deck [
Institute S
di J

Commentary: See figure 4 pneumatically-driven fas- ture and spread towards the
for minimum welding pat- teners, etc.) are recognized center of the deck span. If
terns . Side lap fasteners can as viable anchoring methods, buggies are used they shall
be welds, screws, crimps providing the type and spac- only operate on planking.
(button-punching), or other ing of said fastener satisfies Planks shall be of adequate
methods approved by the the design criteria. Docu- stiffness to transfer loads to
designer. Welding side laps mentation in the form of test the steel deck without
on thickness less than data, design calculations, or damaging the deck. Deck
0.028 inches may cause design charts should be damage caused by roll bars
large burn holes, and is not submitted by the fastener or careless placement must
recommended. The objec- manufacturer on the basis be avoided.
tive of side lap fastening is for obtaining approval. The
to prevent differential sheet deck manufacturer may 4. 5 Information:
deflection during concrete recommend additional fas- Commentary: Fire ratings,
loading and therefore to teners to stabilize the given diaphragm design informa-
prevent side joints from profile against sideslip of tion and reinforced concrete
opening. The five foot limit any unfastened ribs .
slab capacities are available
on side lap spacing is based from most form deck
on experience. 4.4 Construction Practice manufacturers.
The deck contractor should The need for temporary
not leave loose deck at the shoring shall be investigated 4.6 Fireproofing: The metal
end of the day as the wind and, if required, it shall be deck manufacturer shall not
may displace the sheets and designed and installed in be responsible for the clean-
cause injury to persons or accordance with the applic- ing of the underside of metal
property. If studs are being able ACI Code and shall be deck to ensure bond of fire-
welded to the top flange of left in place until the slab proofing . Adherence of fire-
the beams, then deck sheets attains 75% of its specified proofing materials is depen-
should be butted over the compressive strength. Prior dent on many variables; the
supports. Gaps are accept- to concrete placement, the deck manufacturer (supplier)
able at butted ends. steel deck shall be free of is not responsible for the
Staggering floor deck end soil, debris, standing water, adhesion or adhesive ability
laps is not a recommended loose mill scale or coating, of the fireproofing.
practice. The deck capacity and all other foreign matter.
as a form is not increased by Care must be exercised
staggering the end laps; when placing concrete so
layout and erection costs that the deck will not be
are increased. subjected to any impact that
exceeds the design capacity
ofthe deck. Concrete shall be
4.3 Mechanical Fasteners: placed in a uniform manner
(Powder-actuated, screws, over the supporting struc-

FIGURE 1 Loading Diagrams FIGURE 2 Loading Diagrams FIGURE 4 Weld Patterns
and Bending Moments and Deflections

!P S im ple
~ W1
Si m p le ~ W1 Co nd it ion
1_ .e_1
Co n dit io n
!_ .t J 6 = .0130W1. ' (1728)
+ M = .25 P.i + .125 W1.i 2 EI

D o uble ~ W1
~ W2
~ W1
Sp an
Co ndi ti o n t.t t_ .e_t I' / ~-End lap as
1J _1 6 = .0054W1.i ' (1728)
Structural steel
+ M = .125 (W 1 + W2).i 2 EI
(Joists) recommended by
the manufacturer
Tr iple ~ W1

Double W1
6~~~i ti on !_ .t_ !_ .t_ !_ .t_ !
Span 1\ .0069 W1.i '
Co n dition 1 .t 1~_1 u. = EI (1728)
+ M = 203 P.i + .096W1.i 2

1_ .t _!_ .t _!

+ M = .096 (W1 + W2).i

Note for Figures 1 and 2
P= 150-pound concentrated load
W1 = slab weight + deck weight
W2= 20 pounds per square foot
construction load
.t = span length (ft.)
Structural steel
End lap as
recommended by
the manufacturer

- M = .125 (W 1 + W2) .i 2
Form Deck Typical Slabs

Ip d~~TDg~..el ' ..... 'J d,

T riple

Condition -
L1 .
- --- -
1 .1
b ... , .
~ 7ce~t~~id o~-De~Jt- .
Slabs over 3" Deep
., ~ . .
. . -

Structural steel ' ' End lap as

+ M = .20P.i + .094 W 1.i 2 (Joists) recommended by
the manufacturer

W2 Intermediate side lap attachments not
W1 shown . See Section 4.2 Welding
Top of form db non-composite steel form deck .
+ M = .094 (W1 + W2).i 2 Note:
2112" and 3" slabs
Weld patterns A and B are for deck
W2 D = Depth of Slab
spans up to 4'6" . Weld pattern C
dt =Distance from reinforcing steel is for deck spans from 4'6" to 8'0" .
to top of concrete. If spans exceed 8'0", welds should be
- M =. 11 7( W1 + W2) .i 2
db= Distance from reinforcing steel placed so that the average spacing
to centroid of deck. (at supports) is not more than 12".

