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Multiplexers and

Demultiplexers
Computer Organization
(MCA 107)
Multiplexer / Demultiplexer
This presentation will demonstrate
The basic function of the Multiplexer (MUX).
The typical application of a MUX.
A 4-to-1 MUX designed with Small Scale Integration (SSI).
A 4-to-1, 8-to-1, & 16-to-1 Medium Scale Integration (MSI)
MUX.
The basic function of the Demultiplexer (DEMUX).
The typical application of a DEMUX.
A 1-to-4 DEMUX design with Small Scale Integration (SSI).
A 1-to-4, 1-to-8, & 1-to-16 Medium Scale Integration (MSI)
DEMUX.
A 7-segment message display using MUX/DEMUX. 2
What is a Multiplexer (MUX)?
A MUX is a digital switch that Multiplexer
has multiple inputs (sources) Block Diagram
and a single output
(destination).
The select lines determine 2N 1

MUX
Inputs Output
which input is connected to (sources) (destination)

the output.
MUX Types N
2-to-1 (1 select line)
Select
4-to-1 (2 select lines) Lines
8-to-1 (3 select lines)
16-to-1 (4 select lines)
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Typical Application of a
MUX
Multiple Sources Selector Single Destination

MP3 Player
Docking Station

D0
Laptop

MUX
D1
Sound Card Y
D2

D3

Surround Sound System

Digital B A Selected Source


Satellite
0 0 MP3
0 1 Laptop
1 0 Satellite
Digital
1 1 Cable TV
Cable TV
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4-to-1 Multiplexer (MUX)
D0

MUX
D1
Y
D2

D3

B A

B A Y

0 0 D0

0 1 D1

1 0 D2

1 1 D3

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4-to-1 Multiplexer
Waveforms
D0

D1
Input
Data
D2

D3

A
Select
Line
B

Output
Y Data
D0 D1 D2 D3 D0 D1 D2 D3 6
Medium Scale Integration
MUX
4-to-1 MUX 8-to-1 MUX 16-to-1 MUX

Inputs Output (Y)


(and inverted output)

Select
Enable

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What is a Demultiplexer (DEMUX)?
A DEMUX is a digital switch Demultiplexer
with a single input (source) Block Diagram
and a multiple outputs
(destinations).

DEMUX
The select lines determine Input
1 2N
Outputs
which output the input is (source) (destinations)

connected to.
DEMUX Types N
1-to-2 (1 select line) Select
1-to-4 (2 select lines) Lines
1-to-8 (3 select lines)
1-to-16 (4 select lines)
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Typical Application of a DEMUX
Single Source Selector Multiple Destinations

B/W Laser
Printer

Fax
Machine

D0

DEMUX
X D1

D2 Color Inkjet
Printer
D3

B A Selected Destination
0 0 B/W Laser Printer Pen
Plotter
0 1 Fax Machine
1 0 Color Inkjet Printer
1 1 Pen Plotter
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1-to-4 De-Multiplexer (DEMUX)
D0

DEMUX
D1
X
D2

D3

B A

B A D0 D1 D2 D3

0 0 X 0 0 0

0 1 0 X 0 0

1 0 0 0 X 0

1 1 0 0 0 X

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1-to-4 De-Multiplexer Waveforms
X Input
Data

S0
Select
Line
S1

D0

D1
Output
Data
D2

D3
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Medium Scale Integration DEMUX

1-to-4 DEMUX 1-to-8 DEMUX 16-to-1 MUX

Select
Outputs
(inverted)
Input
(inverted)

Note : Most Medium Scale Integrated (MSI) DEMUXs , like


the three shown, have outputs that are inverted. This is done
because it requires few logic gates to implement DEMUXs
with inverted outputs rather than no-inverted outputs. 12
Decoder
Integrated Circuits
An integrated circuit is a piece (also called a
chip) of silicon on which multiple gates or
transistors have been embedded

These silicon pieces are mounted on a plastic or


ceramic package with pins along the edges that
can be soldered onto circuit boards or inserted
into appropriate sockets
Integrated Circuits

SSI, MSI, LSI: They perform small tasks such as addition of few bits.
small memories, small processors
VLSI Tasks: - Large memory - Complex microprocessors, CPUs
Examples of Combinational Circuits
a) Decoders
b) Encoders
c) Multiplexers
d) Demultiplexers
Decoder
Accepts a value and decodes it
Output corresponds to value of n inputs

Consists of:
Inputs (n)
Outputs (2n , numbered from 0 2 n - 1)
Selectors / Enable (active high or active low)
The truth table of 2-to-4 Decoder
2-to-4 Decoder
2-to-4 Decoder
Truth table of 3-to-8
Decoder
A2 A1 A0 D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7

0 0 0 1
0 0 1 1

0 1 0 1

0 1 1 1

1 0 0 1

1 0 1 1
1 1 0 1

1 1 1 1
3-to-8 Decoder
3-to-8 Decoder with Enable
2-to-4 Decoder: NAND
implementation
Decoder is enabled when E=0 and an output is active if it is
0
2-4 Decoder with 2- I/P&
Enable
Decoder Expansion
Decoder expansion
Combine two or more small decoders with
enable inputs to form a larger decoder

3-to-8-line decoder constructed from two 2-to-


4-line decoders
The MSB is connected to the enable inputs
if A2=0, upper is enabled; if A2=1, lower is
enabled.
Decoder Expansion
Combining two 2-4 decoders to form
one 3-8 decoder using enable switch

The highest bit is used for the enables


Combinational Circuit Design with
Decoders
Combinational circuit implementation with
decoders
A decoder provide 2n minterms of n input
variables
Since any Boolean function can be expressed
as a sum of minterms, one can use a decoder
and external OR gates to implement any
combinational function.
Combinational Circuit Design with
Decoders

Example Realize F (X,Y,Z) = (1, 4, 7) with a decoder: