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Selected solutions to Beer and Johnson - Chapter 5

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SOLUTION

A, in 2 x , in y , in x A,in 3 y A,in 3

1 8 0.5 4 4 32

2 3 2.5 2.5 7.5 7.5

11 11.5 39.5

X A= xA

Y A=yA

PROBLEM 5.2

SOLUTION

For the area as a whole, it can be concluded by observation that

2

Y = (72 mm) or Y = 48.0 mm

3

Dimensions in mm

A, mm 2 x , mm x A, mm3

1

1 30 72 = 1080 20 21,600

2

1

2 48 72 = 1728 46 79,488

2

2808 101,088

PROBLEM 5.3

SOLUTION

1 126 54 = 6804 9 27 61,236 183,708

1

2 126 30 = 1890 30 64 56,700 120,960

2

1

3 72 48 = 1728 48 16 82,944 27,648

2

10,422 200,880 277,020

Then X A = xA

X (10, 422 m 2 ) = 200,880 mm 2 or X = 19.27 mm

and Y A = yA

Y (10, 422 m 2 ) = 270, 020 mm3 or Y = 26.6 mm

PROBLEM 5.4

SOLUTION

A, in 2 x , in y , in x A, in 3 y A, in 3

1

1 (12)(6) = 36 4 4 144 144

2

54 306 279

Then XA = xA

X (54) = 306 X = 5.67 in.

YA = yA

Y (54) = 279 Y = 5.17 in.

PROBLEM 5.5

SOLUTION

By symmetry, X = Y

Component A, in 2 x , in. x A, in 3

I Quarter circle (10) 2 = 78.54 4.2441 333.33

4

II Square (5)2 = 25 2.5 62.5

53.54 270.83

X A = x A: X (53.54 in 2 ) = 270.83 in 3

X = 5.0585 in. X = Y = 5.06 in.

PROBLEM 5.6

SOLUTION

A, in 2 x , in. y , in. x A, in 3 y A, in 3

1 14 20 = 280 7 10 1960 2800

2 (4) 2 = 16 6 12 301.59 603.19

229.73 1658.41 2196.8

xA 1658.41

Then X= = X = 7.22 in.

A 229.73

y A 2196.8

Y = = Y = 9.56 in.

A 229.73

PROBLEM 5.7

SOLUTION

By symmetry, X = 0

Component A, in 2 y , in. y A, in 3

II Semicircle (2) 2 = 6.28 2.151 13.51

2

11.72 13.49

Y A=yA

Y (11.72 in.2 ) = 13.49 in 3

Y = 1.151 in.

X =0

Y = 1.151 in.

PROBLEM 5.8

SOLUTION

A, mm 2 x , mm y , mm x A, mm3 y A, mm3

2 (60) 2 = 2827.4 25.465 95.435 72.000 103 269.83 103

4

3 (60) 2 = 2827.4 25.465 25.465 72.000 103 72.000 103

4

PROBLEM 5.9

SOLUTION

A, mm 2 x , mm y , mm x A, mm3 y A, mm3

1

1 (120)(75) = 4500 80 25 360 103 112.5 103

2

3 (75) 2 = 4417.9 163.169 43.169 720.86 103 190.716 103

4

PROBLEM 5.10

SOLUTION

A, in 2 y , in. yA, in 3

(8) 2

1 = 100.531 3.3953 341.33

2

(12) 2

2 = 226.19 5.0930 1151.99

2

125.659 810.66

y A 810.66 in 3

Then Y = = or Y = 6.45 in.

A 125.66 in 2

PROBLEM 5.11

SOLUTION

A, m 2 y, m yA, m3

4

1 4.5 3 = 18 1.2 21.6

3

2 (1.8) 2 = 5.0894 0.76394 3.8880

2

12.9106 17.7120

y A 17.7120 m3

Then Y = = or Y = 1.372 m

A 12.9106 m 2

PROBLEM 5.12

SOLUTION

1 (200)(480) = 32 103 360 60

3

2 (50)(240) = 4 103 180 15

3

X = 385.7 mm X = 386 mm

Y = 66.43 mm Y = 66.4 mm

PROBLEM 5.13

SOLUTION

1

2 (50)(80) = 1333.33 60 30 80 103 40 103

3

2533.3 128 103 49 103

Then X A = xA

YA = yA

Y (2533.3) = 49 103 Y = 19.34 mm

PROBLEM 5.14

SOLUTION

Dimensions in in.