Steel Deck [
Institute S
d ~J

Non-Composite Steel
Form Deck Design Example

1 . Deck is to be used as a per-

manent form for a rein-
forced concrete slab.
Specify the form section
properties based on the
following conditions:

4" I_ .
. ...:.. ...
. . t::.. .. ~ . . . .
~,. . ~ .
v. .

q ,
-~ .
<> .
.... .....
. ~.
--,. . . r;
.T' d
.. .~- . .......
_j_ .:__: / \.~ / , .. ~/ \ '. r?/ \ . il/ - ~

1.1 Concrete slab is 4 " tota l 2. Construction Loads (to find 5 . Section Moduli
thickness - 150 pcf conc rete weight, consu lt - S (required) =
co ncrete. manufacturer's catalog). 2059/36,000 = 0 .057 in .3
1. 2 Deck to be used is Concrete weight + S (required)=
nom ina I P/8 " deep, grade E (typica l l 43 psf 2855/36,000 = 0 .079 in. 3
steel conforming t o ASTM- Deck we ight
(estimated) 2 psf 6. Calculate Requ ired I.
A446 (ga lvan ized )
Tota l wet load (W,) 45 psf 6. =f/240=4.75x 12/240=
fy = 80,000 psi 0 .2375 in .
f = 36,000 psi 3. Negative Bending 6. = 0 .0069W,f 4 (1728l
1.3 Joists at 5'-0" o.c. with -M = .117 (W , + Wzl f 2 (12) = El
3" f lange width (clear .117 (45+20) (4.75) 2 (12)
spa n = 4. 75ft.). All sheets - M = 2059 in. lbs. I= .0069 (45) (4 .75) 4 1728
of deck can span three or 29 .5 X 106 X .2375
more supports. 4. Positive Bending
+ M = [0.20 Pf + .094 W ,f 2 ] I (required ) =0 .039 in .4
1.4 For architectural con - 12
siderations, the wet load 7. Summary.
deflection is to be limited to + M = [0.20x 150x4.75 +
0.094x45x(4 .75 )2 ] 12 Designer should specify deck
L/240 of the span . based on these properties or
+ M = 2855 in . lbs . specify the performance
requ irements .

and Commentary for
Steel Roof Deck
1. Scope inches (or millimeters) but by the determination of
The requirements of this lists gage or type numbers, Section Modulus and Moment
section shall govern only then the thickness of steel of Inertia, computation for
ribbed steel roof deck before coating with paint or which shall be in accordance
construction of varying metal shall be in confor- with conventional methods of
configurations used for the mance with the following structural design. Such com-
support of roofing materials table: putation shall reflect the con-
and design live loads. cept of Effective Compression
Design Minimum Flange Width as limited by th e
Commentary: Suspended Type Thickness Thickness appropriate provisions of the
ceilings, light fixture, ducts, No. Inches Inches latest edition ( 1980) of the
or other utilities sha ll not be 22 0.0295 0.028 American Iron and Steel
supported by the steel deck. 20 0 .0358 0.034 Institute's Specification for the
18 0 .0474 Design of Cold Formed Steel
2. Materials 0.045
Structural Members.
2.1 Steel Roof Deck: The 16 0 .0598 0.057
steel roof deck units shall be Commentary: Arbitrarily
fabricated from steel con- Standard tolerance for assumed effective compres-
forming to Section 1. 2 of the ordered length is plus or sion flange widths shall not be
latest edition (1980) of the minus 1/2 inch. allowed. Testing shall not be
American Iron and Steel used in lieu of the above in
Institute, Specifications for 3. Design determination of vertical load
the Design of Cold -Formed 3.1 Stress: The maximum carrying capac ity of steel deck .
Steel Structural Members. working stress sha ll not
exceed 20,000 pounds per 3.3 Moment and Deflection
The steel used shall have a Coefficients: A moment
squa re in ch. The unit
minimum yield strength of coefficient of 1/ 8 sha ll be used
design stress sha ll in no
33 ksi. The delivered thick- for simple and dual spans and
case exceed the minimum
ness of the uncoated steel
yield strength of the steel a moment coefficient of 1/10
shall not be less than 95% sha ll be used for 3 or more
divided by 1. 65 for spec ific
of the design thickness. spans. Deflection coefficients
design uniform loads. The
unit design stress shall be shall be .013 for simple spans,
Commentary: The steel increased 33%% for tem- 0.0054 for double spans and
roof deck sha ll be manufac- porary concentrated loads 0.0069 for triple spans.
tured from steel conforming provided the deck thus
to ASTM Designation A611, required is no less than that 3.4 Maximum Deflections:
Grades C, D orE or from required for the specific Deflection of the deck sha ll not
A446 Grades A, B, C, D, E, design uniform loads. exceed L/240 under the
or For equal. If the pub- uniformly distributed design
lished product literature 3. 2 Section Properties: live load . All spans are to be
does not show the uncoated Structural adequacy of deck considered center-to-center of
steel thickness in decimal sections sha ll be established supports .

