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# PROBLEM 5.

## Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.

SOLUTION

A, in 2 x , in y , in x A,in 3 y A,in 3
1 8 0.5 4 4 32
2 3 2.5 2.5 7.5 7.5
11 11.5 39.5

X A= xA

Y A=yA

PROBLEM 5.2

## Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.

SOLUTION
For the area as a whole, it can be concluded by observation that
2
Y = (72 mm) or Y = 48.0 mm
3

Dimensions in mm

A, mm 2 x , mm x A, mm3

1
1 30 72 = 1080 20 21,600
2

1
2 48 72 = 1728 46 79,488
2

2808 101,088

PROBLEM 5.3

SOLUTION

## A, mm 2 x , mm y , mm xA, mm3 yA, mm3

1 126 54 = 6804 9 27 61,236 183,708
1
2 126 30 = 1890 30 64 56,700 120,960
2
1
3 72 48 = 1728 48 16 82,944 27,648
2
10,422 200,880 277,020

Then X A = xA
X (10, 422 m 2 ) = 200,880 mm 2 or X = 19.27 mm

and Y A = yA
Y (10, 422 m 2 ) = 270, 020 mm3 or Y = 26.6 mm
PROBLEM 5.4

## Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.

SOLUTION

A, in 2 x , in y , in x A, in 3 y A, in 3

1
1 (12)(6) = 36 4 4 144 144
2

## 2 (6)(3) = 18 9 7.5 162 135

54 306 279

Then XA = xA
X (54) = 306 X = 5.67 in.
YA = yA
Y (54) = 279 Y = 5.17 in.
PROBLEM 5.5

## Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.

SOLUTION

By symmetry, X = Y

Component A, in 2 x , in. x A, in 3

I Quarter circle (10) 2 = 78.54 4.2441 333.33
4
II Square (5)2 = 25 2.5 62.5
53.54 270.83

X A = x A: X (53.54 in 2 ) = 270.83 in 3
X = 5.0585 in. X = Y = 5.06 in.
PROBLEM 5.6

## Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.

SOLUTION

A, in 2 x , in. y , in. x A, in 3 y A, in 3
1 14 20 = 280 7 10 1960 2800
2 (4) 2 = 16 6 12 301.59 603.19
229.73 1658.41 2196.8

xA 1658.41
Then X= = X = 7.22 in.
A 229.73
y A 2196.8
Y = = Y = 9.56 in.
A 229.73
PROBLEM 5.7

## Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.

SOLUTION

By symmetry, X = 0

Component A, in 2 y , in. y A, in 3

## I Rectangle (3)(6) = 18 1.5 27.0

II Semicircle (2) 2 = 6.28 2.151 13.51
2

11.72 13.49

Y A=yA
Y (11.72 in.2 ) = 13.49 in 3
Y = 1.151 in.

X =0
Y = 1.151 in.
PROBLEM 5.8

## Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.

SOLUTION

A, mm 2 x , mm y , mm x A, mm3 y A, mm3

## 1 (60)(120) = 7200 30 60 216 103 432 103

2 (60) 2 = 2827.4 25.465 95.435 72.000 103 269.83 103
4

3 (60) 2 = 2827.4 25.465 25.465 72.000 103 72.000 103
4

PROBLEM 5.9

## Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.