2

1 (4)(8) = 21.333 4.8 1.5 102.398 32.000

3

1

2 (4)(8) = 16.0000 5.3333 1.33333 85.333 21.333

2

5.3333 17.0650 10.6670

Then X A = xA

X (5.3333 in 2 ) = 17.0650 in 3 or X = 3.20 in.

and Y A = yA

Y (5.3333 in 2 ) = 10.6670 in 3 or Y = 2.00 in.

PROBLEM 5.15

SOLUTION

Dimensions in mm

A, mm 2 x , mm y , mm x A, mm3 y A, mm3

1 47 26 = 1919.51 0 11.0347 0 21,181

2

1

2 94 70 = 3290 15.6667 23.333 51,543 76,766

2

x A 51,543

Then X= = X = 9.89 mm

A 5209.5

y A 55,584

Y = = Y = 10.67 mm

A 5209.5

PROBLEM 5.16

h1, h2, and a.

SOLUTION

A x xA

1 1 1

1 h1a a h1a 2

2 3 6

1 2 2

2 h2 a a h2 a2

2 3 6

1 2

1 a ( h1 + 2h 2 )

a(h1 + h 2 ) 6

2

x A 6 a ( h1 + 2h 2 ) 1 h1 + 2h 2

1 2

X= = 1 X= a

A 2

a (h1 + h 2 ) 3 h1 + h 2

PROBLEM 5.20

The horizontal x-axis is drawn through the centroid C of the area shown, and

it divides the area into two component areas A1 and A2. Determine the first

moment of each component area with respect to the x-axis, and explain the

results obtained.

SOLUTION

Length of BD:

0.84in.

BD = 0.48 in. + (1.44 in. 0.48 in.) = 0.48 + 0.56 = 1.04 in.

0.84 in. 0.60 in.

Area above x-axis (consider two triangular areas):

1 1

Q1 = y A = (0.28 in.) (0.84 in.)(1.04 in.) + (0.56 in.) (0.84 in.)(0.48 in.)

2 2

= 0.122304 in 3 + 0.112896 in 3

Q1 = 0.2352 in 3

Area below x-axis:

1 1

Q2 = yA = (0.40 in.) (0.60 in.)(1.44 in.) (0.20 in.) (0.60 in.)

2 2

= 0.1728 in 3 0.0624 in 3

Q2 = 0.2352 in 3

PROBLEM 5.21

The horizontal x-axis is drawn through the centroid C of the area shown,

and it divides the area into two component areas A1 and A2. Determine the

first moment of each component area with respect to the x-axis, and

explain the results obtained.

SOLUTION

Dimensions in mm

Q1 = y A = (25)(20 80) + (7.5)(15 20)

= 40 103 + 2.25 103

Area below x-axis (Area A2):

PROBLEM 5.32

area is as far above line BB as possible when (a) k = 0.10,

(b) k = 0.80.

SOLUTION

A y yA

1 1 1 2

1 ba a a b

2 3 6

1 1 1

2 (kb)h h kbh 2

2 3 6

b b 2

(a kh) ( a kh 2 )

2 6

Then Y A = yA

b b

Y ( a kh) = (a 2 kh 2 )

2 6

a 2 kh 2

or Y = (1)

3(a kh)

dY 1 2kh(a kh) (a 2 kh 2 )( k )

and = =0

dh 3 ( a kh) 2

Simplifying Eq. (2) yields

kh 2 2ah + a 2 = 0

PROBLEM 5.34

Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. Express your

answer in terms of a and h.

SOLUTION

h

We have y= x

a

and dA = (h y )dx

x

= h 1 dx

a

xEL = x

1

yEL = (h + y )

2

h x

= 1 +

2 a

a

a x x2 1

Then A = dA = 0

h 1 dx = h x = ah

a 2 a 0 2

a

a x x 2 x3 1

and x EL dA = 0

x h 1 dx = h = a 2 h

a 2 3a 0 6

a h x x

y EL dA = 0

2

1 + h 1 dx

a a

a

h2 a x2 h2 x3 1

=

2 0

1

a

2

dx =

2

x 2

= ah2

3a 0 3

1 1 2

xA = xEL dA: x ah = a 2 h

2 6

x=

3

a

1 1 2

y A = yEL dA: y ah = ah2

2 3

y=

3

h

PROBLEM 5.35

your answer in terms of a and h.

