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Design Vehicle: Physical Size

Dimensions of typical design vehicle classes

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Design Vehicle: Maneuverability
2

Minimum turning radius

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Superelevation
3

Maximum superelevation may be


established by practical considerations
and used to determine minimum
radius of curve.
Maximum superelevation:
8% for roads w/o snow and ice
Urban streets: 4 to 6%

General expression:
v2
0.01e f
gR
e = superelevation in %,
f = available side friction factor,
v = vehicle speed,
g = acceleration due to gravity
R = curve radius
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Critical Length of Grade
4

Critical length of grade = Critical length is measured from PVI


maximum length of an upgrade Where there is a change in direction
a loaded truck can operate of grade, critical length may be
without an unreasonable reduced by VC/4
reduction in speed
Design basis: 15 km/h speed
reduction criterion

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ESAL Concept
5

Equivalent Single Axle Load


(ESAL)
AASHO road test expressed
damage effect of any axle load in
terms of equivalent number of
repetitions of an 80 kN single
axle.
ESAL Factor
Ratio of the number of
applications of an 80 kN axle to
the number of applications of the
test axle to give the same
terminal pavement serviceability
index (PSI).

ESAL Factor Table for Flexible Pavements


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ESAL Concept
6

Single axle load: wheels with


distance more than 1 m apart
Tandem axle load: two or more
consecutive axles between 1 m to
2.44 m spacing

ESAL Factor Table for Rigid Pavements


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AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design Procedure
7

E. Determine Required Structural Numbers (SN)


Use nomograph to determine the required SN for all layers.

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AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design Procedure
8

Step 1: Determine Effective


Modulus of Subgrade Reaction k

Determine subgrade soil


modulus (MR)i and subbase
modulus (ESB)i for each month
of the year.

Select subbase thickness


(minimum 4 in., usually 6 in.).

Determine composite (k)i for


each month of the year using
chart.
( indicates infinite depth of
subgrade soil.)

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AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design Procedure
9

Step 1: Determine
Effective Modulus of
Subgrade Reaction k

If the depth of
subgrade soil layer to a
rigid stratum is less
than 10 ft., make
correction to monthly
(k)i values using chart
to obtain the corrected
monthly ki values.

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AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design Procedure
10

Step 1: Determine Effective Modulus


of Subgrade Reaction k
Compute effective modulus of
subgrade reaction k.
For each monthly ki value,
determine relative damage ui from
chart with an assumed slab
thickness.
Calculate annual average u.
Compute effective k corresponding
to u using chart.

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AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design Procedure
11

Step 1: Determine Effective


Modulus of Subgrade Reaction k

Adjust effective modulus of


subgrade reaction k to account
for potential loss of support
arising from subbase erosion,
using table and chart.

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AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design Procedure
12

Step 8: Determine Required Slab Thickness


Use nomograph to determine the thickness of slab required.

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Level of Service Criteria for Basic Freeway
Segments
13
Criterion LOS
A B C D E
FFS = 120 km/h
Maximum density (pc/km/ln) 7 11 16 22 28
Average speed (km/h) 120.0 120.0 114.6 99.6 85.7
Maximum v/c 0.35 0.55 0.77 0.92 1.00
Maximum service rate (pc/hr/ln) 840 1320 1840 2200 2400
FFS = 110 km/h
Maximum density (pc/km/ln) 7 11 16 22 28
Average speed (km/h) 110.0 110.0 108.5 97.2 83.9
Maximum v/c 0.33 0.51 0.74 0.91 1.00
Maximum service rate (pc/hr/ln) 770 1210 1740 2135 2350
FFS = 100 km/h
Maximum density (pc/km/ln) 7 11 16 22 28
Average speed (km/h) 100.0 100.0 100.0 93.8 82.1
Maximum v/c 0.30 0.48 0.70 0.90 1.00
Maximum service rate (pc/hr/ln) 700 1100 1600 2065 2300
FFS = 90 km/h
Maximum density (pc/km/ln) 7 11 16 22 28
Average speed (km/h) 90.0 90.0 90.0 89.1 80.4
Maximum v/c 0.28 0.44 0.64 0.87 1.00
Maximum service rate (pc/hr/ln) 630 990 1440 1955 2250
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Level of Service Criteria for Basic Freeway
Segments
14

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Determination of Lane width fLW (km/h)
(m)
Free Flow Speed 3.6
3.5
0.0
1.0 Interchanges per fID (km/h)
15 3.4 2.1 km
3.3 3.1 0.3 0.0
HCM2000: mean speed of passenger cars 3.2 5.6 0.4 1.1
operating in q 1300 pc/hr/ln 3.1 8.1 0.5 2.1
3.0 10.6 0.6 3.9
It can also be estimated from: 0.7 5.0
No. of lanes fN (km/h)
(one direction) 0.8 6.0
FFS BFFS f LW f LC f N f ID 5 0.0 0.9 8.1
4 2.4 1.0 9.2
FFS = estimated free-flow speed (km/h) 3 4.8 1.1 10.2
BFFS = estimated free-flow speed for base 2 7.3 1.2 12.1
conditions (km/h) Slow lane shoulder fLC (km/h)
fLW = adjustment for lane width (km/h) lateral clearance (m) for no. of lanes in one direction
fLC = adjustment for lateral clearance (km/h) 2 3 4 5
1.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
fN = adjustment for number of lanes (km/h)
1.5 1.0 0.7 0.3 0.2
fID = adjustment for interchange density (km/h) 1.2 1.9 1.3 0.7 0.4
BFFS = 0.9 2.9 1.9 1.0 0.6
0.6 3.9 2.6 1.3 0.8
110 km/h (70 mph) for urban areas
0.3 4.8 3.2 1.6 1.1
120 km/h (75 mph) for rural areas 0.0 5.8 3.9 1.9 1.3
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Determination of Analysis Flow Rate
16