SOLUTION

A, mm 2 x , mm y , mm x A, mm3 y A, mm3

1
1 (120)(75) = 4500 80 25 360 103 112.5 103
2

## 2 (75)(75) = 5625 157.5 37.5 885.94 103 210.94 103

3 (75) 2 = 4417.9 163.169 43.169 720.86 103 190.716 103
4

PROBLEM 5.10

SOLUTION

## First note that symmetry implies X = 0

A, in 2 y , in. yA, in 3

(8) 2
1 = 100.531 3.3953 341.33
2

(12) 2
2 = 226.19 5.0930 1151.99
2

125.659 810.66

y A 810.66 in 3
Then Y = = or Y = 6.45 in.
A 125.66 in 2
PROBLEM 5.11

SOLUTION

## First note that symmetry implies X =0

A, m 2 y, m yA, m3

4
1 4.5 3 = 18 1.2 21.6
3

2 (1.8) 2 = 5.0894 0.76394 3.8880
2

12.9106 17.7120

y A 17.7120 m3
Then Y = = or Y = 1.372 m
A 12.9106 m 2
PROBLEM 5.12

SOLUTION

## 1 11.52 106 1.92 106

1 (200)(480) = 32 103 360 60
3

## 1 0.72 106 0.06 106

2 (50)(240) = 4 103 180 15
3

## X A = x A: X (28 103 mm 2 ) = 10.80 106 mm3

X = 385.7 mm X = 386 mm

## Y A = y A: Y (28 103 mm 2 ) = 1.86 106 mm3

Y = 66.43 mm Y = 66.4 mm
PROBLEM 5.13

SOLUTION

## 1 (15)(80) = 1200 40 7.5 48 103 9 103

1
2 (50)(80) = 1333.33 60 30 80 103 40 103
3
2533.3 128 103 49 103

Then X A = xA

## X (2533.3) = 128 103 X = 50.5 mm

YA = yA
Y (2533.3) = 49 103 Y = 19.34 mm
PROBLEM 5.14

## Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.

SOLUTION

Dimensions in in.

## A, in 2 x , in. y , in. xA, in 3 yA, in 3

2
1 (4)(8) = 21.333 4.8 1.5 102.398 32.000
3
1
2 (4)(8) = 16.0000 5.3333 1.33333 85.333 21.333
2
5.3333 17.0650 10.6670

Then X A = xA
X (5.3333 in 2 ) = 17.0650 in 3 or X = 3.20 in.

and Y A = yA
Y (5.3333 in 2 ) = 10.6670 in 3 or Y = 2.00 in.
PROBLEM 5.15

## Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.

SOLUTION
Dimensions in mm

A, mm 2 x , mm y , mm x A, mm3 y A, mm3

1 47 26 = 1919.51 0 11.0347 0 21,181
2

1
2 94 70 = 3290 15.6667 23.333 51,543 76,766
2

## 5209.5 51,543 55,584

x A 51,543
Then X= = X = 9.89 mm
A 5209.5

y A 55,584
Y = = Y = 10.67 mm
A 5209.5
PROBLEM 5.16

## Determine the x coordinate of the centroid of the trapezoid shown in terms of

h1, h2, and a.

SOLUTION

A x xA

1 1 1
1 h1a a h1a 2
2 3 6

1 2 2
2 h2 a a h2 a2
2 3 6

1 2
1 a ( h1 + 2h 2 )
a(h1 + h 2 ) 6
2

x A 6 a ( h1 + 2h 2 ) 1 h1 + 2h 2
1 2
X= = 1 X= a
A 2
a (h1 + h 2 ) 3 h1 + h 2
PROBLEM 5.20

The horizontal x-axis is drawn through the centroid C of the area shown, and
it divides the area into two component areas A1 and A2. Determine the first
moment of each component area with respect to the x-axis, and explain the
results obtained.

SOLUTION

Length of BD:
0.84in.
BD = 0.48 in. + (1.44 in. 0.48 in.) = 0.48 + 0.56 = 1.04 in.
0.84 in. 0.60 in.
Area above x-axis (consider two triangular areas):
1 1
Q1 = y A = (0.28 in.) (0.84 in.)(1.04 in.) + (0.56 in.) (0.84 in.)(0.48 in.)
2 2
= 0.122304 in 3 + 0.112896 in 3

Q1 = 0.2352 in 3
Area below x-axis:
1 1
Q2 = yA = (0.40 in.) (0.60 in.)(1.44 in.) (0.20 in.) (0.60 in.)
2 2
= 0.1728 in 3 0.0624 in 3

Q2 = 0.2352 in 3

## |Q| = |Q2 |, since C is centroid and thus, Q = y A = 0

PROBLEM 5.21

The horizontal x-axis is drawn through the centroid C of the area shown,
and it divides the area into two component areas A1 and A2. Determine the
first moment of each component area with respect to the x-axis, and
explain the results obtained.

