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MS 1596: 2003

DETERMINATION OF CONCENTRATION AND


MASS FLOW OF PARTICULATE MATTER IN
FLUE GAS FOR STATIONARY SOURCE
EMISSIONS

Presented BY:
UiTM A&A
Laboratory
Malaysias 1st University
Affiliated Environmental
Laboratory
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APPLICATION & AIR EMISSION SOURCES
1. FUEL BURNING EQUIPMENTS

2. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT


1. Filter Bag 6. Spray Booth

2. Electrostatic Precipitator 7.Fume Cupboard

3. Scrubber 8. Others

4. Cyclone Centrifugal Dust Filter

5. Multicyclone

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IMPORTANT DEFINITION

DUCT/FLUE/CHIMNEY/ STACK PARTICULATE MATTER dust


enclosed structure where
gases travel Lighter -------------------------------------------- Heavier

GAS
a mixture of gaseous component which
may carry PM

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AT THE END

YOU
Will know how we perform dust
monitoring.
NOT.
The complicated
formula!! A&A SCIENTIFIC RESOURCES SDN BHD
PRESENTATIONS CONTENT

SCOPE & PRINCIPLE SAMPLING, WEIGHING & CALCULATION

APPARATUS ACCURACY

TEST REPORT
ADVANCE PREPARATIONS

SITE REQUIREMENTS

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What is Air Pollution? Any visible or invisible particle or
gas found in the air that is not
part of the original composition

CLASSICAL AIR POLLUTANTS


Nitrogen dioxide
Ozone
Particulate matter
Sulfur dioxide

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ORGANIC AIR POLLUTANTS

Acrylonitrile Benzene Butadiene Carbon monoxide 1,2-Dichloroethane

Dichloromethane Formaldehyde Polycycli aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Carbon disulfide Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins & Dibenzofurans(PCDDs/PCDFs)

Styrene Tetrachloroethylene Toluene Trichlorethylene Vinylchloride

INORGANIC AIR POLLUTANTS

Arsenic Asbestos Cadmium Chromium Fluoride Hydrogen sulfide

Lead Manganese Mercury Nickel Platinum

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SCOPE
I. Measurement of the concentration of particulate STEADY
matter (PM) STATE
condition
II. Measurement of mass flow rate of PM

Not suitable for:


1.Ventilation
2. Air conditioning system
3.Indoor atmosphere
4.Gases carrying droplets

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Principle : PM Measurement

i. Sample is extracted
isokinetically & ISO
homogenously over
a period of time. means
ii. The PM entrained is EQUAL
separated by a filter
medium KINETIC
iii. The filter is then means
dried and weighed.
MOTION

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WHY ISO-KINETIC FOR PM?

For PM measurement: For Gasesous measurement:


The Solid nature make it more In the case of boiler, flue gas
complicated largely contain :
Conc. Of ashes & carbon varies 1.N2
Well mixed
2.O2
through out the gas stream THUS,
3.H20 can be sampled
4.CO2 at any point in
5.SO2 the stream

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Flow rate of sample
extraction must be at
the same speed as the
flow of gas in the duct

If FL not correct;
1. Larger PM are either
favored or rejected
2.Sizing is skewed

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SAMPLING
1.Advance preparation Sampling:
1. Cumulative Sampling
2.Sampling reposition the nozzle at
the next sampling point,

3.Weighing
adjust the control valve to
the required flow
2. Incremental Sampling
4.Calculation withdraw the probe ,
remove the filter and
replace with new filter

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ADVANCE PREPARATION

1. Know the process i.e. steady state or


cyclic conduct closest to the steady
operating conditions
2. Select the best sampling location,
numbers and pattern of sampling points.
3. Observe the position of sampling ports,
working platform , ventilation, power supply
and safety features.
4. Select the test equipment, i.e. nozzle
size, gas analyzer , type of filter
5. Select the best date, time , operating
condition with the Plant Management

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SITE PREPARATION
Sampling Location
Sampling Location:
1. Straight duct What if
2. Constant shape & cross Horizontal
Duct?
sectional area
3. Preferably vertical
4. Downstream as far as obstruction What if duct
too large?
practical from any
obstruction
7
x To ensure HOMOGENEITY:
1. The straight duct must obstruction
at least 7 hydraulic
diameter (HD)
2. Sampling plane at least
5 HD from the inlet &
obstruction
outlet of duct

BEND CAUSES TURBULANCE

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HORIZONTAL DUCT DUCT TOO WIDE

1. If unavoidable, access 1. In practice, straight 7 HD will not often exist


port from the top. where duct are too wide
Clean the duct if 2. Shall be mentioned in Test Report
possible.
3. This can give results less accurate than 10%
2. If top access is not
possible, measure Minimum Sampling location distance from obstacle
from the bottom. Obstacle Distance (Hydraulic Dia.)
Clean the duct. Extra
care shall be taken to Duct Bend 1
ensure probe did not Junction of 2 ducts 1
drop into the duct. Partly closed lourve 3
Discharge side of fan 4