Steel Deck [
Institute S

Recommended Maximum Spans for Construction and All loads shall be distributed by
Maintenance Loads Standard 1 %-Inch and 3-lnch Roof Deck appropriate means to prevent
Maximum damage during construction to
Span Span Recommended Spans the completed assembly.
Type Condition Ft .-ln. Roof Deck Cantilever

Narrow NR22 3'-1 0 11

Rib Deck NR22 2 or more 4'-9 11
NR20 4'-1 0 11 ____r
_ _ _ _ _B EAM
2 or more 5'-11 II
5'- 1 1 II
1'-2 II

1'-7 II

NR18 2 or more 6'- 1 1 II ... I

... I


Intermediate IR22 4'-6 11 1'- 2 II 0 0 0
Rib Deck IR22 2 or more 5'-6 11 .... ....
IR20 5'-3 11 1'- 5 II
IR20 2 or more 6'-3 11 ----I
IR 18 6'-2 11 1'-1 0 II
IR 18 2 or more 7'-4 11

Wide Rib WR22 5'-6 11 1 1- 1 1 II ' 1f J

Deck WR22
2 or more 6'-6 11
6'-3 11
7'- 5 11
2'-4 11

I 1-11 MAX
WR20 2 or more CANTILEVER

7'-6 11 SECTION A
2'-1 0"
WR18 2 or more 8'-1 0 11 Cantilever loads:
Deep Rib 3DR22 1 1'-0 11 Construction phase load of
3'-6 11
Deck 3DR22 2 or more 13'-0 11 10 psf on adjacent span and
3DR20 1 2'-6 11 cantilever plus 200 pound load
4'-0 11 at end of cantilever with a
3DR20 2 or more 14'-8 11
stress limit of 26.67 ksi.
3DR18 1 5'-0 11
4'-1 0 11 Service load of 45 psf on
3DR18 2 or more 17'-8 11
ad ja cent span and canti lever
Commentary: Construction 1'-0 11 wide section of deck . plus 100 pound load at end of
and maintenance loads: cantilever with a stress lim it of
If the designer contemplates 20 ksi.
Spans are governed by a maxi- loads of greater magnitude,
mum stress of 26,000 psi and spans shall be decreased or the Deflection limited to 1 I 240 of
a maximum deflection of thickness of the steel deck adjacent span for interior span
L/240 with a 200-pound con- increased as required. and deflection at end of canti-
centrated load at midspan on a lever to 1 I 120 of overhang.
and Commentary for
Steel Roof Deck

Notes: deducted from the above structural support thickness

1. Adjacent span: Limited to uplift forces . of 0 .06 inches.
those spans shown in Section
3.4 of Roof Deck Specifica- 4.2 Welds: Care shall be 4.4 Spacing of Attach-
tions . In those instances where exercised in the selection of ments for Welds or
the adjacent span is less than the electrodes and amper- Screws: The location and
3 times the cantilever span, the age to provide positive weld number of welds or screws
individual manufacturer should and to prevent high amper- required for satisfactory
be consulted for the appro- age blow holes. Puddle attachment of deck to sup-
priate cantilever span. welds shall be at least porting structural members
% inch diameter or elon - are as follows: all side laps
2. Sidelaps must be attached gated welds with an equal
at end of cantilever and at a plus a sufficient number of
perimeter. Fillet welds when interior ribs to Iim it the spac-
maximum of 12 inches on used, shall be at least 1 inch
center from end. ing between adjacent points
long. Weld metal shall of attachment to 18 inches.
3. No permanent suspended penetrate all layers of deck For spans greater than
loads are to be supported by material at end laps and side 5 feet, the side laps shall be
the steel deck. joints and shall have good fastened together at a maxi-
4. The deck must be com- fusion to the supporting mum spacing of 3 feet.
pletely attached to the members .
supports and at the sidelaps Commentary: The selection 4. 5 Powder-Activated or
before any load is applied to of welding rod and amperage Pneumatically-Driven
the cantilever. are left to the preference of Fasteners: The allowable
the individual welder. Welds load value per fastener used
4. Installation are made from the top side to determine the maximum
of the deck with the welder fastener spacing is based on
4.1 General: Steel deck a minimum structural sup-
immediately following the
units shall be anchored to port thickness of not less
placement crew. Welding
supporting members, than 1/8 inch and on the
washers are neither neces-
including bearing walls, to fastener providing a 5/16
sary nor recommended for
provide lateral stability to inch diameter minimum
steel deck of 0.028 inches
the top flange of the sup - or greater. bearing surface (fastener
porting structural members head size) . Documentation
and to resist the following 4.3 Screws: The allowable in the form of test data,
gross uplifts : 45 pounds per load value per screw used to design calculation, or
square foot for eave over- determine maximum fas- design charts shall be sub-
hang; 30 pounds per square tener spacing for either self- mitted by the fastener
foot for all other roof areas. drilling or standard metal manufacturer as the basis
The dead load of the roof type is based on a minimum for obtaining approval .
deck construction shall be size 12 and on a minimum