SOLUTION

Dimensions in mm

## Area above x-axis (Area A1):

Q1 = y A = (25)(20 80) + (7.5)(15 20)
= 40 103 + 2.25 103

## Q1 = 42.3 103 mm3

Area below x-axis (Area A2):

PROBLEM 5.32

## Determine the distance h for which the centroid of the shaded

area is as far above line BB as possible when (a) k = 0.10,
(b) k = 0.80.

SOLUTION

A y yA

1 1 1 2
1 ba a a b
2 3 6

1 1 1
2 (kb)h h kbh 2
2 3 6

b b 2
(a kh) ( a kh 2 )
2 6

Then Y A = yA
b b
Y ( a kh) = (a 2 kh 2 )
2 6

a 2 kh 2
or Y = (1)
3(a kh)

dY 1 2kh(a kh) (a 2 kh 2 )( k )
and = =0
dh 3 ( a kh) 2

## or 2h(a kh) a 2 + kh 2 = 0 (2)

Simplifying Eq. (2) yields

kh 2 2ah + a 2 = 0
PROBLEM 5.34

Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. Express your
answer in terms of a and h.

SOLUTION

h
We have y= x
a
and dA = (h y )dx
x
= h 1 dx
a
xEL = x
1
yEL = (h + y )
2
h x
= 1 +
2 a
a
a x x2 1
Then A = dA = 0
h 1 dx = h x = ah
a 2 a 0 2
a
a x x 2 x3 1
and x EL dA = 0
x h 1 dx = h = a 2 h
a 2 3a 0 6
a h x x
y EL dA = 0

2
1 + h 1 dx
a a
a
h2 a x2 h2 x3 1
=
2 0
1
a
2

dx =
2

x 2
= ah2
3a 0 3

1 1 2

xA = xEL dA: x ah = a 2 h
2 6
x=
3
a

1 1 2

y A = yEL dA: y ah = ah2
2 3
y=
3
h
PROBLEM 5.35

## Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. Express

SOLUTION

y = h(1 kx3 )

For x = a, y = 0.

0 = h(1 k a3 )

1
k=
a3

x3
y = h 1 3
a
1
xEL = x, yEL = y dA = ydx
2
a
a a x3 x4 3
A = dA = 0
ydx = 0
h 1 3 dx = h x 3 = ah
a 4a 0 4

a
a a x4 x2 x5 3
x EL dA = 0
xydx = 0
h x 3 dx = h 3 = a 2 h
a 2 5a 0 10

a 1 1 a x3 h2 a 2 x3 x 6
yEL dA = 0
y ydx =
2 2 0
h 2 1 3 dx =
a 2 0
1 3 + 6
a a
dx

a
h2 x4 x7 9 2
= x 3 + 6 = ah
2 2a 7a 0 28

3 3 2

xA = xEL dA: x ah = a 2 h
4 10
x=
5
a

3 9 2 3

yA = yEL dA: y ah =
4 28
ah y=
7
h
PROBLEM 5.36

## Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. Express

SOLUTION

At (a, h), y1 : h = ka 2

h
or k=
a2
y2 : h = ma

h
or m=
a
Now xEL = x
1
yEL = ( y1 + y2 )
2
h h
and dA = ( y2 y1 )dx = x 2 x 2 dx
a a
h
= 2 (ax x 2 ) dx
a
a
a h h a 1 1
Then
A = dA = 0 a2
(ax x 2 )dx = 2 x 2 x3 = ah
a 2 3 0 6
a
ha h a 1 1
and xEL dA =
0
x 2 (ax x 2 ) dx = 2 x3 x 4 = a 2 h
a a 3 4 0 12

( )
1 1 2
yEL dA =
2
( y1 + y2 )[( y2 y1 ) dx] =
2
y2 y12 dx

1 a h 2 2 h2 4
=
2 0
2 x 4 x dx
a a
a
1 h2 a 2 3 1 5
= x x
2 a4 3 5 0
1
= ah 2
15

## PROBLEM 5.36 (Continued)

1 1 1

xA = xEL dA: x ah = a 2 h
6 12
x=
2
a

1 1 2

yA = yEL dA: y ah = ah 2
6 15
y=
5
h
PROBLEM 5.38

## Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown.