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Min.
5 SAMPLING PLATFROM
HD

250
Handrail- clear of any apparatus NEW PLANT DESIGN:
MM
ALLOWANCE SHALL
Min. BE MADE FOR:
5
HD 1.STARIGHT DUCT
2.SAMPLING
FACILITIES

Obstruction

Size of port hole (0.5 dia):


Shall be ample for insertion of
equipment i.e. 4 inch/ 100mm
For small duct: > 200 mm d = 75 mm
< 200mm = 50 mm
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SAMPLING
SAMPLING EQUIPMENT & PROCEDURE
STEP 1
Determine:
1. The no. & location of traverse point
Impinger 2. Flue gas velocity
Box
3. Moisture content in stack gas condensate volume
Condenser
STEP 2
Hose
1. Select Nozzle size
Control Module Pump Interface

STEP 3
Pitot tube, Thermocouple, Thimble Holder, Determine:
nozzle 1. Isokinetic flow rate from velocity data

Equipment: 2. The PM concentration by sampling , Volumetric Discharge &


Continuously measures the speed of flow in Emission Rates
the stack and ensure the pump, which is
extracting the sample through nozzle,
speeds up or slows down to match the duct
gas flow. Acceptable limit : 10 %
MINIMUM NO. OF SAMPLING POINTS

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Rectangular or Square Ducts
VELOCITY OF GAS NOT UNIFORM THROUGH OUT THE STACK
Velocity in the stack:
1. Maximum at the center,
2. Almost zero at wall due to boundary conditions ( UNDER NO CONDITIONS,
sampling to be done with 3cm from the stacks wall)
Velocity distribution = PM size distribution:
1. Small PM toward the center
2. Large PM towards the wall
MINIMIZING THE AFFECT OF TURBULANCE

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PARAMETERS Calculations based on the following PARAMETERS Calculations based on the following
information: information:
GENERAL ISO- Kinetic Sampling

Duct Gas velocity 1. Gas density Nozzle Diameter 1. Pump capacity


2. Differential pressure 2. Duct gas velocity
(if using Pitot Tube) 3. Estimated PM conc.
4. Preferable Sampling Time
Gas Density 1. Duct temperature Flow rate for 1. Nozzle Diameter
2. Duct Static Pressure Isokinetic Sampling 2. Duct Gas Velocity at sampling
3. Water Content point
4. Composition of Duct Gas 3. Gas condition density, moisture
content
Gas Flow Rate 1. Duct gas velocity Sample Gas Volume 1. DGM measurement
2. Area of duct section
Sample Gas Volume at 1. Static Pressure & Temp at DGM
Std Cond
AFTER SAMPLING
PM Conc. 1. Quantity of PM PM Mass Flow Rate 1. PM Conc.
2. Sample Gas Volume at Std 2. Gas Flow rate thru the duct
PM expressed in terms of CO2 /O2 1. PM Conc.
2. Selected & Measured CO2 /O2
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Measured by Equipment (In
stack): Measured by Equipment:
1. Differential Pressure 1. Temperature
2. Temperature 2. Static Pressure
3. Duct Area 3. Dry gas volume flow
4. Static Pressure 4. Gas volume dry
5. Gas Composition 5. Filter weight
6. Moisture content

Known/Predetermined value:
1. Suction Nozzle Diameter
2. Pitot Tube Calibration
constant
3. Filter Weight (Blank)

Calculated:
1. Density
2. Velocity
3. Flow Rate
4. Wet Sample Volume in probe
5. Existing Velocity in probe
6. Dry volume flow required
7. Particulate Concentration
8. Particulate flow rate

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Measured by Equipment (In
stack):
1. Differential Pressure
2. Temperature Measured by Equipment:
3. Duct Area 1. Temperature
4. Static Pressure 2. Static Pressure
5. Gas Composition 3. MOIST gas volume flow
6. Moisture content 4. Filter weight
5. Sampling Time

Known/Predetermined value:
1. Suction Nozzle Diameter
2. Pitot Tube Calibration
constant
3. Filter Weight (Blank)

Calculated:
1. Density, moist
2. Velocity, moist
3. Flow Rate, moist
4. Wet Sample Volume in probe
5. Existing Velocity in probe
6. Total moist volume displaced
7. Particulate Concentration
8. Particulate flow rate

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AT SITE
COMBUSTION GAS
ANALYZER

Pitot, Filter, Thermocouple,


Pump, Duct Tape

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IN THE LABORATORY

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Location of Sampling Plane
Numbers of Sampling Points
Sampling Time
Nozzle Design
Nozzle Alignment
Departure from isokinetic sampling

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Representative sample depends on:
1.Homogeneity of gas velocity
2.Sufficient number of sampling
points
3.Isokinetic withdrawal

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REPORT

Report\Chimney 2.xlsx
Report\Chimney 3.xlsx

Report\Stack n Dark Smoke, Mei '13.pdf


Report\Stack n Dark Smoke, Mei '14.pdf