Steel Deck [
Institute S
d.1 J

Commentary: Powder 5.2 Fireproofing: The metal Commentary: The deck

actuated and pneumatically deck manufacturer shall not erector normally cuts all
driven fasteners are recog - be responsible for the clean- openings in the roof deck
nized as viable anchoring ing of the underside of metal which are shown on the
methods, providing the type deck to ensure bond of fire- erection drawings and
and spacing of said fasteners proofing . Adherence of fire- which are less than 16
satisfies the design criter ia . proofing materials is depen- square feet in area, as well
dent on many variables; the as skew cuts which are
5. Protective Coatings deck manufacturer (supplier) shown on the drawings .
5.1 Finishes: All steel to be is not responsible for the ad- Openings not shown on the
used for roof deck shall be hesion or adhesive ability of erection diagrams, such as
galvanized, aluminized or the fireproofing. those required for stacks,
prime painted. The roof conduits, plumbing, vents ,
deck shall be free of grease 6. Site Storage etc., shall be cut (and rein -
and dirt prior to the coating. Steel deck shall be stored forced, if necessary) by the
The primer coat is intended off th e ground with one end trades requiring the
to protect the steel for only a elevated to provide drainage openings .
short period of exposure in and shall be protected from
ordinary atmospheric condi- the elements with a water- 8. Insulation
tions and shall be con- proof covering, ventilated to Insulation board shal l be
sidered an impermanent and avoid condensation. sufficient strength and thick-
provisional coating. ness to permit unsupported
7. Erection spans and edges over the
Commentary: Field painting Deck sheets will be placed deck's rib openings .
of prime painted deck is in accordance with Cementitious insulating fills
recommended especia lly approved erection layout shall be poured only over
where the deck is exposed. drawing supplied by the galvanized deck and shall be
In corrosive or high moisture deck manufacturer and in adequately vented. In all
atmospheres, a galvanized conformance with the deck cases, the recommenda -
finish is desirable in a G-60 manufacturer's standards. tions of the insu lation manu -
or G-90 coating. End laps of sheets shall be a facturer shall be followed .
In highly corrosive or chem- minimum of 2 inches and
ical atmospheres, special shall occur over supports.
care in spec ifying the finish
should be used. In this case,
individual manufacturers
shou ld be contacted.

Standard Roof Deck

Narrow Rib Deck Type NR

Max . Ribs Approx. 6" c. to c.
1"~ f-- t

Deck Span
VJ. . w 1%"

Uniform Total (Dead & Live) Load in Pounds Per Sq . Ft .
Span Length - c . to c . Joists or Purlins (Ft. -ln .)
Type Cond ition (ln .)
4 -0 4 -6 5-0 5-6 6 -0 6 -6 7 -0 7 -6 8 -0 8 -6 9 -0 9-6 10-0
NR 22 0.0295 73 58 47
NR 20 n
0.0358 91 72 58 48 40
NR 18 0.0474 121 95 77 64 54 46
NR 22 0.0295 80 63 51 42
NR 20 rn 2
0.0358 96 76 61 51 43
NR18 0.0474 124 98 79 66 55 47 41
NR 22 0.0295 100 79 64 53 44
NR 20 f ttt 0.0358 120 95 77 63 53 45
NR18 3 or more 0.0474 155 123 99 82 69 59 51 44
Steel decks comply ing with SDI Roof Specifications are available from member companies in 1 '12, 2, 3, 4 '12, 6, and 7 '12-inch
depths 6, 7 '12, 8, 9, and 12 -in ch rib spacings; with and without stiffening elements.
1. Load tables are calculated using Section Properties based on the steel design 6 . Deflection formulae for deflection limitation are:
thicknesses shown on page 30.
2. Loads shown in tables are uniformly distributed total I dead plus live) loads in
psf. All loads are governed by the allowable flexural stress limit of 20,000 psi .013wf'
Simple Span !:::. = 117281
for a 33,000 psi minimum yield steel. Where heavy construction loads or other El
unusual concentrated loads are anticipated during the lifetime of the deck, the
specified live load must be increased to offset the effects of the abnormal
concentrated loading. See Maximum Spans for Construction and Maintenance .0054 wi"
Two Span !:::.= 11728)
Loads on page 31. El
3 . The rib width limitation s shown are taken at the theoretical intersection
points of the flange and web projections. Depending on the radius used, the .0069 wf'
load table could vary from that shown. Three Span !:::.= 11728)
4 . Span length assumes center-to-center spacing of supports. Tabulated loads
shall not be increased by assuming clear span dimension s.
5 . Bending Moment formulae used for flexural stress limitations are: 7. Normal Installations covered by these tables do not require sidelap fasteners
between supports for spans of 5 feet or less.
Simple & Two Span M = -8-
8. The manufacturer guarantees that the product identified as complying
with a Standard Load Table confo rm s to th e Roof Deck Specifications of the
wf' Steel Deck In stitute and to the dimensional parameters established for that
Three Span or More M = - - load table.