SOLUTION

b 2
For the element (EL) shown, y= a x2
a
and dA = (b y ) dx

=
b
a (
a a 2 x 2 dx )
xEL =x
1
yEL = ( y + b)
2
=
b
2a (
a + a 2 x2 )
Then A = dA = 0
a b
a(a a 2 x 2 dx)
To integrate, let x = a sin : a 2 x 2 = a cos , dx = a cos d
/2 b
Then A= 0 a
(a a cos )(a cos d )
/2
b 2 2 2
= a sin a + sin
a 2 4 0

= ab 1
4

b
(
)
a
and x EL dA = 0
x a a 2 x 2 dx
a
/2
b a 2 1 2 2 3/2
= x + ( a x )
a 2 3 0
1 3
= ab
6
PROBLEM 5.38 (Continued)

b
( b
) (
)
a
y EL dA = 0 2a
a + a 2 x 2 a a 2 x 2 dx
a
a
b2 a b 2 x3
= 2 ( x ) dx = 2
2
2a 0 2a 3 0
1 2
= ab
6
1 2a

xA = xEL dA: x ab 1 = a 2 b
4 6
or x =
3(4 )

1 2b

yA = yEL dA: y ab 1 = ab 2
4 6
or y =
3(4 )

PROBLEM 5.40

## Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. Express

SOLUTION

b 2
y1 = k1 x 2 but b = k1a 2 x y1 =
a2
b
y2 = k2 x 4 but b = k2 a 4 y2 = 4 x 4
a
b x
4
dA = ( y2 y1 )dx = 2 x 2 2 dx
a a
xEL = x
1
yEL = ( y1 + y2 )
2
b x4
= 2 x 2 + 2
2a a

b a x4

A = dA =
2
x dx
a2 0
a2
a
b x3 x5
= 2 2
a 3 5a 0
2
= ba
15
a b x4

xEL dA = x 2 x 2 2 dx
0 a a
b a x5
a 0
= 2 x3 2 dx
a
a
b x4 x6
= 2
a2 4 6a 0
1 2
= a b
12
PROBLEM 5.40 (Continued)

a b 2 x4 b 2 x4
yEL dA = 0 2a 2
x + 2 2
a a
x 2 dx
a
b2 a x8
= x 4 dx
4
2a 4 0
a
a
b 2 x5 x9 2 2
= 4 4 = ab
2a 5 9a 0 45

2 1 5

xA = xEL dA: x ba = a 2b
15 12
x= a
8

2 2 2 1

yA = yEL dA: y ba =
15 45
ab y = b
3
PROBLEM 5.41

Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. Express your
answer in terms of a and b.

SOLUTION

## First note that symmetry implies y =b

At x = a, y=b
b
y1 : b = ka 2 or k=
a2
b 2
Then y1 = x
a2
y2 : b = 2b ca 2
b
or c=
a2
x2
Then y2 = b 2 2
a
x2 b 2
Now dA = ( y2 y1 )dx2 = b 2 2 2 x dx
a a
x2
= 2b 1 2 dx
a
and xEL = x
a
a x2 x3 4
Then A = dA 0
2b 1 2
a
dx = 2b x 2 = ab
3a 0 3
a
a x2 x2 x4 1
and 0
xEL dA = x 2b 1 2 dx = 2b 2 = a 2b
a 2 4a 0 2
4 1 3

xA = xEL dA: x ab = a 2b
3 2
x= a
8
PROBLEM 5.43

## Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. Express

SOLUTION

2b
For y1 at x = a, y = 2b, 2b = ka 2 , or k =
a2
2b 2
Then y1 = x
a2
b x
By observation, y2 = ( x + 2b) = b 2
a a