SOLUTION

y = h(1 kx3 )

For x = a, y = 0.

0 = h(1 k a3 )

1

k=

a3

x3

y = h 1 3

a

1

xEL = x, yEL = y dA = ydx

2

a

a a x3 x4 3

A = dA = 0

ydx = 0

h 1 3 dx = h x 3 = ah

a 4a 0 4

a

a a x4 x2 x5 3

x EL dA = 0

xydx = 0

h x 3 dx = h 3 = a 2 h

a 2 5a 0 10

a 1 1 a x3 h2 a 2 x3 x 6

yEL dA = 0

y ydx =

2 2 0

h 2 1 3 dx =

a 2 0

1 3 + 6

a a

dx

a

h2 x4 x7 9 2

= x 3 + 6 = ah

2 2a 7a 0 28

3 3 2

xA = xEL dA: x ah = a 2 h

4 10

x=

5

a

3 9 2 3

yA = yEL dA: y ah =

4 28

ah y=

7

h

PROBLEM 5.36

your answer in terms of a and h.

SOLUTION

At (a, h), y1 : h = ka 2

h

or k=

a2

y2 : h = ma

h

or m=

a

Now xEL = x

1

yEL = ( y1 + y2 )

2

h h

and dA = ( y2 y1 )dx = x 2 x 2 dx

a a

h

= 2 (ax x 2 ) dx

a

a

a h h a 1 1

Then

A = dA = 0 a2

(ax x 2 )dx = 2 x 2 x3 = ah

a 2 3 0 6

a

ha h a 1 1

and xEL dA =

0

x 2 (ax x 2 ) dx = 2 x3 x 4 = a 2 h

a a 3 4 0 12

( )

1 1 2

yEL dA =

2

( y1 + y2 )[( y2 y1 ) dx] =

2

y2 y12 dx

1 a h 2 2 h2 4

=

2 0

2 x 4 x dx

a a

a

1 h2 a 2 3 1 5

= x x

2 a4 3 5 0

1

= ah 2

15

1 1 1

xA = xEL dA: x ah = a 2 h

6 12

x=

2

a

1 1 2

yA = yEL dA: y ah = ah 2

6 15

y=

5

h

PROBLEM 5.38

SOLUTION

b 2

For the element (EL) shown, y= a x2

a

and dA = (b y ) dx

=

b

a (

a a 2 x 2 dx )

xEL =x

1

yEL = ( y + b)

2

=

b

2a (

a + a 2 x2 )

Then A = dA = 0

a b

a(a a 2 x 2 dx)

To integrate, let x = a sin : a 2 x 2 = a cos , dx = a cos d

/2 b

Then A= 0 a

(a a cos )(a cos d )

/2

b 2 2 2

= a sin a + sin

a 2 4 0

= ab 1

4

b

(

)

a

and x EL dA = 0

x a a 2 x 2 dx

a

/2

b a 2 1 2 2 3/2

= x + ( a x )

a 2 3 0

1 3

= ab

6

PROBLEM 5.38 (Continued)

b

( b

) (

)

a

y EL dA = 0 2a

a + a 2 x 2 a a 2 x 2 dx

a

a

b2 a b 2 x3

= 2 ( x ) dx = 2

2

2a 0 2a 3 0

1 2

= ab

6

1 2a

xA = xEL dA: x ab 1 = a 2 b

4 6

or x =

3(4 )

1 2b

yA = yEL dA: y ab 1 = ab 2

4 6

or y =

3(4 )

PROBLEM 5.40

your answer in terms of a and b.