Analysis flow rate, vp , in pc/hr/ln: Peak hour factor (PHF)


V V
vp PHF
PHF N f HV f p V15 4
V = hourly volume for hour of analysis
vp = 15-min pax-car equivalent flow rate (pc/h/ln)
V15 = max 15-min flow rate within peak hour
V = hourly volume (vph)
4 = number of 15-min periods per hour
PHF = peak-hour factor
Heavy-vehicle adjustment factor fHV :
N = number of lanes 1
f HV
fHV = heavy-vehicle adjustment factor, 1 PT ET 1 PR ER 1
fp = driver population factor fHV = heavy-vehicle adjustment factor,
Driver population factor fD : 0.85 1.0 PT = proportion of trucks and buses in the
traffic stream,
Type of Terrain PR = proportion of recreation veh in the
Factor
Level Rolling Mountainous traffic stream,
ET (trucks and buses) 1.5 2.5 4.5 ET = pax car equivalency for trucks and buses
ER (RVs) 1.2 2.0 4.0 ER = pax car equivalency for recreation veh
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Compute Level of Service Criteria for Freeway
17

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Adjusted Saturation Flow Rate
18

When saturation flow rates are not measured, they can be estimated by:
11
s s N fi
i 1
s = (adjusted) saturation flow rate for the subject lane group, vph
so = ideal/base saturation flow rate, 1900 vphpl
N = number of lanes in the group
fi = the i-th adjustment factor, each factor accounts for one prevailing
condition that differs from the ideal condition, like lane width, % of heavy
vehicles, approach grade, parking activity/lanes, bus blockage, area type,
lane utilization, right and left turns, pedestrian and bicycle blockage.

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Adjustment Factors
19
Factor Formula Definition of variables
Lane width
fW 1
W 12 W = lane width in ft.
30 If W > 16 ft, a two lane analysis may be
considered.
Heavy vehicles 100 %HV = proportion of heavy vehicles in stream
f HV
100 % HV ET 1 ET = passenger car equivalents for heavy vehicles
= 2 pc/HV
Grade %G %G = percent grade on a lane group approach
fg 1
200 -6% %G +10% (negative means downhill)
Parking 18 N m N = number of lanes in lane group
N 0.1
fp 3600 Nm = number of parking manoeuvres per hour
N 0 Nm 180
fp 0.5 and fp = 1.0 for no parking
Bus blockage 14.4 N B N = number of lanes in lane group
N
3600 NB = number of buses stopping per hour
fbb
N 0 NB 250
fbb 0.05
Type of area fa = 0.9 for CBD
fa = 1.0 for others
Lane utilization vg vg = unadjusted demand flow rate for lane group,
f LU vph
vg 1 N
vg1 = unadjusted demand flow rate on the highest
volume single lane in the lane group, vphpl
N = number of lanes in lane group
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PLT = proportion of LTs in lane group
f = 0.85 f 0.05
N 0 NB 250
fbb 0.05
Type of area fa = 0.9 for CBD

Adjustment Factors
Lane utilization
fa = 1.0 for others
f LU
vg vg = unadjusted demand flow rate for lane group,
vph
vg 1 N
20 vg1 = unadjusted demand flow rate on the highest
volume single lane in the lane group, vphpl
Factor Formula N = numberofof
Definition lanes in lane group
variables
Left turns
Lane width Exclusive
f 1
Wlane:
12 PLT==lane
W proportion
width inofft.LTs in lane group
fLT = 0.85 30
W fLT W
If 0.05
> 16 ft, a two lane analysis may be
Shared lane: considered.
Heavy vehicles f LT 1 0.15 P100 %HV = proportion of heavy vehicles in stream
f HV LT

Single100 lane: % HV ET 1 ET = passenger car equivalents for heavy vehicles


f LT 1 0.135 PLT = 2 pc/HV
Grade %G %G
PRT == proportion
percent grade on ainlane
lanegroup
groupapproach
Right turns f g 1 phasing:
Protected of RTs
Exclusive 200lane: (For permitted
-6% %G +10% (negative
phasing, seemeans downhill)
Highway Capacity
Parking fRT = N 0.95 18 N N = number of lanes in lane group
Manual for details, not covered in CE3121)
0.1 m

f p lane: 3600
Shared Nm = number of parking manoeuvres per hour
1N 0 Nm 180
f RT fp 0.5 and fp = 1.0 for no parking
1 0.05 PRT
Bus blockage N = number of lanes in lane group
1 PLT 1 BApbT 1 PLTA N
14.4 N
Pedestrian- f Lpb N PLT = proportion of LTs in lane group
= number of buses stopping per hour
bicycle blockage fbb 3600 ABpbT = permitted phase adjustment
N 0 NB 250
(Left turns) P = proportion of LTs protected green over
fbbLTA
0.05
total LT green
Type of area fa = 0.9 for CBD
Pedestrian-
ffaRpb 1 for
= 1.0 1 ApbT 1 PRTA PRT = proportion of RTs in lane group
PRTothers
bicycle blockage ApbT = permitted phase adjustment
Lane utilization vg v = unadjusted
PgRTA demand flowprotected
rate for lane
greengroup,
(Right turns) f LU vph
= proportion of RTs over
vg 1 N total LT green
v g1 = unadjusted demand flow rate on the highest
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volume single lane in the lane group, vphpl