Now xEL = x

1 b 2b 2
and for 0 x a, yEL = y1 = 2 x 2 and dA = y1 dx = x dx
2 a a2
1 b x x
For a x 2a, yEL = y2 = 2 and dA = y2 dx = b 2 dx
2 2 a a
a 2b 2 2a x
Then
A = dA = 0 a2
x dx + a
b 2 dx
a
2a
a x
a
2b x3
2
7
= 2 + b 2 = ab
a 3 0 2 a
0
6

a 2b 2a x
and xEL dA = 0
x 2 x 2 dx +
a a
x b 2 dx
a
a 2a
2b x 4 x3
= 2 + b x2
a 4 0 3a 0
1 2 1 2
= a b + b (2a) 2 (a) 2 + (2a ) (a )3
2 3a
7 2
= a b
6
PROBLEM 5.43 (Continued)

a b 2 2b 2 2a b x x
yEL dA = 0
x
a 2 a 2
x dx +
0
2 b 2 dx
2 a a
2a
b2 a x
a
2b 2 x5
3
= 4 + 2
a 5 0 2 3 a
a
17 2
= ab
30

7 7
Hence,
xA = xEL dA: x ab = a 2b
6 6
x =a

7 17 2 17

yA = yEL dA: y ab =
6 30
ab y=
35
b
PROBLEM 5.45

## A homogeneous wire is bent into the shape shown. Determine by direct

integration the x coordinate of its centroid.

SOLUTION
First note that because the wire is homogeneous, its center of gravity coincides with the centroid of the
corresponding line.
Now xEL = r cos and dL = rd
7 / 4 3
Then
L = dL = /4
r d = r[ ]7/ 4/ 4 = r
2
7 /4
and xEL dL = /4
r cos (rd )

= r 2 [sin ] 7/4/ 4
1 1
= r2
2 2
= r 2 2

3 2 2
Thus
xL = x dL : x r = r 2 2
2
x =
3
r
PROBLEM 5.46

## A homogeneous wire is bent into the shape shown. Determine by direct

integration the x coordinate of its centroid.

SOLUTION
First note that because the wire is homogeneous, its center of gravity coincides with the centroid of the
corresponding line.

## where x = a cos3 : dx = 3a cos 2 sin d

y = a sin 3 : dy = 3a sin 2 cos d

## Then dL = [(3a cos 2 sin d ) 2 + (3a sin 2 cos d )2 ]1/ 2

= 3a cos sin (cos 2 + sin 2 )1/ 2 d
= 3a cos sin d
/2
/2 1
L = dL = 0
3a cos sin d = 3a sin 2
2 0
3
= a
2
/2
and x EL dL = 0
a cos3 (3a cos sin d )
/2
1 3 2
= 3a 2 cos5 = a
5 0 5

3 3 2
Hence,
xL = xEL dL : x a = a 2
2 5
x=
5
a

Alternative Solution:
2/3
x
x = a cos3 cos 2 =
a
2/3
y
y = a sin sin =
3 2

a
2/3 2/3
x y
a + = 1 or y = (a 2/3 x 2/3 )3/2
a
PROBLEM 5.46 (Continued)

dy
Then = (a 2/3 x 2/3 )1/ 2 ( x 1/3 )
dx
Now xEL = x

2
dy
and dL = 1 +
dx

{ }
1/2
2
dx = 1 + ( a 2/3 x 2/3 )1/2 ( x 1/3 ) dx

a
a a1/3 3 3
Then
L = dL = 0 x1/3
dx = a1/3 x 2/3 = a
2 0 2

a a1/3 3
a
3
and xEL dL = 0
x 1/3 dx = a1/3 x5/3 = a 2
x 5 0 5

3 3 2
Hence
xL = xEL dL : x a = a 2
2 5
x=
5
a
PROBLEM 5.47*

## A homogeneous wire is bent into the shape shown. Determine by

direct integration the x coordinate of its centroid. Express your

SOLUTION
First note that because the wire is homogeneous, its center of gravity will coincide with the centroid of the
corresponding line.
1
We have at x = a, y = a, a = ka3/2 , or k =
a
1
Then y= x3/ 2
a
dy 3 1/2
and = x
dx 2 a