SOLUTION

b 2

y1 = k1 x 2 but b = k1a 2 x y1 =

a2

b

y2 = k2 x 4 but b = k2 a 4 y2 = 4 x 4

a

b x

4

dA = ( y2 y1 )dx = 2 x 2 2 dx

a a

xEL = x

1

yEL = ( y1 + y2 )

2

b x4

= 2 x 2 + 2

2a a

b a x4

A = dA =

2

x dx

a2 0

a2

a

b x3 x5

= 2 2

a 3 5a 0

2

= ba

15

a b x4

xEL dA = x 2 x 2 2 dx

0 a a

b a x5

a 0

= 2 x3 2 dx

a

a

b x4 x6

= 2

a2 4 6a 0

1 2

= a b

12

PROBLEM 5.40 (Continued)

a b 2 x4 b 2 x4

yEL dA = 0 2a 2

x + 2 2

a a

x 2 dx

a

b2 a x8

= x 4 dx

4

2a 4 0

a

a

b 2 x5 x9 2 2

= 4 4 = ab

2a 5 9a 0 45

2 1 5

xA = xEL dA: x ba = a 2b

15 12

x= a

8

2 2 2 1

yA = yEL dA: y ba =

15 45

ab y = b

3

PROBLEM 5.41

Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. Express your

answer in terms of a and b.

SOLUTION

At x = a, y=b

b

y1 : b = ka 2 or k=

a2

b 2

Then y1 = x

a2

y2 : b = 2b ca 2

b

or c=

a2

x2

Then y2 = b 2 2

a

x2 b 2

Now dA = ( y2 y1 )dx2 = b 2 2 2 x dx

a a

x2

= 2b 1 2 dx

a

and xEL = x

a

a x2 x3 4

Then A = dA 0

2b 1 2

a

dx = 2b x 2 = ab

3a 0 3

a

a x2 x2 x4 1

and 0

xEL dA = x 2b 1 2 dx = 2b 2 = a 2b

a 2 4a 0 2

4 1 3

xA = xEL dA: x ab = a 2b

3 2

x= a

8

PROBLEM 5.43

your answer in terms of a and b.

SOLUTION

2b

For y1 at x = a, y = 2b, 2b = ka 2 , or k =

a2

2b 2

Then y1 = x

a2

b x

By observation, y2 = ( x + 2b) = b 2

a a

Now xEL = x

1 b 2b 2

and for 0 x a, yEL = y1 = 2 x 2 and dA = y1 dx = x dx

2 a a2

1 b x x

For a x 2a, yEL = y2 = 2 and dA = y2 dx = b 2 dx

2 2 a a

a 2b 2 2a x

Then

A = dA = 0 a2

x dx + a

b 2 dx

a

2a

a x

a

2b x3

2

7

= 2 + b 2 = ab

a 3 0 2 a

0

6

a 2b 2a x

and xEL dA = 0

x 2 x 2 dx +

a a

x b 2 dx

a

a 2a

2b x 4 x3

= 2 + b x2

a 4 0 3a 0

1 2 1 2

= a b + b (2a) 2 (a) 2 + (2a ) (a )3

2 3a

7 2

= a b

6

PROBLEM 5.43 (Continued)

a b 2 2b 2 2a b x x

yEL dA = 0

x

a 2 a 2

x dx +

0

2 b 2 dx

2 a a

2a

b2 a x

a

2b 2 x5

3

= 4 + 2

a 5 0 2 3 a

a

17 2

= ab

30

7 7

Hence,

xA = xEL dA: x ab = a 2b

6 6

x =a

7 17 2 17

yA = yEL dA: y ab =

6 30

ab y=

35

b

PROBLEM 5.45

integration the x coordinate of its centroid.

SOLUTION

First note that because the wire is homogeneous, its center of gravity coincides with the centroid of the

corresponding line.

Now xEL = r cos and dL = rd

7 / 4 3

Then

L = dL = /4

r d = r[ ]7/ 4/ 4 = r

2

7 /4

and xEL dL = /4

r cos (rd )

= r 2 [sin ] 7/4/ 4

1 1

= r2

2 2

= r 2 2

3 2 2

Thus

xL = x dL : x r = r 2 2

2

x =

3

r

PROBLEM 5.46

integration the x coordinate of its centroid.