Steel Deck [
Institute S
d iJ

Intermediate Rib Deck Type IR

Max. I Ribs Approx. 6" c. to c .
1'/." ----1 f----- .1
I ,, 2''
I Min .
-1 ~ 1 2" Min .
Design Uniform Total (Dead & Live) Load in Pounds Per Sq . Ft.
Deck Span Thickness Span Length - c . to c . Joists or Purlins (Ft.-ln.)
Type Condition (ln.)
4 -0 4 -6 5-0 5 -6 6 -0 6 -6 7 -0 7 -6 8 -0 8 -6 9 -0 9 -6 10-0
IR 22 0.0295 86 68 55 45
IR 20 n 0.0358 106 84 68 56 47 40
IR 18 Simple 0.0474 142 112 91 75 63 54 46 40
IR 22 0.0295 93 74 60 49 41
IR 20 rn 0.0358 11 2 88 71 59 50 42
IR 18 2 0.0474 145 115 93 77 64 55 47 41
IR 22 0.0295 117 92 75 62 52 44
IR 20 f f t f 0.0358 140 110 89 74 62 53 46 40
IR 18 3 or more 0.0474 181 143 116 96 81 69 59 52 45 40
Steel decks complying with SDI Roof Specifications are available from member companies in 1 '12 , 2, 3, 4 '12, 6, and 7 '12 -inc h
depths: 6, 7 '12 , 8, 9, and 12-inch rib spacings; with and without stiffening elements.
Not es:
1. Load tables are calculated using Section Properties based on the steel design 6 . Deflection formulae for deflection limitation are:
thicknesses shown on page 30.
2. Loads shown in tables are uniformly distributed total (dead plus live) loads in
psf . All loads are governed by the allowable flexural stress limit of 20,000 psi Simple Span /:;. = (1 728 )
for a 33,000 psi minimum yield steel. Where heavy construction loads or other El
unusual concentrated load s are anticipated during the lifetime of the deck, the
spec ified live load must be increased to offset the effects of the abnormal
concentrated loading. See Maximum Spans for Construction and Main tenance .0054 wf'
Two Span /:;. = (1728)
Loads on page 31 . El
3 . The rib width limitations shown are taken at the th eoretical intersection
points of the flange and w eb projections . Depending on the radius used, the .0069 wf'
load table could vary from that shown. Three Span /:;. = 11 728)
4 . Span length assumes center-to-center spacing of supports. Tabulated loads
shall not be increased by assuming clear span dimensions .
5. Bending Moment formulae used for flexural stress limitations are : 7. Normal installations covered by these tables do not require sidelap fasteners
between supports for spans of 5 feet or less.
Simple & Two Span M = -8- 8 .. The manufac turer guarantees that the product identified as complying
w1th a Standard Load Table conforms to the Roof Deck Specifications of the
Three Span or More M = - - Steel Deck Institute and to the dimensional parameters establ ished for that
10 load table.