Now xEL = x

2
dy
and dL = 1 + dx
dx
1/2
3
2
= 1 + x1/2 dx
2 a
1
= 4a + 9 x dx
2 a
a 1
Then L = dL = 0 2 a
4a + 9 x dx
a
1 2 1
= (4a + 9 x)3/ 2
2 a 3 9 0
a
= [(13)3/2 8]
27
= 1.43971a
a 1
and x EL dL = 0
x
2 a
4a + 9 x dx

PROBLEM 5.47* (Continued)

## Use integration by parts with

u=x dv = 4a + 9 x dx
2
du = dx v= (4a + 9 x)3/ 2
27

1
a
2 3/2 2
a
Then xEL dL = x (4a + 9 x)
2 a 27 0 0 27
(4a + 9 x)3/ 2 dx

a
(13)3/2 2 1 2
= a (4a + 9 x)5/2
27 27 a 45 0
a2 2
= (13) [(13) 32]
3/ 2 5/2
27 45
= 0.78566a 2

xL = xEL dL : x (1.43971a ) = 0.78566a 2 or x = 0.546a
PROBLEM 5.50

## Determine the centroid of the area shown when a = 2 in.

SOLUTION

We have xEL = x
1 1 1
yEL = y = 1
2 2 x

1
and dA = ydx = 1 dx
x
a 1 dx
A = dA = 1 x 2 = [ x ln x]1 = ( a ln a 1) in
a 2
Then
1
a
a 1 x 2 a2 1
and x EL dA = 1
x 1 dx = x =
x 2 1 2
a + in 3
2

a 1 1 1 1 a 2 1
yEL dA =
1 2
1 1 dx =
x x 2 1
1 x + 2 dx
x
a
1 1 1 1
= x 2ln x = a 2ln a in 3
2 x 1 2 a
a2
a+ 1

xA = xEL dA: x = 2
a ln a 1
2
in.

a 2ln a 1a

yA = yEL dA: y =
2(a ln a 1)
in.

## Find x and y when a = 2 in.

1
(2) 2 2 + 1
We have x= 2 2
or x = 1.629 in.
2 ln 2 1
2 2ln 2 12
and y= or y = 0.1853 in.
2(2 ln 2 1)
PROBLEM 5.51

## Determine the value of a for which the ratio x / y is 9.

SOLUTION

We have xEL = x
1 1 1
yEL = y = 1
2 2 x

1
and dA = y dx = 1 dx
x
a 1 dx
Then A = dA = 1
1
x 2
= [ x ln x]1a

= (a ln a 1) in 2
a
a 1 x 2
and x EL dA = 1
x 1 dx = x
x 2 1
a2 1
= a + in 3
2 2

a 1 1 1 1 a 2 1
yEL dA = 1 2
1 1 dx =
x x 2 1
1 x + 2 dx
x
a
1 1
= x 2ln x
2 x 1
1 1
= a 2ln a in 3
2 a
a2
a+ 1

xA = xEL dA: x = 2
a ln a 1
2
in.

a 2ln a 1a

yA = yEL dA: y =
2(a ln a 1)
in.
PROBLEM 5.51 (Continued)

x
Find a so that = 9.
y

We have
x xA
= =
x
EL dA

y yA
y EL dA

1
a2 a + 1
Then 2 2
=9
1
2 ( a 2 ln a a1 )
or a 3 11a 2 + a + 18a ln a + 9 = 0

Using trial and error or numerical methods, and ignoring the trivial solution a = 1 in., we find
a = 1.901 in. and a = 3.74 in.
PROBLEM 5.53

Determine the volume and the surface area of the solid obtained by rotating the
area of Problem 5.2 about (a) the line y = 72 mm, (b) the x-axis.