SOLUTION

First note that because the wire is homogeneous, its center of gravity coincides with the centroid of the

corresponding line.

y = a sin 3 : dy = 3a sin 2 cos d

= 3a cos sin (cos 2 + sin 2 )1/ 2 d

= 3a cos sin d

/2

/2 1

L = dL = 0

3a cos sin d = 3a sin 2

2 0

3

= a

2

/2

and x EL dL = 0

a cos3 (3a cos sin d )

/2

1 3 2

= 3a 2 cos5 = a

5 0 5

3 3 2

Hence,

xL = xEL dL : x a = a 2

2 5

x=

5

a

Alternative Solution:

2/3

x

x = a cos3 cos 2 =

a

2/3

y

y = a sin sin =

3 2

a

2/3 2/3

x y

a + = 1 or y = (a 2/3 x 2/3 )3/2

a

PROBLEM 5.46 (Continued)

dy

Then = (a 2/3 x 2/3 )1/ 2 ( x 1/3 )

dx

Now xEL = x

2

dy

and dL = 1 +

dx

{ }

1/2

2

dx = 1 + ( a 2/3 x 2/3 )1/2 ( x 1/3 ) dx

a

a a1/3 3 3

Then

L = dL = 0 x1/3

dx = a1/3 x 2/3 = a

2 0 2

a a1/3 3

a

3

and xEL dL = 0

x 1/3 dx = a1/3 x5/3 = a 2

x 5 0 5

3 3 2

Hence

xL = xEL dL : x a = a 2

2 5

x=

5

a

PROBLEM 5.47*

direct integration the x coordinate of its centroid. Express your

answer in terms of a.

SOLUTION

First note that because the wire is homogeneous, its center of gravity will coincide with the centroid of the

corresponding line.

1

We have at x = a, y = a, a = ka3/2 , or k =

a

1

Then y= x3/ 2

a

dy 3 1/2

and = x

dx 2 a

Now xEL = x

2

dy

and dL = 1 + dx

dx

1/2

3

2

= 1 + x1/2 dx

2 a

1

= 4a + 9 x dx

2 a

a 1

Then L = dL = 0 2 a

4a + 9 x dx

a

1 2 1

= (4a + 9 x)3/ 2

2 a 3 9 0

a

= [(13)3/2 8]

27

= 1.43971a

a 1

and x EL dL = 0

x

2 a

4a + 9 x dx

PROBLEM 5.47* (Continued)

u=x dv = 4a + 9 x dx

2

du = dx v= (4a + 9 x)3/ 2

27

1

a

2 3/2 2

a

Then xEL dL = x (4a + 9 x)

2 a 27 0 0 27

(4a + 9 x)3/ 2 dx

a

(13)3/2 2 1 2

= a (4a + 9 x)5/2

27 27 a 45 0

a2 2

= (13) [(13) 32]

3/ 2 5/2

27 45

= 0.78566a 2

xL = xEL dL : x (1.43971a ) = 0.78566a 2 or x = 0.546a

PROBLEM 5.50

SOLUTION

We have xEL = x

1 1 1

yEL = y = 1

2 2 x

1

and dA = ydx = 1 dx

x

a 1 dx

A = dA = 1 x 2 = [ x ln x]1 = ( a ln a 1) in

a 2

Then

1

a

a 1 x 2 a2 1

and x EL dA = 1

x 1 dx = x =

x 2 1 2

a + in 3

2

a 1 1 1 1 a 2 1

yEL dA =

1 2

1 1 dx =

x x 2 1

1 x + 2 dx

x

a

1 1 1 1

= x 2ln x = a 2ln a in 3

2 x 1 2 a

a2

a+ 1

xA = xEL dA: x = 2

a ln a 1

2

in.

a 2ln a 1a

yA = yEL dA: y =

2(a ln a 1)

in.

1

(2) 2 2 + 1

We have x= 2 2

or x = 1.629 in.

2 ln 2 1

2 2ln 2 12

and y= or y = 0.1853 in.

2(2 ln 2 1)

PROBLEM 5.51

SOLUTION

We have xEL = x

1 1 1

yEL = y = 1

2 2 x

1

and dA = y dx = 1 dx

x

a 1 dx

Then A = dA = 1

1

x 2

= [ x ln x]1a

= (a ln a 1) in 2

a

a 1 x 2

and x EL dA = 1

x 1 dx = x

x 2 1

a2 1

= a + in 3

2 2

a 1 1 1 1 a 2 1

yEL dA = 1 2

1 1 dx =

x x 2 1

1 x + 2 dx

x

a

1 1

= x 2ln x

2 x 1

1 1

= a 2ln a in 3

2 a

a2

a+ 1

xA = xEL dA: x = 2

a ln a 1

2

in.

a 2ln a 1a

yA = yEL dA: y =

2(a ln a 1)

in.