Standard Roof Deck

Wide Rib Deck Type WR

Max . Ribs Approx . 6 " c. to c.
I I--- I
I I 1%"
--l I 1...-P/' Min.
Design Uniform Total (Dead & Live) Load in Pounds Per Sq. Ft .
Deck Span Thickness Span Length - c . to c. Joists or Purlins (Ft.-ln .)
Type Condition (ln .)
4 -0 4 -6 5-0 5-6 6 -0 6 -6 7 -0 7 -6 8 -0 8 -6 9 -0 9 -6 10-0
WR 22 0.0295 89 70 56 46
WR 20 n
0.0358 11 2 87 69 57 47 40
WR 18 0.0474 154 11 9 94 76 63 53 45
WR 22 0.0295 98 81 68 58 50 43
WR 20 rn 2
0.0358 125 103 87 74 64 55 49 43
WR 18 0.0474 165 137 115 98 84 73 65 57 51 46 41
WR 22 0.0295 122 101 85 72 62 54 46 40
WR 20 t fft 0.0358 156 129 108 92 80 67 57 49 43
WR 18 3 or more 0.0474 207 171 144 122 105 91 76 65 57 50 44
Steel decks complying with SDI Roof Spec ifications are available from member companies in 1 '12, 2, 3, 4 '12, 6, and 7 '12 -inc h
depths: 6, 7 '12, 8, 9, and 12-inch rib spac ings; with and without stiffening elements.
1. Load tables are calculated using Section Properties based on the steel design 6. Defl ection formulae for deflection limitation are :
thicknesses shown on page 30.
2 . Loads shown in tables are uniformly distributed total I dead plus live) loads in
psi. Loads in shaded areas are governed by live load deflection not in excess of .013wf'
Simple Span 6.= 11 728)
L/240 . The dead load included is 10 psi. All loads are governed by the allowable El
flexural stress limit of 20,000 psi for a 33,000 psi m inimum yield steel. Where
heavy construction loads or other unusual concentrated loads are anticipated
during the lifetime of the deck, the specified live load must be increased to .0054 wf'
Two Span 6. = 11728)
offset the effects of the abnormal concentrated loading. See Maximum Spans El
for Construction and Maintenance Loads on page 3 1.
3 . The rib width limitations shown are taken at the theoretical intersection
0069 wf'
points of the fl ange and web projections. Depending on the radius used, the Three Span 6. = 11728)
load table could vary from that shown . El
4 . Span length assumes center-to-center spacing of supports. Tabulated loads
shall not be increased by assuming c lear span dimensions. 7. Normal installations covered by these tables do not require sidelap fasteners
5 . Bending Moment formulae used for flexural stress limitations are: between supports for spa ns of 5 feet or less.
Simple & Two Span M = - - 8
8 .. The manufacturer guarantees that the product iden tified as complying
w1th a Standard Load Table conforms to the Roof Deck Specifications of the
wf' Steel Deck Institute and to the dimensional parameters established for that
Three Span or More M = - - load table.

Steel Deck [
Institute S
d ~J

Deep Rib Deck Type 3DR

Max . 2 3 ," - - j I 1-
Ribs 8" c. to c.

I I '
I I 3"

I I Min .

1-Min. ,, 2, t
Design Uniform Total (Dead & Live) Load in Pounds Per Sq . Ft .
Deck Span Thickness Span Length-C . to C . Joists or Purlins (Ft. ln .)
Type Condition (ln.)
9-0 9-6 10-0 10-6 11-0 11 -6 12-0 12-6 13-0 13-6 14-0 14-6
3DR22 .0295 61 55 49 43 39 35 32 30 28 26 24 23
3DR1 8
3DR22 .0295 69 62 56 51 47 43 39 36 33 31 29 27
3DR20 rn .0358 84 75 68 62 56 51 47 44 40 37 35 32
3DR18 2 .0474 110 98 89 81 73 67 62 56 53 49 45 42
3DR22 .0295 87 78 70 64 58 53 48 44 40 39 36 33
3DR20 ft tf .0358 105 94 85 77 70 64 59 53 48 47 43 40
3DR1 8 3 or More .0474 137 123 111 101 92 84 77 71 65 61 57 53
Steel decks comp lying with SDI Roof Specifications are avai lable from m em ber companies in 1'12 , 2, 3, 4 '/2, 6, and 7% - inch
depths : 6, 7 '12 , 8, 9, and 12- in c h rib s pacing s ; with and without s tiffening e lements.
1. Load tables are calculated using Section Properties based on the steel design 6. Deflection formulae for deflection limitation are:
thicknesses shown on page 30.
2. Loads shown in tables are uniformly distributed total (dead plus live) loads in
psf . All loads are governed by the allowable flexural stress limit of 20,000 psi .013wf'
Simple Span 6 = (1 728)
for a 33,000 psi m inimum yield steel. Where heavy construction loads or other El
unusual concentrated loads are anticipated during the lifetime of the deck, the
specified live load must be increased to offset the effects of the abnormal
concentrated loading. See Maximum Spans for Construction and Main tenance .0054 wf'
Two Span 6 = (1 728)
Loads on page 31. El
3. The rib width limitations shown are taken at the theoretica l intersection
points of the flange and web projections. Depending on the radius used; the .0069wf'
load table could vary from that shown . Three Span 6= (1 728)
4. Span length assumes center-to-center spacing of supports. Tabulated loads
shall not be increased by assuming clear span dimensions.
5. Bending Moment formulae used for flexural stress limitations are : 7. Normal installations covered by these tables do not require sidelap fasteners
between supports for spans of 5 feet or less.
wf 2
8. The manufacturer guarantees that the product identified as complying
Simple & Two Span M = - -
8 with a Standard Load Table conforms to the Roof Deck Specifications of the
wf' Steel Deck Institute and to the dimensional parameters established for that
Three Span or More M = -- load table .