SOLUTION
From the solution of Problem 5.2, we have

A = 2808 mm 2
x = 36 mm
y = 48 mm
Applying the theorems of Pappus-Guldinus, we have
(a) Rotation about the line y = 72 mm:

Volume = 2 (72 y ) A
= 2 (72 48)(2808) Volume = 423 103 mm3

Area = 2 yline L
= 2 ( yline ) L
= 2 ( y1 L1 + y3 L3 )

## where y1 and y3 are measured with respect to line y = 72 mm.

Area = 2 (36)
( )
482 + 722 + (36) ( 302 + 722
)
Area = 37.2 103 mm 2
Volume = 2 yarea A
= 2 (48)(2808) Volume = 847 103 mm3

## Area = 2 yline L = 2 ( yline ) L

= 2 ( y1 L1 + y2 L2 + y3 L3 )

= 2 (36)
( )
482 + 722 + (72)(78) + (36) ( )
302 + 722

## Area = 72.5 103 mm 2

PROBLEM 5.54

Determine the volume and the surface area of the solid obtained by rotating the
area of Problem 5.8 about (a) the line x = 60 mm, (b) the line y = 120 mm.

SOLUTION
From the solution of Problem 5.8, we have
A = 7200 mm 2
x A = 72 103 mm3
y A = 629.83 103 mm3
Applying the theorems of Pappus-Guldinus, we have
(a) Rotation about line x = 60 mm:

Volume = 2 ( x + 60) A = 2 ( xA + 60 A)
= 2 [72 103 + 60(7200)] Volume = 2.26 106 mm3

## Area = 2 xline L = 2 ( xline ) L

= 2 ( x1 L1 + x2 L2 + x3 L3 )
2(60) (60) 2(60) (60)
= 2 60 + 60 + + (60)(120)
2 2
where x1 , x2 , x3 are measured with respect to line x = 60 mm. Area = 116.3 103 mm 2
(b) Rotation about line y = 120 mm:

## Volume = 2 (120 y ) A = 2 (120 A yA)

= 2 [120(7200) 629.83 103 ] Volume = 1.471 106 mm3

## Area = 2 yline L = 2 ( yline ) L

= 2 ( y1 L1 + y2 L2 + y4 L4 )

## 2(60) (60) 2(60) (60)

Area = 2 120 + + (60)(120)
2 2

## Area = 116.3 103 mm 2

PROBLEM 5.56

Determine the volume and the surface area of the chain link
shown, which is made from a 6-mm-diameter bar, if R = 10 mm
and L = 30 mm.

SOLUTION
The area A and circumference C of the cross section of the bar are

A= d 2 and C = d .
4
Also, the semicircular ends of the link can be obtained by rotating the cross section through a horizontal
semicircular arc of radius R. Now, applying the theorems of Pappus-Guldinus, we have for the volume V,
V = 2(Vside ) + 2(Vend )
= 2( AL) + 2( RA)
= 2( L + R) A

or V = 2[30 mm + (10 mm)] (6 mm) 2
4
= 3470 mm3 or V = 3470 mm3

## For the area A, A = 2( Aside ) + 2( Aend )

= 2(CL) + 2( RC )
= 2( L + R)C

## or A = 2[30 mm + (10 mm)][ (6 mm)]

= 2320 mm 2 or A = 2320 mm 2
PROBLEM 5.64

## Determine the capacity, in liters, of the punch bowl

shown if R = 250 mm.

SOLUTION
The volume can be generated by rotating the triangle and circular sector shown about the y-axis. Applying the
second theorem of Pappus-Guldinus and using Figure 5.8a, we have
V = 2 xA = 2 xA
= 2 ( x1 A1 + x2 A2 )
1 1 1 1 3 2 R sin 30 2
= 2 R R R + R

3 2 2 2 2 3 6 6
R3 R3
= 2 +
16 3 2 3
3 3
= R3
8
3 3
= (0.25 m)3
8
= 0.031883 m3

Since 103 l = 1 m3
103 l
V = 0.031883 m3 V = 31.9 l
1 m3