PROBLEM 5.51 (Continued)

x

Find a so that = 9.

y

We have

x xA

= =

x

EL dA

y yA

y EL dA

1

a2 a + 1

Then 2 2

=9

1

2 ( a 2 ln a a1 )

or a 3 11a 2 + a + 18a ln a + 9 = 0

Using trial and error or numerical methods, and ignoring the trivial solution a = 1 in., we find

a = 1.901 in. and a = 3.74 in.

PROBLEM 5.53

Determine the volume and the surface area of the solid obtained by rotating the

area of Problem 5.2 about (a) the line y = 72 mm, (b) the x-axis.

SOLUTION

From the solution of Problem 5.2, we have

A = 2808 mm 2

x = 36 mm

y = 48 mm

Applying the theorems of Pappus-Guldinus, we have

(a) Rotation about the line y = 72 mm:

Volume = 2 (72 y ) A

= 2 (72 48)(2808) Volume = 423 103 mm3

Area = 2 yline L

= 2 ( yline ) L

= 2 ( y1 L1 + y3 L3 )

Area = 2 (36)

( )

482 + 722 + (36) ( 302 + 722

)

Area = 37.2 103 mm 2

(b) Rotation about the x-axis:

Volume = 2 yarea A

= 2 (48)(2808) Volume = 847 103 mm3

= 2 ( y1 L1 + y2 L2 + y3 L3 )

= 2 (36)

( )

482 + 722 + (72)(78) + (36) ( )

302 + 722

PROBLEM 5.54

Determine the volume and the surface area of the solid obtained by rotating the

area of Problem 5.8 about (a) the line x = 60 mm, (b) the line y = 120 mm.

SOLUTION

From the solution of Problem 5.8, we have

A = 7200 mm 2

x A = 72 103 mm3

y A = 629.83 103 mm3

Applying the theorems of Pappus-Guldinus, we have

(a) Rotation about line x = 60 mm:

Volume = 2 ( x + 60) A = 2 ( xA + 60 A)

= 2 [72 103 + 60(7200)] Volume = 2.26 106 mm3

= 2 ( x1 L1 + x2 L2 + x3 L3 )

2(60) (60) 2(60) (60)

= 2 60 + 60 + + (60)(120)

2 2

where x1 , x2 , x3 are measured with respect to line x = 60 mm. Area = 116.3 103 mm 2

(b) Rotation about line y = 120 mm:

= 2 [120(7200) 629.83 103 ] Volume = 1.471 106 mm3

= 2 ( y1 L1 + y2 L2 + y4 L4 )

Area = 2 120 + + (60)(120)

2 2

PROBLEM 5.56

Determine the volume and the surface area of the chain link

shown, which is made from a 6-mm-diameter bar, if R = 10 mm

and L = 30 mm.

SOLUTION

The area A and circumference C of the cross section of the bar are

A= d 2 and C = d .

4

Also, the semicircular ends of the link can be obtained by rotating the cross section through a horizontal

semicircular arc of radius R. Now, applying the theorems of Pappus-Guldinus, we have for the volume V,

V = 2(Vside ) + 2(Vend )

= 2( AL) + 2( RA)

= 2( L + R) A

or V = 2[30 mm + (10 mm)] (6 mm) 2

4

= 3470 mm3 or V = 3470 mm3

= 2(CL) + 2( RC )

= 2( L + R)C

= 2320 mm 2 or A = 2320 mm 2

PROBLEM 5.64

shown if R = 250 mm.

SOLUTION

The volume can be generated by rotating the triangle and circular sector shown about the y-axis. Applying the

second theorem of Pappus-Guldinus and using Figure 5.8a, we have

V = 2 xA = 2 xA

= 2 ( x1 A1 + x2 A2 )

1 1 1 1 3 2 R sin 30 2

= 2 R R R + R

3 2 2 2 2 3 6 6

R3 R3

= 2 +

16 3 2 3

3 3

= R3

8

3 3

= (0.25 m)3

8

= 0.031883 m3

Since 103 l = 1 m3

103 l

V = 0.031883 m3 V = 31.9 l

1 m3

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