Acoustical Decks

. . . .
Sound absorbing decks are Glass fiber insulation, when and Material Standard Test
often used as a combination of required, is field installed in the Method for Sound Absorption
acoustical ceiling and struc- flutes or cells . Coefficients by the Reverbera -
tural deck. These decks are The load carrying capacity of tion Room Method:ANSI/
commonly referred to as the deck may be affected due ASTM C432 -77.
ACOUSTICAL DECKS. to holes punched in the metal . Individual deck manufacturers
should be consulted for NRC
Acoustical Decks are available The efficiency of sound values with their products. The
as roof decks, fluted and as absorption is expressed as the finish for Acoustical Decks
cellular floor decks. The steel noise reduction coefficient should be either galvanized or
deck is perforated . (NRC). The NRC values are galvanized and painted.
obtained by testing assemblies
by the requirements of the
American Society for Testing

Steel Deck
c d.J
S 1

Long Span Roof Decks

,___,,-- - - - - - -
\ --
-- - - - - - - - -,,__ _

Long Span Roof Decks are painted to enhance the cluttered with beams or joists.
used to support roofing mate- appearance. In addition, building height is
rials and design live loads for reduced. For very large open
spans up to thirty feet. The Wh en Long Span Roof Decks areas a minimum of support
bottom side presents an attrac- are used to span between members are required.
tive finish which can be field masonry walls the ceiling is not

Long Span
Cellular Roof Decks
-------- -,'.___ .',--------- ---------\._ __.,---------


Long Span Cellular Roof Decks also tends to camouflage the load carrying capabilities oi
have all the advantages of the spot welds, which are used to Long Span Roof Decks.
Non -Cellular Long Span Decks attach the plate to the fluted
and more . section . For economy, appearance, and
ease of construction Long
The bottom side presents a Field painting comp letes the Span Decks are an excellent
flush ceiling. The bottom plate ceiling decoration treatment. choice.
may be embossed, which adds
to the ceiling appearance and The addition of the bottom
plate increases the span and

Roof Deck
Design Example

Given: 2. Refer to Maximum Spans **If the stee l deck is

A. Joist spacing 6 '- 0" c. to c. for Construction and Ma in- required to act as a dia-
tenance Loads on page 30. phragm, refer to Steel
B. Live load= 30 psf
Select deck types that Deck Institute Dia-
C. Total load = 50 psf . phragm Design Manual
equal or exceed the 6'-0"
D. 2" total insulation with span required . (#DDM01 ), a publication
built-up roof .* of the Steel Deck Institute.
From Table:
E. Steel deck diaphragm not NR 18 =6'-11" span
required. ** IR 20 = 6'-3" span
WR 22 = 6'-6" span
1. Refer to Standard Load WR 22 fulfills requirements
Tables on pages 33, 34, most efficiently.
35, 36.
*Refer to Roof Deck Spe-
1.1 Enter 50 psf total load cifications, Section 8-
at 6'-0" span, 3-span lnsulation, page 32. Also
condition. refer to insulation manu-
Select deck types that facturers' recommenda-
equal or exceed the 50 psf tions for maximum
required. allowable rib opening.
From Table:
N R 20 =53 psf capacity
IR 22 =52 psf capacity
WR 22 = 85 psf capacity

Steel Deck
Gd iJ

Steel Roof Deck


1. Scope 20,000 pounds per square 6. Coating

This sect ion sha ll in clude all inch . Roof deck sha ll receive one
materials, equipment, and primer coat of manufacturer's
4. Accessories standard paint or sha ll be gal-
labor necessary for the installa-
tion of stee l roof deck in Th e deck manufacturer sha ll vanized or aluminized .
accordance with this spec if i- furnish ridge and val ley plates,
cation and drawings. Require- stee l cant strips, and sump
ments for deck supports, field pans attached directly to the
paint in g, sumps, flashings, stee l deck as shown on the
drains, co ll ars, gutters, down - plans to prov id e a finished
spouts, and other miscel- surface for the appl ication of
laneous items are specif ied as in su lat ion and roofing.
needed. 5. Insulation Flat Sump Plate (0.071" Min.)
Dimensions shown are minimum.
2.Deck Steel deck sha ll be erected and (Hole cut in field by others)

fastened in accordance with

The stee l roof deck shall be
the manufacturer's specifi-
(narrow rib) (intermediate rib )
cat ions and erection layouts .
(wide rib) configurat ion,
Cutting openings through the
_____ inches in rib depth,
deck which are less than 16
as manufactured by square feet in area and al l skew
" A " Vari es

cutting shall be performed in Eave Plate (0.028" Min.)

and shal l be designed in
the field.
accordance w ith t he Roof
Deck Specifications of the ACCESSORIES
Stee l Deck Inst itute.
3.Loads f-4--
The deck shal l be c apable of
supporting a uniform ly distrib- 3"
'-"--,--,-v," ,H-
uted live load of _ _ _ __
pounds per square foot with 0 i t T, en Cant Strip (0.028" Min.)

the live load deflection not to j

exceed L/240 of the span
' -~

3" 3"
length center-to-center of
supports and with a uniformly
distributed load of _ _ _ __ !1'" "
------ -
---- - r
- 1'12
As Required_/ 12
Section A-A
pounds per square foot with- Recessed Sump Pan- Level (0.071" Min.) Ridge and Valley Plate (0.028" Min.)
out exceed ing a unit stress of (Hote cut In field by others)

Roof Deck
Fire Resistance

2-Hour Rating with Roof In su la tion

Directly-Applied Protection
Illustration refers to UL Design
P801 using a sprayed mineral 2 1/" fo r 2 hours
fiber insulation. See also UL 1'h'' for 1 1h hours
1" fo r 1 hour
Designs P701, P711, and
P805 .

2-Hour Rating with Metal

Lath and Plaster Ceiling
Illustration refers to UL Design Steel Roo f Dec k - 1 1/i' deep m 1nimu m

P404. See also UL Design Steel Jois t - 6'-0" c. toe . maximum

P409. Ins ula tion- 1" mi nimum U L Listed

Mm era l Fiber Boa rd

Suspe nded Ce il 1ng- 'I" Lig htweig ht Agg regate

G ypsu m Pl aste r on M etal Lath

Other 2-Hour Ratings of the assembly. In each case, UL Designs P215 and P219:
Although standard roof deck the assembly was tested using accoustica l ce iling systems.
sections were not used for the either a stee l form unit with a 2 inches verm icu lite concrete
following tests, it is the op inion minimum depth of 9/ 16 in ch or a on specia l roof topping mixture
of persons knowledgeable in stee l floor deck essentia ll y on stee l deck .
fire test procedures that gal- identical to products marketed
vanized steel roof deck with a as roof deck. The authorit ies UL Design P902: no cei ling
minimum depth of 1 Yz in ches having jurisdiction shou ld be required. 2% inches ce llul ar
and a 0.0295-inch design consulted before substituting concrete on stee l deck.
thickness can be used without stee l roof deck in the following
decreasing the fire res istance assemblies:

1-Hour Ratings with

Suspended Acoustical Ceiling
Illustration refers to UL Design
P201 . See also UL Designs
Stee l Joi st - 7'0" c. to c. max imum
P204, P210, P211, P224,
P232, P235, P238, and P243, "'- ......._ In sulati on -"!.'' UL Listed Mineral Fiber Board

and Factory Mutual Roof- """-- Suspended Ceiling- 'W' UL Listed Acoustical
Lay-in Boards and UL Listed Ceiling Grid.

Ceiling Construction 3-1 hour.

Note : UL Design refers to list ing s in Fire Resistance Ind ex of Underwriters Laboratories, In c.

,.-------SPECIAL N O T I C E - - - - - -

The information presented in this manual has been prepared in

accordance with recognized engineering principles but is for general
information only. While it is believed to be accurate, this information
should not be used or relied upon for any general or specific application
without a review and verification of its accuracy and applicability by a
licensed professional engineer, designer or architect.

The publication of the material contained herein is not intended

as a representation or warranty on the part of the Steel Deck Institute,
or any of its Members or Associate Members named herein, that this
information is suitable for any genera I or pa rticu Ia ruse or of freedom from
infringement of any patent or patents.

The Steel Deck Institute, or any of its Members or Associate

Members, shall not be liable for any injury, loss, claim or damage what-
soever that arises out of or is in any way connected with the use of this
information contained in this publication, irrespective of the cause or
origin, or whether or not the damage or loss results directly or indirectly
to person or property from the negligence, active or passive, of the
Steel Deck Institute, or any of its Members or Associate Members.
Anyone making use of this information assumes all liability arising from
such use.